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Harmony Among Muslims And People of Other Faiths: Historical Examples | Part 1


Part 1 | Part 2

In studying history and the phases of peace and conflict, one is quickly exposed to the common arguments about norms and exceptions. One opinion holds that peace is the norm throughout history and that war is the exception, and this position is ardently supported by peace studies programs worldwide. On the other hand, opposing opinion posits that war has been the norm throughout history and peace was the exception, using evidence of conflicts and wars that have been documented and studied.

Ultimately, as human beings we must ask ourselves if we truly want to establish harmony globally, and what obstacles, if any, are present and require clear resolutions. In order to achieve local and global harmony, one must study the circumstances and dynamics of intra- and intergroup co-existence in recorded history. As a pre-requisite and continuous condition, however, the involved parties pursuing harmony must be sincere, motivated, united, and efficient. Thus, regardless of one’s opinion about the norms and exceptions throughout history, there are striking precedents that illustrate to the modern reader how harmony was established among various ideological and political groups, and that harmony is, in fact, a documented reality and an achievable one at that. Following are four important examples from history that illustrate harmony among three religious groups: Jews, Christians, and Muslims. 

The Tribe of Banu Najrān

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During the era of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), a delegation arrived from the tribe of Banu Najrān in order to meet and ask questions of the Prophet, as his message had spread far and wide in the region. The people of Najrān, supported financially by the Byzantine ruler, sent a delegation to Madīnah, and they were received in the mosque of the Prophet ﷺ, where they prayed to the east. Many issues were raised and a variety of questions were asked over the course of several hours. When they discussed the nature of God, the Prophet ﷺ recited Sūrat al-Ikhlās (chapter 112 in the Quran) in which God says: “Say: He is Allah, the One. Allah, the Eternal, the Absolute. He begets not nor was He begotten.  And there is none comparable unto Him.”[1]

Some members of the Najrān delegation were moved by the meaning of the recitation, while others disagreed as they believed that Jesus is the begotten son of God, and himself divine. On the following day, verses related to Jesus were revealed to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ and he recited them to the Najrān delegation:

“The nature of Jesus, in the sight of God, is the same as Adam, whom He created from dust and said to him, ‘Be,’ and he was. This is the truth from your Lord. Be not, therefore, one of the doubters. Should anyone argue with you about him after what has been given to you of true knowledge, say to them, ‘Let us summon our children and your children, our women and your women, and ourselves and yourselves. Let us then all pray humbly and invoke the curse of God on the liars.”[2]

Most of the Najrān delegation could not accept that Jesus was merely a mortal man and a prophet; yet,  God, Himself, challenged them with the above verses. The delegation initially agreed to meet for the challenge, but they feared the anger and curse of God, so they decided to decline. Nevertheless, the delegation requested a peace treaty and Prophet Muhammad ﷺ agreed by the following day. Based only on their short time with the Prophet, they promised to accept the terms of the peace treaty without question, as they had seen fairness and honesty in the character of the Prophet ﷺ.

The following excerpts of the peace treaty are relevant to our modern times and a reminder of pluralistic harmony and co-existence:

“Najrān has the protection of God and the pledges of Muhammad, the Prophet, to protect their lives, faith, land, property, those who are absent and those who are present, and their clan and allies. The Najrān need not change anything of their past customs. No right of theirs or their religion shall be altered. No bishop, monk or church guard shall be removed from his position.”

The treaty continues: “Whatever they have is theirs, no matter how big or small. They are not held in suspicion and they shall suffer no vengeance killing. They are not required to be mobilized and no army shall trespass on their land. If any of them requests that any right of his should be given to him, justice shall be administered among them. He who takes usury on past loans is not under my protection. No person in Najrān is answerable for an injustice committed by another…[3]

The above treaty provided autonomy with regard to political administration, cultural tradition, and religious beliefs, for not only Christians but any non-Muslim citizen living in Muslim lands. This example is just one of many, including the well-known Madīnah Charter. For centuries, many just Muslim rulers adhered to the principles and guidelines contained in the treaty when dealing with non-Muslims in local and distant lands.

The Suit of Armor

Throughout Islamic history, there have been clear-cut examples of justice being rendered in an unbiased manner in cases of a Muslim violating the rights of a non-Muslim under an Islamic authority. The issue of justice is raised here due to its significant positive impact on achieving harmony locally and globally, for any political document claiming to value justice is only brought to reality when it is tested in times of conflict. One exemplification of justice is the following incident:

A man named Ṭaʿimah stole a suit of armor from Qatādah, his neighbor. Qatādah had hidden the armor inside a sack of flour so when Ṭaʿimah took it, the flour leaked out of the sack through a hole, and flour fell from the armor, leaving a trail up to his house. Ṭaʿimah then left the armor in the care of a Jewish man named Zaid b. Samīn, who kept it in his house. When the people searched for the stolen armor, they followed the trail of flour to Ṭaʿimah’s house but did not find it there.  When confronted, he swore to them he had not taken it and knew nothing about it.  The people who were supporting Qatādah also swore that they had seen Ṭaʿimah breaking into Qatādah’s house at night, and had subsequently followed the tell-tale trail of flour, which had led them to his house.  Nevertheless, after hearing Ṭaʿimah swearing he was innocent, they left him alone and looked for further clues, finally finding a thinner trail of flour leading to the house of Zaid, and so arrested him.

The Jewish man told them that Ṭaʿimah had left the armor with him, and some Jewish witnesses confirmed his statement.  The tribe to which Ṭaʿimah belonged sent some of their men to Prophet Muhammad ﷺ to present his side of the story, and asked them to defend him against the accusation.  The delegation told the Prophet, “If you do not defend our clansman, Ṭaʿimah, he will lose his reputation and be punished severely, and the Jewish man will go free.”  The Prophet ﷺ was persuaded to believe the delegation’s side of the story and was about to punish the Jewish man when God revealed the following Qur’anic verses to vindicate the Jewish man:[4]

“Indeed, We have revealed to you, [O Muhammad], the Book in truth so you may judge between the people by that which God has shown you.  And do not be an advocate for the deceitful.  And seek forgiveness of God.  Indeed, God is ever Forgiving and Merciful.  And do not argue on behalf of those who deceive themselves.  Indeed, God loves not one who is a habitually sinful deceiver.  They conceal [their evil intentions and deeds] from the people, but they cannot conceal [them] from God, and He is in their midst when they plot by night in words that He does not approve.  And God ever is encompassing of what they do.  Lo! You argue on their behalf in [this] worldly life – but who will argue with God for them on the Day of Resurrection, or who will be their defender?”[5]

The Conquest of Jerusalem

It is well established that ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, the second caliph, during the opening of Jerusalem in the year 637, issued a decree to the people of the city that they would be protected in their places of worship.  At the time, the authority presiding over Jerusalem was the renowned Patriarch Sophronius, a representative of the Byzantine government. During the battle, a countless multitude of Muslims had surrounded Jerusalem, but Sophronius refused to surrender the holy city except to ʿUmar in person.

ʿUmar, who was situated in Madīnah, heard about the condition of Sophronius, and he set out with a companion on just one donkey. By the time of their arrival, it was not easy for those who had never seen ʿUmar to distinguish him from his servant, due to his humble dress and modest character. Sophronius was greatly impressed by this and gave ʿUmar a tour of the city, which included the famous Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

When the time for prayer came, ʿUmar indicated that he needed to pray, and Sophronius invited him to pray inside the church. However, ʿUmar adamantly refused and he insisted that if he prayed in the church, Muslims in later times would use his behavior as an excuse to convert it into a mosque, and this would essentially deprive Christians of one of their holiest sites. ʿUmar prayed near by the famous church and the Muslims ended up building a mosque at the site fifty-five years later. The Mosque of ʿUmar stands to this day, across the road from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

After the peaceful surrender of Jerusalem, Jews, who had been banned from Jerusalem for over five centuries, were finally been given permission to worship and reside in Jerusalem with complete religious freedom. ʿUmar gave a speech that became known for centuries later and promoted an unparalleled treaty of coexistence and religious tolerance.[6] The treaty, referred to as ʿUmar’s Assurance, became a recognized standard for relations between Muslims and Christians throughout the Byzantine Empire and eventually throughout the world. It established the rights of minorities and promoted tolerance to a great degree, and the concept of forced conversion to Christianity in the Byzantine Empire was no longer a respected or sanctioned act, following the speech of ʿUmar.

Co-existence in Spain

Society under Islamic rule in Spain, referred to as Al-Andalus by the Arabs, was known for its religious tolerance and peaceful co-existence. Christians and Jews, along with Muslims, held high positions in the courts and in society, and they collectively shared in the wealth of Cordoba, the capital of Al-Andalus.[7] Professor Zachary Karabell stated about that era:

“Jews tended to benefit both in Spain and the Mediterranean world. In the towns and cities, Jews found themselves in unique positions as intermediaries between Muslim-dominated Spain and the rest of the world. Having suffered severe discrimination at the hands of the Visigoths, Jewish communities under the Muslims enjoyed more freedom, affluence, and social standing than any Jewish community would until the nineteenth century.”[8]

There are countless other examples of peace and harmony between various groups, politically and religiously, ethnically and racially, and these examples should continue to be highlighted, studied, and imitated in the modern context in order to achieve world peace. Ultimately, the vast majority of mankind genuinely wants to live in peace and desires that same atmosphere of harmony for humanity worldwide. The world is exhausted from the various wars and conflicts that are ongoing, and all decent people are appalled by the horrendous humanitarian crises around the world that result from the mayhem and destructive power of war and other oppressive agendas.

The Connection

The reader may wonder why the four aforementioned examples were given at the exclusion of countless historical conflicts, and the primary response is that the one seeking harmony would do well to focus on the examples of harmony and justice that can be exemplified in the modern context through various extracted lessons.

The example of Banu Najrān highlights the importance of co-existence among groups of various beliefs, a principle without which a modern society cannot function or thrive at its fullest potential. Additionally, the treaty with Banu Najrān emphasizes to the one who knows little about Islamic history that there exist numerous models of harmony from the era of inception.

As for the second example, the concept of justice is emphasized again and again in the Qur’an and serves as one of the primary principles in Islam. If a society cannot be just, then it can never attain true harmony. Justice is one of the foundational conditions of peace on earth, and those who exemplify it in their daily lives are true ambassadors of peace.

As for the third example, ʿUmar’s Assurance serves as a reminder that in reality, whether at the brink or conclusion of conflict, there is always hope for tolerance and peace without compromising society’s freedom of religion.

Finally, the fourth example serves as a reminder that a group that is marginalized and oppressed for many centuries may be protected and preserved by another – not for any personal gain but for genuine concern and compassion. The example of the migration of Jewish refugees to Muslim lands is a reminder that: a) conflict in one region may bring about much goodness in distant communities who come to the aid of those who are burdened, b) during times of conflict, refugees fleeing their homes are oftentimes overlooked and at times oppressed to a greater degree, but those of pure hearts will find an opportunity to help protect others at the expense of political affiliations, c) tolerance and co-existence established on justice is guaranteed to bring improvement to a society, and d) one must continuously look back at the humane responses in historical times of conflict and extract modern replications to incorporate into the increasing activism of pursuing peace, social justice, and true harmony.

Many researchers and commentators point to various sources of contemporary conflict as an obstacle to harmony. These include predatory capitalism, imperialistic national ambitions, ethnocentrism and systematic racism, and ideologies misinterpreted for personal or political gains. Many groups and individuals around the world tirelessly advocate for a more just and egalitarian global power structure, for the upholding of civil and human rights and international law, and for a principled assurance of social justice for all human beings. Thus, we must maintain, as individuals, families, and nations, a realistic optimism and utilize every means to achieve local and global harmony.

To be continued…

 Part Two deals with practical suggestions that can be implemented at the individual and community levels.



[1] Qur’an 112: 1-4.

[2] Qur’an 3: 59-61.

[3] See: al-Bayhaqi, Dalā’il an-Nubuwwah; Ibn Saʿd, at-Ṭabaqāt al-Kubra.

[4] al-Wāḥidi, Asbāb an-Nuzūl, pp. 210-211.

[5] Qur’an 4: 105-109.

[6] ʿUmar’s Assurance is documented in several variations; see: al-Yaʿqūbi, Tāreekh al-Yaʿqūbi, 2/46; Eutychius of Alexandria, Row of Jewels, 2/147; Ibn al-Jawzi, Fadhā’il al-Quds, pp. 123-124.

[7] Zachary Karabell, Peace Be Upon You (New York: Knopf, 2007), p. 69.

[8] Ibid., p. 67.

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Imam Suleiman Hani is the Director of Academic Affairs at AlMaghrib Institute, a research scholar for Yaqeen Institute, and a resident scholar in Michigan. At the age of 14, Suleiman completed a 10-month Qur’an memorization program and began his intensive studies under numerous scholars, earning dozens of traditional religious certifications in the process. He later earned a master’s degree from the University of Jordan’s College of Shari’ah, ranking first in his class, and a master’s degree from Harvard University, where he studied religions, philosophy, political science, and psychology. Over the past decade, he has served as an Imam and community leader in Michigan, lectured in dozens of countries, published a number of books and articles, and was featured on the largest Islamic TV stations worldwide. His recent hobbies include mixed martial arts, archery, and skydiving.



  1. Sindhi

    May 10, 2017 at 4:46 AM

    Whatever written in this article is not followed by Pakistanis from the partition day. This is evident and no one can deny.

  2. Tasnim

    April 9, 2018 at 4:28 PM

    Salaam! Very beneficial piece, maa shaa Allah tabarakallah. May I know if Part 2 (“…practical suggestions that can be implemented at the individual and community levels”) is already up? If so, it would be great if the team can also share here the link to it. :) Jazaakumullahu khayran.

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