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Moonsighting Gone Wrong, Again.

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Moonsighting is just not working out.

Atleast not for our community here in the Toronto area. As I speak to my friends in other large (read: fragmented) communities, such as those in the UK, I hear similar tales of confusion, anxiety and horror. The problem in these communities stems from the fact that there are numerous moonsighting organizations in the same area, all following different methodologies for declaring Eid and Ramadan. This naturally results in a catastrophe and Muslims from the same family living in the same city are forced to celebrate the holidays on different days.

To give you a taste of how (and why) things went wrong in this year’s Ramadan declaration, here’s a summary highlighting the series of events as they unfolded. (Reminder: Ramadan was expected to start on Friday, April 24th or Saturday, April 25th 2020 in North America)

  • Wednesday, April 22, 10: 13 pm EST: Crescent Council of Canada (CC) declares Ramadan to start on Friday, 24th April based on the fact that it received no reports of moonsighting sighting on Wednesday night. This committee follows global moonsighting and it declared Ramadan so early because it was already the 29th of Shaban based on the lunar calendar it follows (for most of North America, the 29th of Shaban was to be on Thursday). So, starting Ramadan on Saturday was simply not an option for the group (as it would have meant observing 31 days of Shaban). Also to note is that this group gives precedence to official declarations from authorities from Muslim-majority countries, even if these declarations conflict predictions of visibility charts and astronomical calculations. It argues that testimony of witnesses takes precedence in the sharia over astronomical data.
  • Thursday, April 23rd, 7:27 pm EST : The Hilal Council of Canada (HC), another committee in the area that follows global sighting, states that there has not been any sighting of the moon in any country, including South and Central America (it is past sunset in most of the Muslim world by now). The committee decides that it will wait till sundown in California to receive the final reports before making a declaration. Confusion starts spreading in the community as one organization has already declared Ramadan while another claims no one in the Muslim world saw the moon. Note that HC does not accept moonsighting reports if they contradict astronomical data.
  • 8:39 pm: Confusion continues. The CC claims that Saudi Arabia, UAE, Malaysia, Turkey and a host of Muslim countries have declared Ramadan. The committee thus feels validated in its original declaration which it made on Wednesday night.
  • 8:48 pm: More confusion: California-based CrescentWatch.org also claims that moonsighting reports from the Middle-East and Africa are all negative. People naturally start wondering how so many countries supposedly declared Ramadan if there were no positive sightings.
  • 9:40 pm: The Hilal Committee of Toronto and Vicinity, the oldest moonsighting group in the city, declares Ramadan to start on Saturday the 25th of April. Since the committee did not receive any positive reports by sunset from areas in its jurisdiction, it declared Ramadan to commence on Saturday. This committee follows local moonsighting and doesn’t rely on reports from the Muslim-world. Two of the three major moonsighting groups in the city have declared Ramadan on different days at this time. Residents are confused whether to fast the next day or pray tarweeh as its almost Isha time.
  • 11:11 pm: The HC finally declares Ramadan to start the next day, i.e. Friday, based on confirmed reports from California. Mosques following the HC advice to pray tarawih – an hour after Isha time had already entered. After an anxiety filled and frustrating evening, residents finally know the positions of the various moonsighting groups in the city. Now they just have to decide which one to follow!
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This baffling circus of contradictory declarations is nothing new; it has become a yearly occurrence. Last year we saw the exact same series of events unfold and the same confusion spread throughout the community; it is entirely expected that the same will happen again in future years.

Our leadership has decided that it is acceptable to put the average Muslim through this nerve-racking experience every year. For Eid declarations, the experience is far worse as thousands are often waiting till midnight to decide whether to go work the next day or send their children to school. The stress and anxiety this decision causes for the average person year after year is simply unacceptable.

Popular advice in these situations has been to ‘follow your local masjid’. However, this idea is impractical for large communities where there are numerous local mosques, all following various opinions. It is also impractical for the thousands who simply don’t frequent the mosque and are not tied to a particular organization. The layperson just wants to know the dates for Ramadan and Eid; it is an undue burden on them to research the strength of various legal opinions just to know when to celebrate a religious holiday with their families.

Only one way forward: astronomical calculations

There have been numerous sincere attempts to solve these long-standing problems associated with moonsighting over the past 50 years – all have failed. I have documented in detail these attempts, the reasons for their failure and argued for the only viable solution to this problem: astronomical calculations.

Since its introduction in 2006, Fiqh Council of North America’s calculations-based lunar calendar has proven to be the definitive solution for communities struggling to resolve the yearly moonsighting debacle. An example of such a resolution is the 2015 agreement by some of the leading mosques in the Chicago area who put aside their differences and united behind FCNA’s calendar. This approach has brought ease and facilitation for the religious practice of thousands of Muslims in that community.

While the use of calculations has been a minority position in Islam’s legal history, it has a sound basis in the shariah [1] and has been supported by towering figures of the past such as Imam Zakariya al-Ansari and Imam Ramli. Given the challenging circumstances we find ourselves in now, it is incumbent on scholars of today to revisit this position as a means of providing much needed relief to the masses from this lunar quagmire.

References:

[1]  From SeekersGuidance: Scholars upholding this can be traced all the way back to the first Islamic century. The textual basis for this opinion is the hadith narrated by al-Bukhari, “When you see it [the new moon of Ramadan] then fast; and when you see it [the new moon of Shawwal], then break the fast. If it is hidden from you (ghumma ‘alaykum) [i.e. if the sky is overcast] then estimate it (fa-qdiru lahu);” (al-Bukhari, hadith no. 1900). The last verb, fa-qdiru, can be validly understood to mean calculation. Of the scholars who held this, are Abu al-‘Abbas b. Surayj (d. 306/918), one of the leading founders of the classical Shafi‘i school, the Shafi‘i scholar and renowned mystic Abu al-Qasim al-Qushayri (d. 465/1072), the leading Shafi‘i judge Taqi al-Din al-Subki (d. 756/1355), the Shafi‘i legal theorist al-Zarkashi (d. 794/1392), the renowned Maliki legal theorist al-Qarafi (d. 684/1285), and some Hanafi scholars. The late Shafi‘i commentator al-Qalyubi (d. 1069/1659) held that all sighting-claims must be rejected if calculations show that a sighting was impossible, stating, “This is manifestly obvious. In such a case, a person may not fast. Opposing this is obstinacy and stubbornness.” See al-Mawsu‘ah al-fiqhiyyah al-kuwaytiyyah, c.v. “Ru’yat al-hilal,” vol. 22, pp. 31-4. The leading scholar of the late Shāfi‘ī school Muhammad al-Ramli (d. 1004/1596) held that the expert astronomer was obliged to follow his own calculation as was the non-astronomer who believed him; this position has been used by some contemporary Shafi’i scholars to state that in the modern world, with its precise calculations, the strongest opinion of the Shafi’i school should be that everyone must follow calculations; see ‘Umar b. al-Habib al-Husayni, Fath al-‘ali fi jam‘ al-khilaf bayna Ibn Hajar wa-Ibn al-Ramli, ed. Shifa’ Hitu (Jeddah: Dar al-Minhaj, 2010), pp. 819-22. See also the fatwa of the Hanafi scholar Dr Salah Abu al-Hajj (http://www.anwarcenter.com/fatwa/معنى-حديث-لا-تصوموا-حتى-تروا-الهلال-ول) last accessed 9/5/2016) which states, after arguing against relying on calculations, “However, the position of [following] calculations is the position of a considerable group of jurists, so it is a respected disagreement in Islamic law, whereby, if a state were to adopt it, it is not rejected, because the judgment of a judge removes disagreement, and the adoption of a state is [as] the judgment of a judge.

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Waleed Ahmed writes on current affairs and politics for MuslimMatters. He focuses on Muslim minorities, human rights and the Middle-Eastern conflict. Based out of Montreal, he's currently pursuing a Ph.D. at McGill University in fundamental physics. Waleed also has a keen interest in studying Arabic and French. He spends his spare time reading, playing basketball and praying for Jon Stewart to run in the next presidential election. contact: waleed dot ahmed at muslimmatters.org

8 Comments

8 Comments

  1. Avatar

    Umer S

    May 15, 2020 at 2:35 PM

    This is a poorly argued article. If the different standards adopted by the various hilal committees of Toronto are producing inconsistent results, this doesn’t mean that moonsighting itself is unworkable. It means that the hilal committees in Toronto need to unite and adopt a single standard. This would alleviate the problem you complain of.

    Furthermore, those granting some legitimacy to FCNA’s position on the basis that a minority from among the classical scholars allowed for calculations fail to realize a significant distinction here. Those minority positions allowing calculations were based on the ability to calculate the actual visibility of the crescent with certainty. However, FCNA does not care for actual visibility. Actual visibility is contingent on not just the position of the moon vis-à-vis the earth and sun but also on environmental and atmospheric conditions on the ground. FCNA disregards the latter conditions in making their determinations because they do not care for its actual visibility. (This fact became evident during eidul fitr 2019 when they observed only 29 days of Ramadan even though the moon was not sighted anywhere in the world on the 30th night.) FCNA’s position is that if the moon is at an angle where it could potentially be seen then this sufficient to start/end the month regardless of whether it’s actually sighted. This position is an obvious deviation from the prophetic command. FCNA engages in some high level interpretive gymnastics to argue that their position is consistent with the Prophetic command to witness the crescent. Essentially their position is that when the Prophet (s) said to witness the crescent to start/end the months, the intent was to ascertain the moon’s position and whether it had traveled far enough from the point of conjunction. Because the people of that time were unable to calculate this they had to rely on sighting the crescent. Needless to say this is a huge inference that contradicts the plain reading of the Prophetic Hadith in the matter.

    The bottom line is FCNA’s position is not rooted in classical scholarship. It’s a modern aberration motivated by political expediency and not a desire to remain true to the tradition. This is why you have people like Imam Zaid and Shaykh Hamza Yusuf, who are by and large accommodating and inclusive towards varying opinions within the Sunni tradition, come out and say that this is not a valid difference of opinion.

    As an aside, I’m not aware of any moonsighting communities in America who experienced the same problem. It seems we were by and large united in our start of this Ramadan.

    • Avatar

      waleed ahmed

      May 15, 2020 at 5:48 PM

      Thanks for the comment Umer. Yes, this mainly remains an issue in fragmented communities that haven’t switched to calculations..such as those in the UK, Toronto..parts of New York. It was certainly a bigger issue few years ago but adoption of calculations has solved the problem in much of the East coast. On the West coast, local moonsighting works quite well so don’t think it was ever an issue there.

      p.s. all the references I’ve mentioned in this article (and the previous more detailed article) are from classically trained scholars. sh saladin who I referenced last time is one of Habib Umar’s students. So this really isn’t a classical vs modernist/salafi issue as is often characterized.

      • Avatar

        Umer S

        May 15, 2020 at 10:05 PM

        Your initial comment is just wrong. Here in the states, moonsighters have steadily become more and more unified to the point where by and large we’re not experiencing the sort of fragmentation you describe in the article. This is because the main moonsighting networks are the Deobandis and the Zaytuna crowd. The Deobandis have unified here and the Zaytuna crowd has always been consistent.

        As to to the second comment. My point is exactly that I’m finding fault with those traditional scholars who lend credence to FCNA’s position by citing the minority opinions on calculations found within the legal schools. I don’t think those scholars have understood FCNA’s position correctly. As I argued above FCNA’s position has nothing to do with those minority opinions.

  2. Avatar

    Umer S

    May 15, 2020 at 2:37 PM

    This is a poorly argued article. If the different standards adopted by the various hilal committees of Toronto are producing inconsistent results, this doesn’t mean that moonsighting itself is unworkable. It means that the hilal committees in Toronto need to unite and adopt a single standard. This would alleviate the problem you complain of.

    Furthermore, those granting some legitimacy to FCNA’s position on the basis that a minority from among the classical scholars allowed for calculations fail to realize a significant distinction here. Those minority positions allowing calculations were based on the ability to calculate the actual visibility of the crescent with certainty. However, FCNA does not care for actual visibility. Actual visibility is contingent on not just the position of the moon vis-à-vis the earth and sun but also on environmental and atmospheric conditions on the ground. FCNA disregards the latter conditions in making their determinations because they do not care for its actual visibility. (This fact became evident during eidul fitr 2019 when they observed only 29 days of Ramadan even though the moon was not sighted anywhere in the world on the 30th night.) FCNA’s position is that if the moon is at an angle where it could potentially be seen then this sufficient to start/end the month regardless of whether it’s actually sighted. This position is an obvious deviation from the prophetic command. FCNA engages in some high level interpretive gymnastics to argue that their position is consistent with the Prophetic command to witness the crescent. Essentially their position is that when the Prophet (s) said to witness the crescent to start/end the months, the intent was to ascertain the moon’s position and whether it had traveled far enough from the point of conjunction. Because the people of that time were unable to calculate this they had to rely on sighting the crescent. Needless to say this is a huge inference that contradicts the plain reading of the Prophetic Hadith in the matter.

    The bottom line is FCNA’s position is not rooted in classical scholarship. It’s a modern aberration motivated by political expediency and not a desire to remain true to the tradition. This is why you have people like Imam Zaid and Shaykh Hamza Yusuf, who are by and large accommodating and inclusive towards varying opinions within the Sunni tradition, come out and say that this is not a valid difference of opinion.

    As an aside, I’m not aware of any moonsighting communities in America who experienced the same problem you experienced in Toronto. By and large it seems like the moonsighters in the States were united in their start of Ramadan

  3. Avatar

    Mustafa

    May 16, 2020 at 12:31 PM

    I’m okay with calculating as I’ve heard the pretty compelling case for them fiqh wise but you’re going to have to get into the nitty gritty and explain the issue if you want it to have any purchase. Else muslims being the cautious types they are are not going to risk their Ramadan’s on a fatwa they consider shakey.

  4. Avatar

    Ahmed

    May 16, 2020 at 1:08 PM

    Brother waleed , you mixed up the article with hilal to crescent . Crescent council follows both local as well as global and they are trying to unite Canada with American Muslims Or globally on celebrating Eid on 1 day, cc announced after moon was sighted in California to fast on Friday . While hilal started on Saturday as they wanted to see moon locally. Very soon hilal will join crescent for betterment of Muslims inshaAllah

    • Avatar

      Waleed S. Ahmed

      May 16, 2020 at 1:29 PM

      Brother Ahmed, there are actually three councils. Hilal council (global), Hilal Committee (local) and Crescent Council (global)..all following differing methodologies. Hilal Council declared it Friday but Hilal Committe declared it Saturday.

  5. Avatar

    Hasan

    July 3, 2020 at 9:52 PM

    Based on this flawed argument, the following argument is also valid:

    1. Atheists all agree that there is no god
    2. Theists disagree on the number of gods, the characteristics of those god(s), and every other conceivable detail regarding god.

    Atheists are unified, and therefore correct. Theists need to all follow atheists.

    This is such a logically flawed article, it is hard to know where to begin. As a scientist and physician, I can state quite certainly that the scientific data is wholly and compellingly opposed to the use of calculations. It really appears to me that people who don’t really understand the mathematics nor the science behind calculations are the first to jump up and claim its legitimacy…

    One statement by the author that irked me was this: “It is an undue burden on them to research the strength of various legal opinions just to know when to celebrate a religious holiday with their families.” Seems like a very unenlightened statement to make. I encourage all of my patients to study the science behind any procedure or medicine I give them, since it is their body, and they need to make an educated decision. No, that doesn’t mean that I expect them to gain a mastery of the field, but to have a rudimentary understanding to make an educated decision regarding their own body’s wellbeing. It is appalling and disturbing that we have people preaching that education is an “undue burden.”

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