Connect with us

Aqeedah and Fiqh

Ali Shehata | Reflections on the Protests in Egypt

The Need for Understanding and Tolerance

Reading the highly charged words exchanged between Muslims in the past two weeks over the issue of Tunisia, and now Egypt, I felt sad to see a number of people taking very extreme stances and forgetting the middle path of Islam that we have been guided to by Allah.

Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that you may be witnesses against mankind, and that the Messenger may be a witness against you. [2:143]

There is no doubt that this is an issue that has presented many challenging questions, and that we should all be reminded that when clarity is not present that it is better for us to remain silent and protect ourselves from the evil of both harming others with our words, and worse, speaking about Allah without knowledge. May Allah protect us all from these evils and imbue our words with wisdom.

Support MuslimMatters for Just $2 a Month

MuslimMatters has been a free service to the community since 2007. All it takes is a small gift from a reader like you to keep us going, for just $2 / month.

The Prophet (SAW) has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Click here to support MuslimMatters with a monthly donation of $2 per month. Set it and collect blessings from Allah (swt) for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it.

I myself spent a great deal of time both reflecting on the events as they unfolded, as well as reviewing the various stances of our noble scholars on matters of this nature. Initially, despite my excitement and du’a for the safety and success of the people of Tunis, I was nonetheless very concerned by the number of people who turned away from Allah and instead to major sins like self-immolation to solve their problems.

Yet there is no doubt that there is an indescribable degree of desperation that has taken hold of so many people in these countries, a desperation that may very well have led to outright madness in many of our brothers and sisters. Hence, it is my sincere du’a that Allah, the All-Merciful and All-Forgiving, will overlook their actions done in these dire moments and that He reward them with success against their oppressors and with His pleasure and Mercy – ameen.

On the matter of suicide, let us briefly take the time to remember this important hadith from Sahih Muslim. When the Prophet (saas) made hijrah to Madinah, Tufayl ibn ‘Amr came as well, along with a man from his tribe.  This man became ill when he first reached Madinah and his illness became so severe that he took a knife and slit his wrist, and the blood spilled out until he died.  Tufayl then saw him in a dream, in a good vision, except that his hands were wrapped up.

So he asked him, ‘What has your Lord done with you?’

He replied, ‘He has forgiven me because of my hijrah to His Prophet (saas).’ The he asked, ‘Why are your hands wrapped up?’.

He said, ‘It was said to me: We shall not fix something you have corrupted yourself!’

So Tufayl relayed this to the Messenger of Allah (saas), so he said: ‘O Allah! And forgive his hands (too)!’

From this hadith we understand that suicide does not expel a person from Islam, but rather it is a major sin that can lead to punishment in the Hereafter.

Al-Qaadi ‘Iyadh said in Ikmaal al-Mu’lim:

“In this hadith is proof for Ahlus-Sunnah for what they say, that Allah may forgive the sins of whomever He wants, and it explains the ahadith before it that might seem to give the false impression that someone who commits suicide faces the eternal threat of remaining (in the Fire) forever.”

Yet as the events continued to unfold, I witnessed the images of people being sprayed with water cannons while in sujud, the commitment of the overwhelming majority of the people to keep the protests free of the use of weapons and killing and the selfless acts of the brave and courageous Egyptian youth who set up neighborhood watches to protect their neighbors’ homes and shops. It was then that I realized the goodness of this effort and that the people had continued to remain close to Allah in these difficult days. This point was also mentioned by Shaykh Muhammad Hassan in Egypt, who called the efforts of the people, particularly the youth, “a blessed and good act.”

I then decided to write this article to demonstrate the expansiveness of Islam on the issues relevant to these events because I noticed that the people had turned away from Islam and from the scholars. There is the idea that some people have mistakenly spread, that these events are against Islam – and whereas this may be in fact the opinion of some scholars, it is by far not the only opinion on this issue. To illustrate this point, in having this article reviewed before publication, I had three PhD’s in Islamic Studies as well as a holder of a Master’s degree comment to me on it and I received four completely different opinions subhan’Allah. So let us not by hasty in declaring the issue to be black and white, and let us move past this question to tackle the real issues at hand of how to make an impact.

Scholars and the Knowledge of the Condition

The scholars of Egypt have been divided in their opinions on this matter as it is a very controversial one. There are some who have praised it, others who have been silent and those who have recommended that people not participate in it. Yet, the scholars of Egypt are best aware of the circumstances on their streets and the scholars outside of Egypt have refrained to speak much on the matter since this case is particular to every nation in its own way depending upon several factors.

This reminds us of an important principle in fiqh, that there are some rulings which are universal for time, place and condition; and there are other rulings which will vary to some extent based upon certain factors or circumstances. Ibn al-Qayyim, in his book ‘Ilaam al-Muwaqiyeen, has written that the one who gives fatwa must first have specific practical knowledge of the issue that he is speaking about, and secondly have the religious knowledge of the fiqh of that matter before he issues a ruling.

Many times, people have asked specific questions on this website, at times even demanded answers from the people of knowledge in the West regarding certain matters in the East. Yet, this guiding principle has caused many to rightly remain silent and leave certain matters to the people who know them best, those who are living them and seeing the reality with their own eyes and can thus judge them the best.

Understanding Khurooj Against the Ruler

The concept of khurooj against the leader has been understood by various scholars in different ways, but generally it refers to taking up arms against the ruler in order to forcibly remove him from power. Speaking out against the leader has also been considered by some to also be a form of prohibited khurooj. As Muslims, we must understand that this is a very detailed and elaborate matter and beyond the scope of this simple article to explore in its fullness. I only wish to provide a foundation for those who are unfamiliar with it here. With that in mind, let us now briefly consider the evidences for this important principle.

Allah has said in the Quran what means,

“O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and those who are in authority over you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allah and in the Last Day.” [4:59]

And the Prophet (saas) also stated,

The best of your leaders are those whom you love and who love you, who pray for you and you pray for them. The worst of your leaders are those whom you hate and who hate you, and you send curses on them and they send curses on you.” He was asked, ““O Messenger of Allah (saas) should we not fight them by the sword?” He said, “Not as long as they are establishing prayer amongst you. And if you see from those in authority over you something that you hate then hate his action and do not remove your hand from obedience” (Muslim)

Imam an-Nawawi said in his commentary on Sahih Muslim:

And as for rebelling against the rulers and fighting them, then it is prohibited by unanimous agreement (ijmā’) of the Muslims, even if they are sinful oppressors. And the ahadith are many with the meaning that I have mentioned. And Ahlus-Sunnah are united that the ruler is not to be removed on account of his sinfulness … And the scholars have said, that the reason for prohibiting his removal (by these means) and the forbidding of revolting against him is due to what accompanies such acts from that of tribulations, shedding of blood, and corruption. Hence, the harm from his removal is greater than from him remaining in place.

From Imam an-Nawawi’s explanation we derive an important point that has been used by some scholars, and that is the prohibition of fighting the Imam stems from the great chaos that accompanies it and most often outweighs the evil of the ruler himself. Those scholars today who have been opposed to the protests racing across the Muslim world have not been opposed to them because they love the tyrants in those countries or because they are pleased with their oppressive and dictatorial policies. No. They are opposed to them because they are afraid of the harm that may come from them when things get out of control. Unfortunately, most of the revolutions in our history have not had positive results and this is something we must keep in mind.

Controversy as Regards the Extent of Obeying the Ruler

The fact that Muslims must listen to and obey their rulers is not a matter of disagreement in Islam, but to what extent they do so, and when do they abandon this obedience is an area of varying opinion among the scholars. The obedience to the ruler is always contingent upon the command of the ruler not being in defiance to Allah and His Messenger (saas) as has been established by a number of ahadith:

The Muslim is required to hear and obey in that which he likes and dislikes, unless he was commanded to sin. When he is commanded with sin, then there is no hearing or obeying.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

and

… Obedience is only in righteousness.” (Bukhari and Muslim)

Yet, do the Muslims continue to obey when the ruler judges by other than Islam? This specific matter is something relatively new in our time (ruling by other than Shari’ah) and was not experienced by the earliest generations. It is authentically narrated from the Prophet (saas) that he said,

Even if a slave was appointed over you, and he rules you with Allah’s Book, then listen to him and obey him.” (Muslim)

This same stream of thought is found in the noble words of Abu Bakr when he said upon assuming the khilafah,

O people! I have been put in charge over you, but I am not the best of you. If I act well, then help me, and if I act badly, then put me right. Truthfulness is a trust and lying is treachery … Obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Messenger. If I disobey Allah and His Messenger, you owe me no obedience. (Sirat Ibn Hisham)

Do these above ahadith specifically give Muslims the permission to revolt? Upon this, the scholars have differed. Some argue that non-compliance with the leader’s command is not equal to rebelling against him, and others say that when they violate their agreement with their people – the agreement to rule them by the Book of Allah – that the people owe them no allegiance and can act to replace them.

Acting to Replace a Tyrannical Ruler

Allah states in the Quran what means,

And cooperate with one another in righteousness and obedience to Allah, and do not cooperate with one another in sin and transgression, and obey Allah.” [5:2]

In the very important hadith of Umm Salamah (ra), the Messenger of Allah (saas) said:

You shall have leaders over you, some of their actions you will accept and other things you will reject; whoever rejects with his tongue will be safe from sin, and whoever hates with his heart he will at least have escaped blame, but whoever follows and accepts (he shall be guilty)!” It was said, “Should we not fight them?” The Messenger of Allah (saas) said, “No, as long as they pray.” (Abu Dawud)

This hadith of Umm Salamah has other ahadith which support its meaning. For example, the Prophet (saas) also said,

Whoever from amongst you sees an evil should change it by his hand, if he is unable to do so then he should change it by his tongue (by speaking against it), and if he is unable to do so then he should reject it in his heart – and this is the weakest of Iman.” (Muslim)

He (saas) also said,

The best Jihad is the word of Justice in front of the oppressive Sultan.” (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, ibn Majah)

And the Prophet (saas) also said,

If the people witness an oppressor and they do not take him by his hands (to prevent him) then they are close to Allah covering them all with punishment.” (Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, ibn Majah)

These very important ahadith on this issue provide some options in the Islamic approach towards rulers who transgress. The greater action, which is among the highest forms of Jihad, is to reject with the tongue by speaking out against their crimes and thus be safe from sin. Yet, there are conditions in which speaking out or acting may bring greater harm to both the person and the society and in these cases one must be patient and refrain from speech as it is the lesser of the two evils. In this case, he hates in his heart, and he will still have escaped blame.

The case for being patient and hating in the heart was evidenced by one of the statements of the great tabi’ee al-Hasan al-Basri. A group of Muslims came to him seeking a ruling for rebelling against al-Hajjaj. So they said: “O Abaa Sa’eed! What do you say about fighting this oppressor who has unlawfully spilt the blood, and unlawfully taken wealth, and did this, and did that?” So al-Hasan said:

“I say not to fight him. If this is a punishment from Allah, then you will not be able to remove it with your swords. If this is a trial from Allah, then be patient until Allah’s Judgment comes, and He is the Best of Judges.” (Tabaqat ibn Sa’d)

Here al-Hasan recognized the relative impotence of the people before the strength and ruthlessness of al-Hajjaj and thus he recommended patience. Notice that he did not tell them that this act was forbidden, only that he advised them against it for practical reasons. Had the people been greater in number or greater in strength, then the situation may well have been different.

Furthermore, Ibn Hajar records in his commentary to Sahih al-Bukhari:

Imam Nawawi said: “…one should not object to the actions of the rulers unless they carry out clear and open transgression, and that which is contrary to the general principles of Islam.”

Ibn Teen narrates from al-Dawudi: ‘The scholars have stated that if one is able to remove a transgressing ruler, without causing any Fitnah and oppression, then he should be removed, otherwise it is necessary to be patient.”

The real question that remains then, a question that can only be assessed by each population in its own land, “will our efforts to remove this tyrant create a greater fitnah and oppression than that which he has exacted upon us?”

Thus, if a leader or ruler becomes corrupt he should first be advised, in private if possible, or in public if his evil deeds were done in public. [This unfortunately is an act which is limited to a select group of people in our time and is not a practical point for the majority of the Ummah.] If he does not turn away from his evil deeds, he should be overthrown or removed from position if this can be done without creating further upheaval in the society. However, in the process of removing him from position, he should not be physically fought, such as waging war with weapons. And Allah knows best.

The Position of Some Contemporary Scholars Who Uphold the Legality of Protests

Shaykh Salman al-‘Awdah in Saudi Arabia has previously expressed that he sees no harm in gathering for protests so long as they remain for the most part peaceful and civil. He states that the foundation of matters such as this (peaceful protests) is that it is permissible and doesn’t require any specific evidence to support it. It suffices us that there is no evidence that forbids this type of action unless it is accompanied by obvious harm or sin.

In this valuable statement, we understand that some scholars see protests as a worldly act and not a religious one. Among the principles of Islam is that all religious actions are by default forbidden and can only be done when one has a clear evidence from the Quran or Sunnah. On the other hand, worldly actions are by default permissible and can only be forbidden by clear evidence against them from Quran or Sunnah.  Some other scholars disagree and see protests as a religious action wherein Muslims aim to command good and forbid evil and thus say that an evidence is required (despite the fact that the gathering is simply a means and not a religious act itself). Again, a matter of controversy.

This same position voiced by Sh. Salman has also been taken by Shaykh AbdulRahman Abd al-Khaliq who used a similar reasoning, and added that the concept of Muslims going out in large numbers to demonstrate their strength is well established in Islam by such things as the Jumu’ah prayer, the two Eid prayers and so forth.

Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaradawi has also supported these protests and supported the removal of Mubarak from his office as can be read elsewhere on this website. And from within Egypt, Shaykh Muhammad Hassan as already alluded to has voiced support for the act of the youth and said in a televised statement, “I am not blaming you for what you have done.” And he also emphasized the peaceful nature of this protest that calls for the rights of the people and for goodness in praising it.

Concluding Remarks

From these various ahadith and statements of our scholars across the width of Islamic history, we can find evidence to support the protests in the Muslim nations today. They have gathered together to reject with their tongues the evils in their respective governments after having been patient for many years and restraining themselves. They have furthermore kept their efforts relatively peaceful and free from much harm and they have avoided the greater harm, and potential sin, of raising weapons against their leaders. As an Egyptian myself who knows what many of these people have experienced of fear, oppressive policies, illegal detainments, police brutality and so forth; I believe that their efforts thus far have been the lesser evil – and Allah knows best.

It is also important for us to remember that these protests are far from reaching any real gains. Yes, the people have thrown aside the shackles of fear, but what awaits them tomorrow and the next day? For those who equated Mubarak with Pharaoh, then the appointment of Omar Sulaiman as the next leader is equivalent to Pharaoh taking Haman as his confidant. Sulaiman, in his role as head of the murky Egyptian Intelligence, has been the supervisor of numerous evils not limited to the torture of the citizenry (including the scholars), the illegal rendition programs, and of course a key player in walling off the people of Gaza. To have him take over the helm in Egypt is a nightmare that I ask Allah to protect all the Muslims from.

Will there be those among the scholars and thinkers that disagree with the actions of the Tunisians, Egyptians and those who follow this path? There is no doubt that such disagreement has already occurred, as it is very controversial and always has been.  But as Muslims we must live in the real world and recognize that there will be differences of opinion on such controversial issues. The reality at hand is that these protests have already begun and we need to do more for our brothers and sisters in these lands than argue the legitimacy of their efforts. They have begun and they have a valid Islamic case for their actions, alhamdulillah.

My humble recommendation to readers is that they spend their efforts wisely in helping these noble causes by turning to Allah. Gathering to show support in our own cities is wonderful and gives us a sense of unity, alhamdulillah, but what is needed now more than anything is calling upon Allah to accept these efforts and overlook whatever wrong may be in them. To show our sincerity in our love to them by waking up in the night to cry out to Allah to aid them and make their feet firm, and to bring about good from their efforts and rid them of the tyrants. Ameen!

Support Our Dawah for Just $2 a Month

MuslimMatters has been a free service to the community since 2007. All it takes is a small gift from a reader like you to keep us going, for just $2 / month.

The Prophet (SAW) has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Click here to support MuslimMatters with a monthly donation of $2 per month. Set it and collect blessings from Allah (swt) for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it.

Dr. Ali Shehata is the author of Demystifying Islam: Your Guide to the Most Misunderstood Religion of the 21st Century. Dr. Ali is an Emergency and Family Medicine physician currently living in an area of central Florida. He was born in Maryland to parents who had immigrated to the US from Egypt. He has studied Islam mainly through traditional methods among various scholars, du'at and students of knowledge here in the US.

80 Comments

80 Comments

  1. Avatar

    'Uthmaan

    February 1, 2011 at 5:26 AM

    Ameen!

    JazakAllah Khayr for a very insightful article which sheds light in a balanced way on what is no doubt a very controversial issue.

  2. Avatar

    Babar

    February 1, 2011 at 6:14 AM

    Mashallah. Good read

  3. Avatar

    M Fatayerji

    February 1, 2011 at 7:01 AM

    Very nice article. Jazak Allah khair!

  4. Avatar

    Hasan

    February 1, 2011 at 7:40 AM

    may Allah reward you for this insightful post. You’ve reconciled the various opinions well and outlined many important principles in Islam. I found the info on suicide quite eye opening as well. Inshallah please keep on posting these type of posts Dr Ali.

    The Qur’an says:
    – “Verily! The believers are but a single brotherhood,” (Al-Hujurat: 10)
    – “The believers, men and women, are protectors, one of another.” (At-Tawbah: 71)

  5. Avatar

    Fatima

    February 1, 2011 at 7:58 AM

    I feel sad for these muslims that are protesting. The alternative leader that you mentioned is not much better than the first. i think for us now as you said is to pray to Allaah SWt. for afterall, prayer is one thing no one can take away from us, not munafiqeen and not the kuffar and not the dhaalimeen.

  6. Avatar

    Ahmad

    February 1, 2011 at 8:13 AM

    Asalamu’alaykum,
    very insightful. i was always confused on the conflicting ahadeeth on obeying a tyrant versus speaking up.
    This article brought the whole picture and conterversial issues to my knowledge, and shows me that the Shari’ah is ultimately there for that which will be the best long term interest of the people both in terms of the dunya and akhirah. jazakAllahukhair dr. Ali.

  7. Avatar

    Abu Zayd

    February 1, 2011 at 9:00 AM

    I think our tone should be much more optimistic, and the events reveal one thing very clearly- the era of Mubarak and his repression is over. The people have arisen and it shows that our hearts are still alive.

    For those who always sound the alarm and talk about the alternatives to oppressive rulers being much worse, it is hard to imagine what could be worse than large scale oppression, state-sanctioned murder, the absence of rule of law, institutionalized injustice, physical torture of human beings, the ruthless suppression of Islamic voices raising the call of Islam, etc., etc.

    Those who quote scholars statements from the past, should know that, with all due respect to them, these statements and views represent their human understanding of their historical conditions which are not eternally binding principles of religion.

    • Avatar

      Asmaa

      February 1, 2011 at 10:31 PM

      Agree with everything you said.

  8. Avatar

    Muslim

    February 1, 2011 at 10:12 AM

    Jazakallahkhair Dr. Ali, for shedding some light on this issue. May allah protect everyone in egypt. Your words were extremely beneficial and clear.

  9. Avatar

    Yus from the Nati

    February 1, 2011 at 10:17 AM

    Assalaamu ‘alaikum,

    Not to be a jerk, but, was there a reason behind not placing the level of authenticity of the various hadith mentioned? (I could only assume, that various opinions stem from this as well? or maybe I am wrong) Nonetheless, jazakAllahukhair for a diff perspective.

    • Dr. Ali

      Dr. Ali

      February 1, 2011 at 3:30 PM

      Salaam alaikum

      All of the ahadith mentioned are authentic alhamdulillah.

  10. Avatar

    Sis Wardah

    February 1, 2011 at 10:45 AM

    JazakAllahKhayr Dr. Ali for such a clear understanding to this very deep issue. I feel much more at ease knowing the various vantage points (at least a small bit, knowing there is much more to consider) and believe we need to continue spreading these words of balance and constructive thinking.

    Also, the recommendation to turn to Allah is one that indeed reaps most benefit, so I pray all readers do so for our fellow Muslims.

    Give the gift of one night of Qiyaam, and I ask Allah to accept it from us. (Ameen)

  11. Avatar

    Saimah

    February 1, 2011 at 10:55 AM

    MashAllah great article Dr. Ali – it really cleared up a lot of confusion. May Allah (swt) help the Muslim ummah and restore ‘izza to us. Ameen.

  12. Avatar

    Abdur Rahman

    February 1, 2011 at 11:51 AM

    great article

  13. Avatar

    S. Sheikhly

    February 1, 2011 at 12:43 PM

    Well said Dr. Ali. As far as calling for a new leader, he could be worse than Mubarak or better? Like you said, history on revolution never ended with good results. In my opinion is that no matter who you replace, they probably will not rule by the Shariah 100 percent. So what’s the point of replacing someone who’s not going to rule with Shariah? Look what happened after Saddam Hussein! More Iraqi people are getting killed after his death than when he was alive all because they think that replacing him would bring positive future. WRONG.

    Insha’Allah I hope that Allah subhan wa’tala protects from Fitna from all over the world.

    • Avatar

      zarmyna

      February 3, 2011 at 8:59 PM

      The protestors shouldnt be looking for a New LEADER but should be thinking in terms of having the right system of governing and ruling. If the system is right then whoever rules doesnt matter!

  14. Avatar

    Mezba

    February 1, 2011 at 2:25 PM

    You know, for all the opinions of various scholars, reality sometimes takes precedent.

    In 1971, the people of what was then East Pakistan chose to revolt against an oppressive regime of West Pakistan. The rulers were muslim, the country was an Islamic country and FOUNDED as a place for Muslims – yet from 1947 to 1971 the people of Bengal had tolerated the oppression and tyranny of the West.

    They rose without any consideration that the outcome of rebellion would be bad. 3 million people were killed in the resulting genocide (Pak soldiers butchering their own brothers) – the numbers can be disputed but even the Hamidor Rashid commission agrees about the atrocities. Thousands of women were raped, again by the so-called Muslim soldiers and brothers of West Pakistan. Finally, with the help of India, a new country was born.

    Today, as a democratic Bangladesh goes forward and Pakistan remains a failed nation subject to bombings and warfare, not a single Bengali will dispute that rising up against tyranny (the best form of jihad according to hadith) was the correct option.

    And guess who the people were who were saying to tolerate the tyranny , to accept the oppression and not react? Why – the Jamaat Islami and some other mullahs. Good thing the people didn’t listen to them.

    • Avatar

      F

      February 1, 2011 at 3:23 PM

      Not really sure why you think Bangladesh is in such a rosy condition. It might have democracy but it just as, if not more corrupt than India, Pakistan, etc. Poverty is still rampant and rule of law is fickle at best. Add to that the floods that come every year.

      I pray for the people of Bangladesh to get better and improve their condition but don’t lose sight of reality.

      • Avatar

        Uncle Tom

        February 1, 2011 at 8:54 PM

        Bangladesh has it’s own issues, but atleast it’s no Pak-istan.

        • Avatar

          F

          February 1, 2011 at 10:28 PM

          In some ways it is better, in other ways it is worse.

        • Avatar

          ahlam

          February 2, 2011 at 8:50 AM

          I smell nationalism and jaahiliyah….

          The Prophet (sal Allahu ‘alaiyhi was salam) said: “Leave it, it is rotten.” [Muslim and Bukhari]

          And : Whoever fights under the banner of the blind, becoming angry for ‘asabiyyah (nationalism), or calling to ‘asabiyyah, or assisting ‘asabiyyah, then dies, he dies a death of jaahiliyyah.” [Sahih Muslim]

          Im neither. But Pakistan,Bangladesh: Muslim with different names.

          • Avatar

            Mezba

            February 2, 2011 at 9:01 AM

            Here is a Wall Street Journal article comparing Bangladesh and Pakistan.

            Bangladesh – Basket case no more
            http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748703882404575519330896471058.html

            Pakistan and Bangladesh are now very different countries. There’s no travel warning for Bangladesh as a whole – most of the population is young and thriving. Go to Dhaka and it’s a vibrant city with 50% of the young workforce being female. It’s not as conservative as the Pakistani society and the while politics is always there, the country is doing quite well on many markers. Garments industry is thriving, as is the software and pharmaceutical industries. Literacy is way up.

          • Avatar

            Mezba

            February 2, 2011 at 9:04 AM

            The point of comparing Bangladesh and Pakistan is that every case has its own fatwa and in 1971, all the mullahs (mostly supporting the tyrannical rulers in West Pakistan) were saying to the people not to rise up in revolt and using the same hadiths out of context to show that revolting is haram.

            Mashallah the people didn’t listen to these bought mullahs and did the right thing.

          • Avatar

            F

            February 2, 2011 at 11:27 AM

            I agree with you sr. Ahlam.
            We don’t need a us vs. them mentality amongst the Muslims. Instead of thinking of how one is better than the other, simply make dua for each other and wish them the best.

    • Avatar

      Arif Kabir

      February 2, 2011 at 1:03 PM

      First off, great article, Dr. Ali! We need more of these articles to eliminate the doubt that may arise in our minds.

      Getting to Br. Mezba’s comment:

      not a single Bengali will dispute that rising up against tyranny (the best form of jihad according to hadith) was the correct option.

      I am Bengali (Bangladeshi to be politically correct) and dispute what you have said. True, Bangladesh was the wealthiest nation in the Indian subcontinent up until the 17th century, when the East India Trade Company (and India and Pakistan soon after) began to rob the region of its resources. True there was a lot of misrepresentation of Bangladesh in Pakistan, but the situation is no better than it was before. Not only that, but thousands upon thousands died upon a war that was supposedly about not faith, but language. This was the main rallying cry of the ‘freedom fighters’ and it led to death, the language of war. Alongside the Muslim Pakistanis were the Hindu Biharis, who did not have a single shred of compassion unlike many of the Pakistani troops. They slaughtered, pillaged, and raped many, and is considered by many historical scholars to be considered the greatest undocumented genocide in the past century.

      Look at Bangladesh now, and you will see that the founding party, and current party in power, is an offshoot of the real party in India. Look at our entertainment, and you will see that Indian Idol and other Indian serials are the smashing hits, with no more consideration given to stopping the television during Adhan times. Look at our country, and no Bengali living there can dispute that it is any better than it ever was in the past. True the Pakistanis had many faults in their rule, but we did as well and we fared no better. Allahu ‘Alam how the country would be now if it remained East Pakistan, but I daresay it would have been better and given the country a more unified religious identity.

  15. Avatar

    MAH1318

    February 1, 2011 at 4:35 PM

    Asalaamu-alaikum,
    Don’t be afraid of the future, The article didn’t mention the different opposition forces, some of which has been strengthened by the protest. Omar Sulaiman is Hosni Mubaraks Crony.

    The article didn’t address the different political movement, we know that the Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwanul Muslimoon) has a broad mass popular support and is considered the largest and most effective opposition.

    If they participate in a free and fair election [this is a key demand of all the protesters, secularists or otherwise] – then they have a very good chance of winning if not by a majority then surely a major player in any new government. Imagine what can happen, economic blockade in Gaza lifted, peace treaty with Israel abolished and a more Islamic orientated government.

    I am not passing opinions about Ikhwan or their activities – i am aware that they are a corrupt-free Islamic social and political movement which runs hospitals schools and other services in Egypt.

    Of course another dictator can come rule tyrannically, but alhamdulillah these protesters are different, never in Egyptian or Arab history over the past 50 years has all the people come united demanding social justice, reform of government, corrupt-free civil service/police. The sheer number who came out to protest is unimaginable a month ago.

    They may not be perfect, but they have a track record for corruption-free, serving the people, the poor, delivering core services and calling people to Islam.

    This of course is down to the Will of Allah, we hope Allah guides the people of Egypt and establishes a just authority Inshallah.

  16. Avatar

    ubaidurrehman

    February 2, 2011 at 6:14 AM

    nice article islamickorner

  17. Avatar

    Karim

    February 2, 2011 at 10:37 AM

    As’salaamu Alaikum wa Rahmatullahi wa Barakaatu

    JazakAllahu Khayran for the article. Is it possible for a follow-up now that violence has broke out.

    • Dr. Ali Shehata

      Dr. Ali Shehata

      February 2, 2011 at 8:18 PM

      Salaam alaikum

      The violence that has erupted came almost entirely from forces of the government. News reports today showed that among the “pro-government” protesters were those who had police ID’s, people who told CNN that they were ordered by their companies to attend the protests and people who were paid to attend (50 Egyptian pounds, or about $8.50), etc. This doesn’t change the fact that those who initiated the protests were peaceful for days and committed to peace. For them to defend themselves is not a sin.

      • Avatar

        Nabeel Azeez

        February 3, 2011 at 2:16 AM

        Dr. Shehata, isn’t that why the prohibition (or extreme reprehensibility) exists?

        It doesn’t matter who starts it, Islam allows self defense, so you just end up with Muslims killing each other. As is evident today.

        Allahu a’lam but I think dozens of Muslims, if not hundreds, will die before this fitna is over.

        I don’t really know what to think about this situation.

        We take refuge in Allah ‘azza wa jal from this fitna and ask Him to protect the lives, wealth and honor of our brothers and sisters in Egypt. We ask Him to guide all Muslim rulers to rule with justice and mercy on the Straight Path.

  18. Avatar

    farah

    February 2, 2011 at 10:49 AM

    lol how ironic…nothing islamic about these protests in Egypt. They never end in peace I’m sure it will cause more chaos now and more sin.

    • Dr. Ali Shehata

      Dr. Ali Shehata

      February 2, 2011 at 8:15 PM

      Salaam alaikum

      Do you suggest that they continue to face the impossible conditions they were facing forever? I urge you to remain silent if you have nothing good to say because you are not in their position and do not know what they have faced for decades now. This is more proper manners towards our bothers and sisters who are willing to bleed and die to ensure that this oppressive rule ends, and we should ask Allah to help and protect them rather than criticizing them from the comfort of our own homes.

      • Avatar

        Mansoor Ansari

        February 4, 2011 at 10:31 AM

        Dr. Ali with all due respect, I feel that this statement contradicts the article u published last month. Once can make the same exact statement in regards to ur article. I m confused as to why the change of heart?

        • Dr. Ali Shehata

          Dr. Ali Shehata

          February 7, 2011 at 10:18 PM

          Salaam alaikum Brother Mansoor,

          Please see my reply to the last comment on the page (with all the quotes from previous articles). I hope this will clarify exactly why there is no contradiction along with another look through this article insha’Allah.

      • Avatar

        Ahmed el Hewari

        February 4, 2011 at 4:01 PM

        Salaamu alaikom Dr. Ali.
        This is exactly what i have been saying. You have people that never felt hunger or thirst saying that the people shouldnt rebel against the govmnt. that it will make it worse. If people are dying for this cause, then obviously emotions are running high. And some people really need change more then wanting it. So inshallah these people that just sit there and without knowledge make judgments will recoginize that its not as clear as black and white.

        • Dr. Ali Shehata

          Dr. Ali Shehata

          February 7, 2011 at 10:18 PM

          Jazak Allahu khayr ya Ahmed

  19. Avatar

    Kaltham

    February 2, 2011 at 11:57 AM

    Assalaamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh,

    Jazaka Allah khair Dr. Ali for an interesting article. It clarified some things I’ve been thinking about lately. I have questions I’d like your input on if you don’t mind please.

    I heard of an incident in the Seerah where the prophet salla Allahu alayhi wassalam came by a dead muslim man in the battle field and said to his companions this man was in hell fire because he took his own life away with his dagger instead of being patient with the pain of his wounds.. Is this an authentic narration? If yes; does “he is in hell fire” mean it is temporary or permanent?

    My second question, do you mind sharing the names of the contemporary ulama that hold protests to be a religious act and what evidence they use?

    We said in the article that at the time of AlHajjaj, AlHassan AlBasri urged the people to not rebel against him. Did Abdullah bin Zubair and Saeed ibn Jubair follow this opinion of AlHassan or did they get killed because they chose to rebel?

    Jazaka Allah khair yaa shaykh… I hope you have the time to answer these.

    Fi Amaani’Laah

    • Dr. Ali Shehata

      Dr. Ali Shehata

      February 2, 2011 at 8:12 PM

      Salaam alaikum

      1. As regards the man who killed himself in the battlefield, (“This man is from the people of the Fire.”) this is an authentic narration in Bukhari. The position of Ahlus-Sunnah on suicide is: A person who has killed himself should be washed, prayed over and buried with the Muslims, because he is a sinner but he is not a disbeliever. Killing oneself is a sin but it is not kufr. If he killed himself – may Allah protect us – he should be washed, shrouded and prayed over, but the leader and scholars and important people should not pray for him, by way of rebuke, lest anyone think that they approve of what he did.

      2. As for the contemporary Ulama that hold protests to be a religious act, among them are Sh. Abu Ishaaq al-Huwayni and Sh. al-Fawzaan. I don’t have a complete list of them but they tend to hold that rebellion in all its forms is impermissible. And Allah knows best.

      3. Al-Hassan’s advice was not directed to Sa’eed ibn Jubayr and ibn az-Zubayr, so I cannot comment on this since I do not know if they heard this from him or not. Ibn az-Zubayr had his reasons and did what he thought was right and we ask Allah to honor him and Sa’eed ibn Jubayr (and they are already honored) – and Allah knows best.

  20. Avatar

    Massoud

    February 2, 2011 at 3:42 PM

    Jazakallahu Khairan for the article, our dear Dr. and may Allah bless you!

    But these demonstrations are still not justified; they are revolutionaries merely motivated by western doctrines and ideologies, ideas like “freedom” of everything and making everyone believe the distorted belief that they have the right to say anything they wish. This is a Fitnah, and we ask Allah to rectify this matter. How can we praise the youth and all of these demonstrators when they believe that democratic reforms, seeking the media’s attention, and seeking help from the west is correct and supersedes the help and Dua of Allah?

    It is the Aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah that it is not permissible to revolt against the rulers. And it is interesting that the groups of people speaking in favour of the demonstrations have not addressed this fundamental belief, and instead just accuse the ruler of being a Kafir.

    The average people have been motivated for change and to have their say, but they are not aware of the clear and pristine view of the Salaf so the confusion of these revolutionaries rages in their minds. And to Allah do we complain.

    • Avatar

      Siraaj

      February 3, 2011 at 2:59 AM

      So what all these people are doing is disbelief? This is an ‘aqeedah issue, not a fiqh issue?

      Siraaj

      • Amad

        Amad

        February 3, 2011 at 4:14 AM

        That has been claimed before but no tangible evidence provided.

    • Avatar

      Middle Ground

      February 3, 2011 at 8:10 AM

      “It is the Aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah that it is not permissible to revolt against the rulers.”

      Especially against the Saudi rulers, who have the most to lose if the people decide to get rid of them. Just a coincidence, I’m sure.

      • Dr. Ali Shehata

        Dr. Ali Shehata

        February 7, 2011 at 10:23 PM

        The latest news is that the Saudi ruler has pressured the US telling them that it is not fair to pull the carpet out from under Mubarak’s feet after all the service he has done to them in the past.

        Interesting to note how the tone of the US almost immediately changed from “change now” to “we think he needs to stay for the sake of stability”. He literally said that they needed to get control of this issue before “other nations” started to get the same idea (hmm, maybe the Saudis?).

        This of course all came after both the Egyptian and Saudi muftis issued a “fatwa” that these protests need to stop as they are impermissible.

        May Allah protect our Ummah from these conniving, hypocritical tyrants and bless us with noble, righteous leaders who will serve our interests and not the interests of everyone else against us!

        • Avatar

          shariq

          February 8, 2011 at 2:18 AM

          Assalaamu alaikum Dr. Ali. It is sad that you finally said this statement regarding the rulers of saudi arabia, who are muslim and who deserve that dua’aa be made for them and for Allah to strengthen them in upholding Islaam. This is the way of Ahlus sunnah and it is embodied in the way Imaam Ahmad dealt with the rulers who uttered clear kufr in front of him.

          In addition to that you also seemed to give a underhanded remark regarding the mufti’s of saudi regarding their fatwa about the demonstrations. I believe you might be talking about shaikh luhaidaan, wasi’ullah ‘abbaas, abdur rahmaan al-ajlaan and others who gave such a fatwa.

          Now, i cannot stop anyone from holding the opinions they hold, but we knew these ulama to be the leaders of the way of the salaf before this fitnah started, and we dont know anything about them to show that they have fallen in their status. they are the ones that deserve to be referred to and maashaallah their opinions on the situation are according to the sunnah and not according to the wishes of the people and their emotions.

          neither you nor any of us here are worthy of having their opinions promoted on forums, especially during times like these of fitnah.

          shaikh fawzaan reminds people here http://madeenah.com/article.cfm?id=1342

          that it is not for every zaid amr and khalid to voice his opinion on what happens in the muslim world and especially if they are in a position to be followed.

          It is specifically in times like these that we should be going back to the people who are firmly grounded in knowledge and sunnah. As Allah said in surat an-nisa ayat 83, this would have been better for everyone.

          It is a very worrying thing to realize that most people do not know who the right people are to whom we should turn in rgards to islamic guidance during these times.

          It is just as dissappointing for me to learn that you, someone who seemed to research issues and provide answers based on the quraan and sunnah, has shown such an ugly side of himself in regards to the muslims rulers deserving our support (the ones in saudi atleast) and have done something you only expect from emotional youth and not from students of knowledge upon the way of the salaf.

          may Allah guide you and us to the truth. aameen.

          your brother, shariq

          • Avatar

            Abu Ibaad

            February 8, 2011 at 2:48 AM

            Jazzakallaahu khayran Shariq.

            I wish to ask, do we have precedence for these types of protests in the lives of the early muslims? I mean in which the people demand the resignation of the ruler by demonstrations.

            May Allaah forgive us.

        • Avatar

          Hassan

          February 8, 2011 at 8:18 AM

          Dr. Ali Shehata
          February 7, 2011 • 10:23 pm

          The latest news is that the Saudi ruler has pressured the US telling them that it is not fair to pull the carpet out from under Mubarak’s feet after all the service he has done to them in the past. ….

          Seems like an impersonator rather than real Dr. Ali Shehata

        • Avatar

          Mansoor Ansari

          February 8, 2011 at 9:07 AM

          Is this really Dr. Ali saying this? Admins can u pls verify for us.

    • Avatar

      zarmyna

      February 3, 2011 at 8:54 PM

      quote – It is the Aqeedah of Ahlus-Sunnah that it is not permissible to revolt against the rulers. And it is interesting that the groups of people speaking in favour of the demonstrations have not addressed this fundamental belief, and instead just accuse the ruler of being a Kafir. – unquote

      The ruler being talked about here and in any hdeeth is not just any ruler, he is the ruler who is enforcing and implementing the Shariah. it does not refer to rulers we have today who implement un islamic ruling systems

  21. Avatar

    Olivia

    February 2, 2011 at 5:11 PM

    i think it’s good to be optimistic. when i look at this revolution, i see it as just one piece of an elaborate stream of events that is the work of Allah. Muslims have been at the bottom of the barrell for a long time, with wars in Muslim countries and people turning away from the deen. the past decade has seen a resurgence in people not only practicing Islam, but praciticing true Islam and turning away from backwards practices. the internet and social media has gotten us all in touch with knowledge, and one with another, in ways that were before impossible.

    when you’re at the bottom, the only way to go is up, and i think if we look at this historically and see that everything is really cyclical, its time to go up =)

  22. Avatar

    Fatimah

    February 2, 2011 at 7:06 PM

    Asalamu alaykum warahmatuAllahi wabaraktu,

    Jazakallah khair Dr. Ali. Your article is very beneficial, Alhamdulillah. All we can do is make du’as for our brothers and sisters. We, in the west, have no right to say who is right or wrong because we don’t know the conditions of these people. We shouldn’t be commenting on their situation and judging them unless we have lived the kind of life they are living. Allah knows best. May Allah swt protect our brothers and sisters all over the world. May He grant them patience and overlook their mistakes Insha’Allah Allahuma ameen…We owe them our du’as. The Muslim ummah is one and if a Muslim suffers, we should be feeling the pain with them. May Allah swt unite this blessed ummah Insha’Allah!!!

  23. Avatar

    Yasser MB

    February 3, 2011 at 2:39 AM

    Jazak Allah Khayran Shaykh !! Very insightful article …

  24. Avatar

    Bahader

    February 3, 2011 at 7:51 AM

    Salamoaleikom! Very good and insightfull article… One question: You said that sh. al-Fawzaan held it to be permissable with protest? Can you maybe link that fatwa?

    • Dr. Ali Shehata

      Dr. Ali Shehata

      February 3, 2011 at 12:29 PM

      Salaam alaikum

      No, I did not say that Sh. al-Fawzan said it was permissible. He was listed as among those who hold it to be prohibited as do many of the other Saudi scholars. Sh. Salmaan al-Awdah was the Saudi scholar who saw nothing wrong with them.

  25. Avatar

    Aasiyah

    February 3, 2011 at 10:47 AM

    asalaam aleikum Dr. Ali,

    Thank you for this article, it certainly cleared some of the gray areas for me.

    As this “revolution” unfolding in front of my eyes, I feel at ease seeing how the real muslims handling such a difficult situation. They took over the job of the police to protect their own people from the criminals. I have not seen that in too many places. They have no way of communicating, yet very well organized in so many ways. Setting up check points, protecting museums and shops etc., and getting more people out on the street to voice their demands. Can anyone tell me if anything like this happened before in any other country?
    sadly some believe that all the killings, setting fires are the doing of the demonstrators. based on this belief they condemn this action.
    As you said Dr. Ali dua have a great power, and us muslims should use it more often to ask Allah to help the people of Egypt right now.
    Against all odds they still standing up for their rights in a very noble way.
    May Allah protect the believers, may Allah give victory to the oppressed…ameen
    May Allah guide us all..ameen

  26. Avatar

    Amal

    February 3, 2011 at 11:55 AM

    Jazak Allah khairan Dr. Ali for this well balanced article.

    Having lived in Egypt for seven years and experienced the difficult conditions that the Egyptian people have been living under for so many years, my surprise always was that a revolt like this didn’t happen sooner. There were minor revolts while I was there, but they were poorly supported and quashed quite quickly, mainly it seemed because the people didn’t have hope in their ability to make any changes. The repression that they had lived under for so long had taken hope away from them, but the success of the Tunisian revolt seems to have given them the spark of hope that maybe their voices could be heard at last and they have begun to lose their fear of the regime.

    I’m in great pain at all the suffering that is being caused through these events and torn when I see behaviour from the people that is not Islamic, but I feel joy when I see the bravery of the people standing up and speaking out. The image of the people praying in the streets, while being sprayed by the water cannons will be the enduring image of this protest.

    May Allah grant khair to the Muslims from all that is happening throughout Egypt and the Arab world and remove the oppressors!

  27. Avatar

    Mirza

    February 3, 2011 at 3:58 PM

    Masha Allah. Very enlightening.

  28. Avatar

    abu abdullah

    February 3, 2011 at 5:39 PM

    The hadith talk about obeying OUR rulers not rulers put there and supported by the enemies of Islam, Who embrace and hold hands with leaders who bomb and use depleted Uranium on Muslim children and women (Ohh yes, you gonna tell me they deserve it because there Aqeeda is wrong) and fight against the Establishment of Islam.

    Even the biggest Oppressers like Hajjaj bin Yusuf fought to spread and establish Islam. But these new mafia go beyond oppression and fight and aid kuffar against the muslims who want to establish Islam. And I dont want to hear you quote some corrupt government Scholar. As one Diplomat to the English at the time of Abdul Azziz said. “Abdul Azizz built an army of scholars to defend his position”.

    AS Ali R.A said judge a man by the Truth not the truth by a man. I guess now im a Takfeeri, khawariji, devient.Lol.the only words the Super Salafi know.

    What more fitna coulfd there be now than what is happening in the world. Millions dying without knowing Allah. Half a million children of Iraq died from UN sanctions. And still dying from depleted Uranium.Civilians of Afghanistan and pakistan being killed daily. The Prophet (SAW)being insulted internationaly. How many women of Kashmeer and Bosnia were raped. What more Fitna do you want LYING COWARDS

    • Avatar

      zarmyna

      February 5, 2011 at 12:51 PM

      quite rightly said brother.
      the rulers about whom the ahadith have been quoted are not these, they are for the rulers of an ISLAMIC STATE where shariah is implemented. the system in place in so called muslim countries, is it islamic?

      • Avatar

        Abu Abdullah

        February 5, 2011 at 5:51 PM

        No way! The prophet SAW said

        The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said: The Prophethood will remain amongst you for as long as Allah wills it to be. Then Allah will raise it when He wills to raise it [meaning the prophet will die]. Then there will be the khilafah upon the Prophetic methodology. And it will last for as long as Allah wills it to last. Then Allah will raise it when He wills to raise it. Then there will be biting kingship, and it will remain for as long as Allah wills it to remain. Then Allah will raise it when He wills to raise it. Then there will be tyrannical (forceful) kingship and it will remain for as long as Allaah wills it to remain. Then He will raise it when He wills to raise it. Then there will be a khilafah upon the Prophetic methodology. Then he (the Prophet) was silent. (Musnad Imam Ahmad (v/273)

        Are any of the other muslim countries under the last category? if not they must fall under one of the others.

  29. Avatar

    Farraj Islahi

    February 3, 2011 at 8:35 PM

    Masha Allah to abu abdullah’s talk….
    Please be kind enough to realities of the Muslim named rulers!! They are just attempting to experience their enjoyed life style beyond their enemies of Islam…..isn’t it.

    Please don’t be like their tails even if you are educated or non educated..Try to comprehend the real situation; most of the Islamic people are harassed and stressed by these muslim named politicians through the enemies of Islam, isn’t it!

    So realize the realities, oh my brothers & sisters!

  30. Avatar

    Tamoor

    February 4, 2011 at 11:14 AM

    I appreciate this balanced viewpoint. There’s always a fine line between being so neutral as to be impotent and being so partisan as to be ignorant and emotional. You’re walking it well alhamdurillah.

  31. Pingback: Ali Shehata | Reflections on the Protests in Egypt | MuslimMatters.org « Yahyasheikho786's Blog

  32. Avatar

    Salman

    February 5, 2011 at 9:15 AM

    salaam aleikum,

    one aspect not covered by this article that should be emphasized is that the people who supported the invasion and occupation of Iraq and the prohibition of Muslims building masjids in North America are the VERY SAME people who are now in support of Mubarek, the Egyptian regime, and all of the other tyrants in the Muslim world, many are openly boasting of this:

    Mubarek’s American Fan Club

    This should not make Muslims defensive or apologetic about Islam when discussing with Non-Muslims and should serve as a point of da’wah to Non-Muslims that all of the rhetoric about “freedom” “liberty” and “democracy” is hollow when it comes to securing economic and political interests.

  33. Avatar

    Hassan

    February 6, 2011 at 10:51 AM

    Clarification needed, from

    http://muslimmatters.org/2010/12/01/saving-our-youth-from-the-disease-of-radicalism/

    Instead of neglecting Allah’s command and fighting against the rulers, have we not turned to consider our own sins and our own distance from Him? If these people who fought against their rulers and who attack innocent and unaware civilians in such a cowardly manner by sneaking up on them to detonate hidden weapons – if these people were upon the truth then where is the victory? Where is the help of Allah? Instead we only see more difficulties following their actions – and this is nothing but the result of sin and disobedience to the rule of Allah. In the noble hadith we read,

    قَالَ حُذَيْفَةُ بْنُ الْيَمَانِ
    قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّا كُنَّا بِشَرٍّ فَجَاءَ اللَّهُ بِخَيْرٍ فَنَحْنُ فِيهِ فَهَلْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ هَذَا الْخَيْرِ شَرٌّ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ هَلْ وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ الشَّرِّ خَيْرٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ فَهَلْ وَرَاءَ ذَلِكَ الْخَيْرِ شَرٌّ قَالَ نَعَمْ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ قَالَ يَكُونُ بَعْدِي أَئِمَّةٌ لَا يَهْتَدُونَ بِهُدَايَ وَلَا يَسْتَنُّونَ بِسُنَّتِي وَسَيَقُومُ فِيهِمْ رِجَالٌ قُلُوبُهُمْ قُلُوبُ الشَّيَاطِينِ فِي جُثْمَانِ إِنْسٍ قَالَ قُلْتُ كَيْفَ أَصْنَعُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنْ أَدْرَكْتُ ذَلِكَ قَالَ تَسْمَعُ وَتُطِيعُ لِلْأَمِيرِ وَإِنْ ضُرِبَ ظَهْرُكَ وَأُخِذَ مَالُكَ فَاسْمَعْ وَأَطِعْ

    Narrated Hudhaifa ibnul Yaman, I asked the Messenger of Allah (saas), “no doubt, we had an evil time (the days of Jahiliyya or pre-Islamic ignorance) and God brought us a good time (the Islamic period) through which we are now living. Will there be a bad time after this good time?” He (the Prophet) said: “Yes.” I said: “Will there be a good time after this bad time?” He said: “Yes.” I said: “Will there be a bad time after good time?” He said: “Yes.” I asked: “How?” Whereupon he said: “There will be leaders who will not be led by my guidance and who will not adopt my ways. There will be among them men who will have the hearts of devils in the bodies of human beings.” I asked: “What should I do if I should live to see that time O’ Messenger of Allah?” He replied: “You must listen to the ruler and carry out his orders, even if your back is flogged and your wealth is snatched, you must still listen and obey.” (Muslim)

    قال شارح الطحاوية : ” أما لزوم طاعتهم وإن جاروا ، فلأنــه يترتب على الخروج عن طاعتهم من المفاســـد أضعاف ما يحصل من جورهــم ، بل في الصبر على جورهم تكفير السيئات ، ومضاعفة الأجور ، فإن الله تعالى ما سلطهــم علينا إلا لفساد أعمالنا ، والجزاء من جنس العمل

    Ibn Abil-‘Izz al-Hanafi states on this issue: “And as for obeying the Rulers, even if they commit oppression, then this is because the evils and harms that arise on account of rebelling against them are numerous times more than that which occurs as a result of the oppression of the Rulers themselves. Rather, in having patience over their oppression there is expiation of sins, and a multiplication of the reward. For Allah did not empower them over us, except due to the corruption in our actions, and the recompense for an action is its like (al-jazaa’u min jins al-’amal).” Thus if we don’t like our rulers, then we should look into the mirror to see what we don’t like in our own selves!

    Hence, it is upon us to strive in seeking forgiveness, repenting and purifying our actions. Indeed, Allah (swt) has said,

    وَمَا أَصَابَكُمْ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ فَبِمَا كَسَبَتْ أَيْدِيكُمْ وَيَعْفُو عَنْ كَثِيرٍ

    And whatever affliction befalls you, then it is from what your hands have earned, yet He pardons much. [42:30]

    And His (swt) statement:
    وَكَذَٰلِكَ نُوَلِّي بَعْضَ الظَّالِمِينَ بَعْضًا بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ

    And thus do we turn some of the oppressors against others on account of what they used to earn. [6:129]

    Ibn Kathir quotes in regards to this ayah, “A poet once said, ‘There is no hand, but Allah’s Hand is above it, and no wrongdoer but will be tested by another wrongdoer’.”

    Hence, if the subjects (of a state) wish to save themselves from the oppression of the tyrannical ruler, then let them abandon oppression themselves. And from Malik bin Dinar (who said) that it has come in some of the (previous revealed) Books of Allah:

    I am the King of the dominion, the hearts of the kings are in my Hand. So whoever obeyed me, I made them (the kings) a mercy over him, and whoever disobeyed me, I made them a vengeance upon him. So do not occupy yourselves with reviling the kings, but rather repent and I will make them compassionate upon you.

    And from the same article in comment section:

    Ali Shehata
    December 1, 2010 • 11:59 am

    Sadly, it often appears to me that some people only skim through what is written and then jump to insult – often with the worst of manners. I really wonder Kashif if you read the article at all. You question the words of the Prophet (saas) when they are quite clear. You ignore the words of Ibn Abil-‘Izz al-Hanafi and Malik ibn Deenar. So if you would ignore all of that, what then could I possibly say?

    And one more comment:

    Ali Shehata
    December 1, 2010 • 12:21 pm

    Salaam alaikum Sister

    Please read the article well before accusing me. I am rather saddened by the sharp and classless words that have been thrown at me thus far in these comments. It is possible that you may have missed where I wrote:

    The real issue here is that America – as other countries and empires have done from time immemorial – is acting internationally upon its strategic interests.

    America doesn’t care about setting up a Sharia court anymore than it cares about setting up a monkey court; it cares about how that system will impact its own people and its own interests. America is not doing anything different than what any empire has ever done since the beginning of time, and that is to preserve its own interests. At the present moment in history, it is beneficial for America to at times be in conflict with Muslims and it is beneficial at times for them to support Islamic initiatives in some countries. This is the norm.

    I am not a lawyer here for American foreign or domestic policy. I never once said that I agree with every one of their policies, nor that they are upon the truth that Allah has sent down. I only said that what they are doing is irrelevant to how we practice and implement our deen.

    And while we are on the issue, don’t think for one moment that I haven’t experienced their heavy hand in my own personal life. I have spent many a sleepless night because of various American agency actions in my life. Just because I don’t blog about it doesn’t mean I am unaffected. I complain of that to Allah and I reflect upon my own deficiencies as a Muslim as I have advised people to do in this post.

    We cannot influence American, European, Asian or Middle Eastern foreign policy – but we can influence our own community actions. We can keep crying about injustices in the system until we are blue in the face, but that is a waste of time and makes us only forget the role that we do have to play in bettering ourselves. I remind you with the authentic hadith of Khabbab ibnal-Arrat:

    ‘I approached the Prophet when he was reclining in the shade of the Ka‘bah one day. This was in the days when we had received some harm from the pagans (tortured by them). I said to him: ‘O Messenger of Allah, will you not ask God to help us? Will you not pray for our relief from this persecution?” He sat up red in the face and said: “Among the followers of God before you were those who were thrown in a ditch and then sawed in half. Yet this did not make them turn away from the worship of God. And others had their skin combed with iron combs to the point that the flesh was lifted from the bones yet they too were not swayed from the worship of God. For there is no doubt that God will cause Islam to spread until a person can ride from San’a to Hadramaut (two distant cities in Yemen) and he will not fear anything except God and the wolf regarding his sheep. Yet you are a people who are too hasty!” (Ahmad)

    Here he also complained of heavy handed and unjust tactics, and the Prophet (saas) got angry with him for that! We have not experienced so much harm compared to what others did before us and THEY were more patient than us. I ask you not to consider me, for I know that I am insignificant, but how can you disregard the words of the Prophet and our noble scholars that I have continued to resort to?

    and

    Ali Shehata
    December 1, 2010 • 7:25 pm

    Salaam alaikum

    I didn’t discuss it because Sh. Yasir already hit on the issue and it doesn’t serve any purpose to keep repeating that point because it is not something we can change in the near future. I discussed things that we can change and things that we never discuss in our circles today, yet it was what the Prophet (saas) discussed with his Companions and what the scholars for 1000 years discussed. You can’t change the decisions of government but you can effect a change in Allah’s Mercy by turning to Him – was this message not presented clearly?

    and last but not least:

    Ali Shehata
    December 4, 2010 • 12:46 am

    Salaam alaikum

    I have actually mentioned aspects of this in the response to other comments. The answer in general is that I don’t know.

    The answer may have much to do with the fact that once a government is established – and there are a number of people who understand the government in power now to be the Karzai group (I know they are corrupt – let’s not get started on that) – that Islamically you do not fight it. Even if a ruler uses deception and force to install himself into power then he is to be obeyed if he is able to establish himself. The basis for this comes from the hadith of al-’Irbaad ibnu Saariya. The reason you don’t fight him was mentioned in my first post – because the result of this fight is far worse than anything he will do himself while in power and this has been historically proven many times.

    Ever since he established himself over the government even the Muslim scholars of the East stopped discussing the matter of fighting. The latest news I read on general news sites (AP, BBC, al-Jazeera) was also that factions of Afghani resistance were also meeting with Karzai to discuss a power sharing agreement of sorts. Again, I imagine this may be because they have also understood the danger of fighting a ruler who establishes Islam, even though he may be guilty of major sins.

    The issue of fighting the ruler is something that despite being quite clear in the ahadith, has yet been a matter that some groups – Khawarij and Jihadis – refuse to submit to and they try to twist a variety of statements and interpretations to give license to their revolts. Yet, the record of history has shown this to be a losing battle and again, there are many who after years of playing this game have repented alhamdulillah.

    This is my knowledge of this matter so please ask someone else if this did not answer your question. Please don’t ask for elaboration either as I will not respond because this is more an academic discussion and for the majority of Muslims today has no practical significance. I only explained this much to try to be responsive to those who wish to understand Islamic thought better, but I have limited time and prefer to use that on issues of practical significance to myself and others as opposed to academic discussions.

    Please read your comments in previous articles. I know you enough to say that you are very good person and sincere. I would suggest you and rest of scholars of muslimmatters write a comprehensive article on the manhaj/methodology you guys have adopted. Once that is clear, we can easily understand the articles you guys write and/or comment.

    • Dr. Ali Shehata

      Dr. Ali Shehata

      February 7, 2011 at 10:15 PM

      Salaam alaikum

      I appreciate the extensive reminder of previous comments and I am also aware of what I had written previously. I cannot comment on anyone else’s manhaj as this site provides the views of a number of different voices which are not always going to agree with each other as this is the nature of the religion.

      As far as what was written before and the question that some people have asked regarding what they perceive as a contradiction, then it is not insha’Allah a contradiction at all and I had tried to mention this in the beginning of this very post.

      The ahadith regarding khurooj that I used in my posts on violent extremism, many of which you copied above, speak specifically of the use of violence to remove the ruler. I referred to this because of the fact that a number of extremist groups had used violent means to overthrow their rulers and this has appeared to make matters worse. My position on that has not changed – I still see that as forbidden.

      The people of Egypt and Tunisia (and Yemen and Jordan) have repeatedly shown their protests to be of a peaceful nature and have not resorted to taking up arms to overthrow their leader. They have been patient for decades and those who know these countries have seen a great number of improvements stemming from the successful dawah in many of these lands alhamdulillah. It may be this increase in their righteousness and imaan that led Allah to inspire so many of them to come out at one time to speak the word of truth against their tyrannical despots.

      In those lands where such a gathering is still difficult, Syria for example, and there are no peaceful means of attempting change, then I still believe that for them patience is best as al-Hassan al-Basri advised the group that set out to attack al-Hajjaj. I believe firmly that when the conditions of the heart are right that Allah will make a good way for them to achieve changes as changes have already occurred peacefully in other lands without much damage to their lands.

      And Allah knows best.

  34. Pingback: Ali Shehata | Reflections on the Protests in Egypt | MuslimMatters.org | Abdul Kareem's Blog

  35. Avatar

    ummousama

    February 8, 2011 at 3:38 AM

    Assalamu alaikum,

    As much as I respect the Saudi scholars for their knowledge and for their fiqh, I cannot trust them regarding political matters. Sorry. Why?

    1. Saudi Arabia was started by fighting with the help of the British against the Ottoman Empire.

    2. Imam AbdulWahhaab fought together with Aal AsSaud to establish Islam in the country. It was then agreed that Aal AsSaud would take the rulership. Is this really Islamic?

    3. They made a fatwa saying it was OK to ask the help of the Americans against Iraq. We all know the evil that came from that. America is still on Muslim lands. Sadam might have been declared a kafir but what about all those Muslims who had no choice but be in the army?

    There are many other things that I could state but these should be enough.

    Now, for those who say that those demonstrations are not halaal, ask yourself these questions:

    1. Have you lived in Egypt? Have you noticed these days the brutality of the police? Is speaking against oppression in the street not allowed?

    2. Have you lived under an oppressive regime? Are you still living there?

    3. Are you a black living in America or even in the rest of the world? If so, did the status of the black people of America get better overnight or did the blacks fight for it and demonstrate for it?

    4. Were you born in America or was it the choice of your parents or your choice to go and live in America? If the last one, why did you go and live there? Are you sure that Islamically, such a move was permissible. For example, the great majority of those who went from Muslim countries to non-Muslim ones was “to have a better life”, i.e. so that we are not hungry anymore. Is there a difference between that and going in the street to stop oppression.

    I will reiterate again and again that these demonstrations are NOT because of hunger. The people in the square are NOT asking of the kuffaar’s help; actually the Jazeera network is enough. The people in the square DO NOT want America to intervene; actually they dread it. One of them even said that the media is UNDERMINING it in the fact that they say how much Egypt is losing every day. Do you know who is losing money? Mubarak and his gang.

    These demonstrations are because of OPPRESSION. I live in Egypt and I have seen how many foreigners Muslims fled the country because they feared of what will happen or they feared there won’t be any food on their table. I then said to myself that Muslims are not ready for jihad, especially those who have lived in the West. Ten days after the 28th of January, things are going back to normal, alhamdulillah. We always speak of the Sahabah, examples of their endurance, … but where is the practical side of it after the talk?

    Those who are in the square now live on a little food that mostly poor people give them. People who sell bread in the street will give them free bread. Some people will bring them food but they share everything and they sleep at night hungry. Are you ready for that?

    You want to experience, from the comfort of your lives, what we experienced?

    1. Go one full day without a mobile phone. Total blackout. Then for about a week after that, you might be able to receive calls, you might not. As people’s credit was finished, they couldn’t phone either.

    2. Go without Internet for a week.

    3. Stand outside all night or at least two hours at night being a vigil.

    4. On a weekend, when you usually sleep in, make sure you are in the house before 3.00 pm.

    If you want to experience what a Google experienced, then stay blindfolded for 11 days just because you write on this blog. ;)

    • Avatar

      Student

      February 8, 2011 at 8:21 AM

      Sister – even though we side with you on this issue in particular, just a few points that need to be addressed.

      With all due respect, just because people here from 3 or 4 names that they only know from the scholar of Saudi Arabia does not mean that they represent the whole of the ‘ulama in the kingdom.

      And people’s facts on history need to be understood in proper context. Some of which is skewed. Because people don’t realize that the first kingdom of Saudi Arabia that Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab was part of FELL, and then the second kingdom was the birth of the King ‘Abdul Aziz establishment, let’s learn a bit of history before we repeat what is told to us by popularity.

      This is beyond the point.

      To blame an entire group of scholars and their “political” understandings based on skewed historical facts, is hardly insaaf – equal or just.

      There have been scholars who’ve been jailed who are senior and some just before all of these demonstrations were house arrested, scholars such as Abdullah Sa’ad the great muhhadith, AbdulAziz al Julayyil, Sulaiman ‘Alwan, and recently Khalid Rashid – may Allah free them from captivity.

      And current scholars in the kingdom who state the haqq as well and spoke in light of these demonstrations
      Nasir Omar
      AbdurRahman ibn Nasir al Barrak
      Muhammad al Araify even

      And I personally use to hear Shuraim’s khutbah’s being severe and strong against the government’s positions during Gaza, and most people say this is part of the reason why he hasn’t been giving sermon’s.

      We as muslims have been taught to understand and judge things based on understanding and not emotional fallacies, and it’s a HUGE disrespect to an entire nation of scholars whether in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, or wherever that we just make sweeping judgements on people who’ve dedicated their lives, and gone to prison in order to stand for the truth.

      If you wish to make a point, do so without succumbing the ‘ulama to unjust blame. There are those that obviously have affected by governments and this is what has been going on since the Abbasid and Ummayid era’s, and there are the MANY, MANY out there alhamdulillah that stand for the truth.

      Just because the public isn’t popularized with their names, and only knows the names of a few, does not mean they don’t exist.

      May Allah rectify us all. Ameen.

      • Avatar

        ummousama

        February 8, 2011 at 11:52 PM

        Jazak Allahu khairan for your post. Unfortunately we hear little of those scholars and their arguments.

        I now understand why the khateeb reads the khutbah in Makkah and Madinah straight out of a paper, not being able to say one sentence without looking at it. Sad.

        • Avatar

          Me

          February 9, 2011 at 1:13 PM

          Allah knows best why the Imams of the Harmain read out of a paper. We cannot come to conclusions and judge others based on a mere observation. The Imams don’t just lead prayers and Friday Khutbahs, but they also have many other responsibilities (some are professors in university, some judges). We do not know what their daily schedule looks like. Maybe they do not get the time to memorize an entire khutbah.

          Besides each Imam has his own style and choice of words. If one frequently listens to these khutbahs they’ll notice the difference.

          The Imam is not talking to their local Muslim community but they’re talking to the entire ummah. It’s definitely a huge responsibility to address a million or more Muslims in the heartland of Islam. One has to choose the words carefully as to not create fitnah.

          Personally, I prefer to listen to the Friday khutbahs in Makkah and Madinah rather than watch. When you just listen to it you feel like it’s really coming from their hearts.

    • Avatar

      Fulaan ibn Fulaan

      February 10, 2011 at 5:21 AM

      You missed out a few things – like the crazy queues for food the day after the 25th on the first days of the curfew when we had to queue for hours to buy food and when the prices started to rise for everything, and people had to queue for hours to buy bread which was doubled in cost.

      When the call from the mosques came to stand outside the buildings and protect your houses the initial fear that people had when they were told that criminals had been let lose from prisons and had stolen weapons, and we were standing outside with sticks and kitchen knives.

      Leave the scholars who spoke against the demonstrations – the actions of those scholars from Egypt who demonstrated and are in Tahrir is enough for us from their words and their speeches as they understand the situation on the ground here.

      There is still massive uncertainty about what is going to happen here – and planeloads of foriegn students have left – but I have not met a single Egyptian who is unhappy about the change.
      They are upset about the price of the change, the chaos or ‘fowdah’ the instability and lack of security – but everyone always complains about the price of change, and no one want to pay the ‘dariybah’ for the situation.

      Even the most negative person who I have met who says they love Mubarak and he is is our president (and at least two people said this to me) recognises that it is time for change and they deserve something better as the country has not progressed in 30 years and there is massive inequality here.

  36. Avatar

    Student

    February 8, 2011 at 7:59 AM

    Dr.Ali – Allah yahfadhak wa yujzik al khair – I’m sure now you can see the situation of the laity when it comes to many issues that we face today, when the people are not taught uniformly or systematically and then when issues do happen – people start bringing about their contentions, doubts, and confusions.

    Allahul musta’an.

    This new methodology of dealing with teaching and da’wah trend has these kind of negative affects upon people, and you can witness it right here and now.

    May Allah grant us all patience and steadfastness and guide us to reminding people their actions are to worship Allah with, to stay away that which is doubtful or does not concern us, and to grant our du’aat and scholars the correct vision and ability to stand through fitan to guide people out of ignorance, rather than lead them into deeper ignorance. Ameen

    WAs-salamu ‘alaikum

  37. Avatar

    Student

    February 8, 2011 at 8:25 AM

    Shaykh Muhammad AbdulMaqsud in Tahrir Square – advising the crowd and making du’a at the end to relieve them of the fitan, corruption, and relinquish them from the Taghut, Hosni Mubarak.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TuZn3RkgcVA

  38. Avatar

    Talaba

    February 10, 2011 at 11:08 PM

    MashaAllah! Finally, well researched and argumented note from Islamic perspective. It is a good response to this type of shallow positions too – http://ahlusunnahwaljamaah.com/2011/02/10/islamic-ruling-on-protests-demonstrations/

    Salams and duas from Uzbekistan to Egyptian brothers/sisters and to everyone who stands against oppression!

    • Avatar

      Mantiki

      February 11, 2011 at 5:20 PM

      LOL Talaba! I was expecting sense from the article you referenced but it was complete rubbish on so many counts which has now been proven false by subsequent events. Dire warnings against mixing of men and women in the street, praise for the murder of progressive Islamic scholars. A litany of loony!

  39. Avatar

    Amel

    February 22, 2011 at 3:50 PM

    Selem Aleikom wa Rahmatullahi wa Baraketuh,
    Jazakom Allahu kheir for this article.
    As far as I am concerned, I do not understand at all the position of some respected scholars or thinkers against the current protests in Tunisia, Egypt, or now, Libya… I know particularly Tunisia and the tyran Ben Ali, so I will only talk about this country, and you will understand that I see this protests foremost as a religious act.
    After Bourguiba, Ben Ali kept banning the hijab in the public premises and public places ? (it’s written in Tunisia constitution since 1981, the same constitution that Mr. Ghanushi, the acting president, want to keep)… I have many friends who have been beaten and hurt badly by policemen in the streets just because they were wearing hijab.
    I remember a hadith which tells us about a woman who has been humiliated by some jews who took her hijab off to make fun of her… what the Suhaba did then ? They declared the war to defend her honour. Yes, this was the value of a muslim woman in the past… Nowadays, muslims women are humiliated every day, and what is done ? too many muslims keep silent or even worse, they defend those who humiliate us !
    What about the brothers that they used to torture because of their « islamic » beards ? One of my relatives has been beaten by a group of policemen just because he had a beard and because he prays his 5 compulsory prayers in the mosque… They asked him why he prays 5 times a day in the mosque ! « the mosques are for old people only », they laughingly said !…
    They used to force practicing muslims to sign a document on which it was written « I undersigned… I will not pray in the mosque, I will not show any religious signs in public, etc, etc… ».
    A minister dared to say in the parliamant (few days before the revolt) that the adhan was a noise pollution and there were too much mosques in Tunisia ??? Do these politicians see Tunisia as a muslim country ?? I don’t think so… Can we still consider them as muslims ?… anyway, they are liars, thieves, perverts, manipulators and do not deserve to lead a muslim country…

    May Allah give success to muslims and destroy the enemies’ plots !

    • Avatar

      ummousama

      February 23, 2011 at 1:21 AM

      wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh,

      I’ve just received this video for those interested. Comments are in Arabic but it is the pictures that are important: Money found in the Tunisian presidential palace of Sisi BouSaid.

      http://www.facebook.com/video/video.php?v=149048925156397

      • Avatar

        Amel

        February 24, 2011 at 7:10 PM

        Indeed, this video confirms once again that they are liars, thieves, megalomaniacs, greedy, perverts; so they do not deserve to lead a muslim country.

        May Allah give victory to the mujahiddins fisabilihi.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

#Islam

Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting | Hadiths 9-12

 وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: “كان رسول الله ﷺ إذا دخل العشرُ أحيَى الليل، وأيقظ أهلهُ، وشدَّ المئزر” متفقٌ عليه().

 

ʿAʾishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported:

When the ten nights would begin, the Messenger of Allāh r would keep the night alive; he would also awaken his family and tighten his wrapper.

Support MuslimMatters for Just $2 a Month

MuslimMatters has been a free service to the community since 2007. All it takes is a small gift from a reader like you to keep us going, for just $2 / month.

The Prophet (SAW) has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Click here to support MuslimMatters with a monthly donation of $2 per month. Set it and collect blessings from Allah (swt) for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it.

Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“When the ten nights would begin”

What is meant is the last ten nights

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ would keep the night alive”

He would keep stay up at night and engage in various forms of worship such as ṣalāt, dhikr, and meditation/reflection. Or he kept himself alive by remaining awake, since sleep is death’s sibling. The metaphor refers to the night because when someone who is sleeping is woken-up and brought back to life, their night can be said to have been given life through them.

“He would also awaken his family”

He did so to draw their attention towards the time of goodness, so they may expose themselves to the gusts of goodness. A narration in Tirmidhī states, “When the last ten days of Ramaḍān would enter, the Messenger of Allāh r would not fail to wake up anyone who was capable of staying up in his household”. He would lead them towards the avenues of goodness, and help them attain it.

“And tighten his wrapper”

Al-Khaṭṭābī explains: “The meaning is likely to be earnestness in acts of worship. Just as one would say ‘I have tightened my wrapper for this matter’ i.e I have buckled down to it/rolled up my sleeves for it. It is also said that it may be a metaphor for buckling down and withdrawing from women. It is also said that it may have a literal meaning and a figurative meaning at the same time, i.e that he literally tighten his waist wrapper (izār) and also withdrew from women and buckled down for worship. However, the first explanation is more plausible because in another narration the following wording is found “He would tighten his wrapper and withdraw from women”. This leads us to conclude that the expression tightening his wrapper relates to earnestness in worship only.

– باب فضل السحور وتأخيره ما لم يخشَ طلوع الفجر

Chapter on the virtues of saḥūr, and of delaying it as long as one does fear the rising of dawn

 

 عن أنسٍ، رضي الله عنه، قال: قال رسول الله : “تسحروا؛ فإن في السحور بركةً” متفقٌ عليه .

Anas (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh said, “Eat suḥūr [or practice saḥūr] (predawn meal) because surely, there is baraka in suḥūr.”

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Saḥūr is the meal which is taken prior to the rise of dawn. Suḥūr on the other hand, is the act of partaking food at that time. This will have relevance in the ensuing commentary of the ḥadīth.

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, ‘Eat suḥūr [or practice saḥūr] (predawn meal)’ ”

This is considered mandūb i.e praiseworthy. The Sunna itself is fulfilled by having a little food even if it is only a sip of water. It is mentioned in a ḥadīth of ʿAbdullāh bin-Surāqa, traced back to the Nabī r: ‘Practice suḥūr, even if only with a sip of water’. It is narrated by Ibn-ʿAsākir[2]. The Sunna is likewise fulfilled by having a considerable quantity of food.

“Because surely, there is baraka in suḥūr [or saḥūr].”

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn-Ḥajar explains: ‘The use of both spellings is found in authentic narrations. If suḥūr is meant i.e the act of eating at that time, then by baraka is meant the reward and merit. If saḥūr is meant i.e the food which is eaten at that time, then by baraka is meant the fact that it strengthens one for fasting and makes one energetic for it. It also reduces the difficult involved in it’.

It is also said that the baraka lies in the fact of being awake at that time and engaging in duʿāʾ.
It is however more appropriate to say that the Baraka is attained through various avenues, namely: adherence to the Sunna, acting differently than the ahlul-kitāb (Christians and Jews), strengthening oneself for worship through it, its being a cause for one to engage in dhikr and duʿāʾ at a time when acceptance is highly likely, and it also allows for one who has forgotten to make the intention for fasting before sleeping to do so[3].

This ḥadīth was also narrated by Aḥmad, Al-Tirmidhī, Al-Nasāʾī, and Ibn-Māja all through Anas. Al-Nasāʾī has already narrated it through Abū-Hurayra and Ibn-Masʿūd. Aḥmad has also narrated it through Ibn-Masʿūd. This has all been mentioned in Al-Jāmiʿul-Ṣaghīr.

 وعن زيد بن ثابتٍ، رضي الله عنه، قال: تسحرنا مع رسول الله ثم قمنا إلى الصلاة. قيل: كم كان بينهما؟ قال: قدر خمسين آية. متفقٌ عليه

Zaid bin Thābit (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

We took suḥūr (predawn meal) with the Messenger of Allāh r and then we stood up for ṣalāt (prayer). It was asked: ‘How long was the gap between the two?’ He replied: ‘The time required for the recitation of fifty verses.’

[Al-Bukhārī and Muslim].

Zaid bin-Thābit was from the Anṣār of Madīna, and he was 11 years old when the Nabī r emigrated from Makka to Madīna. His father passed away when he was 6 years old, and the Nabī r considered him too young to participate in the battle of Badr (~13 years old). He however allowed him to participate in Uḥud. It is also said that he in fact did not participate in Uḥud but rather in Khandaq and the following expeditions with Rasūlullāh r. He used to write revelation for the Nabī r and he was one of the three people who compiled the Qurʾān by gathering its various verses and chapters and verifying their authenticity. The effort to compile the Qurʾān after the demise of the Nabī r was ordered by Abū-Bakr and ʿUmar.
ʿUmar and ʿUthmān would both designate him as imām in Madīna when they traveled for Ḥajj. Ibn Abī-Dāwūd explains: ‘Zaid bin-Thābit was the most knowledgeable of the rules of inheritance among the Ṣaḥābah, and he was among those firmly grounded in knowledge.
A total of 92 ḥadīth from Rasūlullāh r have been narrated by him, 10 of which are found in the collections of Bukhārī or Muslim. He passed away in Madīna in the year 54 A.H.

“We took suḥūr (predawn meal) with the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ”

One can notice a subtle indication of etiquette in the choice of words, rather than saying ‘Us and Rasūlullāh took suḥūr’ he used wording which emphasizes the fact that they followed his example r.

“And then we stood up for ṣalāt (prayer)”

The morning ṣalāt i.e ṣubḥ.

“It was asked: ‘How long was the gap between the two?’ He replied: ‘The time required for the recitation of fifty verses.’ ”

Anas is the one who asked the question. Imām Aḥmad also narrated a ḥadīth where Qatāda asks Anas the same question.
The verses referred to are of moderate length. They were neither long nor short, and were read neither fast nor slow. The ʿArab had the habit of estimating time through physical actions, such as saying ‘As long as it takes to milk a goat’. Zaid however chose to estimate the time through the action of reading the Qurʾān to indicate that it was a time fit for worship through recitation of the Qurʾān. Ibn Abī-Jamra explains: ‘The ḥadīth is an indication of the fact that the vast majority of their time was immersed in ʿibāda (worship)’.

The ḥadīth also indicates that suḥūr was done as late as possible, as it is more befitting for the intent behind it. Also because it was the Nabī r’s habit to look for that which was most gentle for his Umma and apply it. If he did not take suḥūr that would prove difficult for some of them, just as taking suḥūr in the middle of the night would be difficult for those overtaken by sleep. That could lead to leaving suḥūr altogether or in it being a tiresome process.

 وعن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله r قال: “فَصْلُ ما بين صيامنا وصيام أهل الكتاب أكلةُ السحر” رواه مسلم .

ʿAmr bin Al-ʿĀṣ (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, ‘The difference between our observance of fasting and that of the people of the scriptures (ahlul-kitāb) is suḥūr (predawn meal)’

[Narrated by Muslim].

ʿAmr bin Al-ʿĀṣ accepted Islām in the year of Khaybar, i.e the beginning of the 7th year A.H. Him, Khālid Ibnul-Walīd and ʿUthmān bin-Ṭalḥa came to the Nabī and accepted Islām together. He was made the commander of the 17th expedition, called sariyatu dhātil-salāsil and which had 300 men. It was then reinforced through another regiment in which were Abū-Bakr and ʿUmar, and whose commander was Abū-ʿUbayda bin-Jarrāh. The Nabī r told the latter ‘Do not be at odds with eachother’. ʿAmr used to lead the ṣalāt of the combined regiments until they returned to Madīna (notwithstanding the illustrious personalities who joined them). He was designated as an ambassador to Omān where he remained until the death of the Nabī r. Abū-Bakr t then sent him as governor to Shām and he was present in the various conquests of its territory. He then governed Palestine for ʿUmar t for some time after which he was sent with a regiment to Egypt, which he conquered. He remained its governor until the death of ʿUmar. ʿUthmān left him in his position for another 4 years, and he then removed him. ʿAmr then settled away in Palestine from which he would occasionally visit Madīna. Muʿāwiya t eventually designated him governor of Egypt, where he remained as governor until his death and was buried there. He passed away on the eve of ʿIdul-Fiṭr the year 43 A.H at the age of 70 years. His son ʿAbdullāh led his funeral prayer. He was among the heroes and intellectuals of the ʿArab, and was known to be a leader with a great vision.
When the time of his death dawned upon him he said: ‘O Allāh you have ordered me and I was not compliant, you prohibited me and I did not refrain, I am not strong so I seek assistance, neither am I free of blame so I apologize, and I am not arrogant but rather I am repentant; there is no deity except You’. He kept repeating these words until he passed away.

“The difference between our observance of fasting and that of the people of the scriptures (ahlul-kitāb)”

The ahlul-kitāb are the Jews and Christians. They were given revealed scriptures, hence the name ahlul-kitāb.

“Is suḥūr (predawn meal)”

This is an unequivocal statement to the fact that taking suḥūr is a special trait for us, and that Allāh has made it a favor and distinction for this Umma. This favor and distinction were not granted to the previous nations.

Support Our Dawah for Just $2 a Month

MuslimMatters has been a free service to the community since 2007. All it takes is a small gift from a reader like you to keep us going, for just $2 / month.

The Prophet (SAW) has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Click here to support MuslimMatters with a monthly donation of $2 per month. Set it and collect blessings from Allah (swt) for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it.

Continue Reading

#Islam

Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting. Hadiths 7-8

– وعنه، رضي الله عنه، أن رسول الله ﷺ، قال: “إذا جاء رمضانُ، فُتحتْ أبواب الجنة، وغُلقت أبواب النار، وصُفدت() الشياطين” متفقٌ عليه().

Abū-Hurayra (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh said, “When Ramaḍān begins, the gates of paradise are opened, the gates of the fire of hell are closed, and the devils are chained.”

Narrated by Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

The Messenger of Allāh said, “When Ramaḍān begins, the gates of paradise are opened”

The most apparent meaning is that this is a literal opening of the doors of paradise for a person who passes away during Ramaḍān, or for a person who performs good actions which are accepted. It is also said that the meaning is figurative, meaning that performing good actions in Ramaḍān will lead to the gates of paradise being opened in the hereafter. Another figurative meaning may also be the abundance of mercy and forgiveness, as can be inferred by a narration of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim “The doors of mercy are opened”.

“The gates of the fire of hell are closed”

Support MuslimMatters for Just $2 a Month

MuslimMatters has been a free service to the community since 2007. All it takes is a small gift from a reader like you to keep us going, for just $2 / month.

The Prophet (SAW) has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Click here to support MuslimMatters with a monthly donation of $2 per month. Set it and collect blessings from Allah (swt) for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it.

The same observation can be made about this statement as has just been said regarding the gates of paradise.

It is also said that this is a metaphor to express the fact that the egos of the fasting persons are pure from the impurities of shameful actions, and they are liberated from the things which lead to sinful acts by means of their tamed based desires.
Al-Ṭībī explains: ‘The benefit of this is two-fold: the angels are clearly made aware that the action of those fasting is highly revered in front of Allāh. The fact that the truthful Nabī is the one informing about this matter also serves to increase the eagerness of the Muslim individual’.

“And the devils are chained”

This statement can also be considered to be in a literal sense. It may also figuratively mean that they are prevented from causing excessive nuisance to the believers and from provoking them. That makes them seem as they are chained. It may also mean that the Muslims refrain from involving themselves in the acts of disobedience which the devils annoy them with.

– باب الجود وفعل المعروف والإكثار من الخير في شهر رمضان

والزيادة من ذلك في العشر الأواخر منه

Chapter on generosity, performing good actions, increasing in goodness during Ramaḍān and augmenting in that during its last 10 days

1/1222- وعن ابن عباس، رضي الله عنهما، قال: كان رسول الله ﷺ، أجود الناس، وكان أجود() ما يكونُ في رمضان حين يلقاهُ جبريلُ، وكان جبريلُ يلقاهُ في كل ليلةٍ من رمضان فيدارسهُ القرآن، فلرسولُ الله ﷺ، حين يلقاهُ جبريلُ أجودُ بالخير من الريح المرسلة” متفقٌ عليه().

Ibn ʿAbbās (May Allah be pleased with them) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was the most generous of men; and he would be the most generous during the month of Ramaḍān when Jibrīl visited him. Jibrīl would meet him every night of Ramaḍān and he would review the Qurʾān with him. As a result, at the time Jibrīl met him the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was more generous with goodness than the free wind.

What is meant by good actions in the title are obligatory and recommended actions alike. Increasing such actions in Ramaḍān is mandūb (i.e commendable) as the reward will be multiplied on virtue of the distinction of this time. This particularity in Ramaḍān is because it is the best of the months, so it is commendable to keep it alive with such actions and see their reward multiplied as a result.

The last ten days start on the eve of the 21st day of fasting, and they end on the last day whether the month ends in 29 days or 30 days.

Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“The Messenger of Allāh (ﷺ) was the most generous of men”

He was the man endowed with the most generosity. Indeed it is a fact that that which has been narrated of his generosity has not been narrated regarding anyone else.

“And he would be the most generous during the month of Ramaḍān when Jibrīl visited him.”

His state of generosity in Ramaḍān was superior to that outside of Ramaḍān, but he was nevertheless the most generous man in an absolute sense.

“Jibrīl would meet him every night of Ramaḍān and he would review the Qurʾān with him”

It is said that the wisdom in reviewing the Qurʾān is that it renews the pledge of having a content ego. Contentment in turns breeds generosity. Ramaḍān is also the season of goodness because Allāh’s bounties on his servants are increased therein. It was the habit of Nabī to give preference to follow the example of the sunna of Allāh (i.e his customary practice) in dealing with His servants. The combination of what has been mentioned i.e the time, the one who came down (Jibrīl), what he descended with (the Qurʾān) and the learning were all obtained through the hand of generosity. And Allāh knows best.

“As a result, at the time Jibrīl met him the Messenger of Allāh (ﷺ) was more generous with goodness than the free wind”

He was, in the speed of his generosity faster than the wind. The free wind indicates the wind which continuously blows with mercy. His generosity was all-encompassing in its benefit just as the free wind fully encompasses anything it blows on.

A narration of Imām-Aḥmad includes the following wording at the end of this ḥadīth: “He was never asked anything except that he gave it”[1].

Imām Al-Nawawī explains:

“This ḥadīth contains many fine lessons: encouragement towards generosity at all times, and increasing it during Ramaḍān as well as when meeting righteous people (analogy with the meeting of Jibrīl). It also indicates the virtue of visiting the pious and noble folk, and to do so repeatedly as long as the person being visited does not mind. It also points to the laudable nature of abundantly reading Qurʾān during Ramaḍān and the fact that it is superior to all forms of remembrance of Allāh [dhikr/adhkār]. Indeed, if dhikr was superior or equivalent to it then they would have done it (the Nabī and Jibrīl). Some commentators have said that these were tajwīd sessions. This is however objectionable as memorization of the Nabī was a given, and anything beyond memorization could be achieved through a few sessions. It is therefore clear that the intent in Jibrīl’s coming was an increase in the amount of recitation.

Support Our Dawah for Just $2 a Month

MuslimMatters has been a free service to the community since 2007. All it takes is a small gift from a reader like you to keep us going, for just $2 / month.

The Prophet (SAW) has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Click here to support MuslimMatters with a monthly donation of $2 per month. Set it and collect blessings from Allah (swt) for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it.

Continue Reading

#Islam

Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting | Hadiths 3-6

– وعنه أن رسول الله ﷺ قال: “من أنفق زوجين في سبيل الله نُودي من أبواب الجنة: يا عبدالله هذا خيرٌ، فمن كان من أهل الصلاة دُعيَ من باب الصلاة، ومن كان من أهل الجهاد دُعيَ من باب الجهاد، ومن كان من أهل الصيام دُعيَ من باب الريان، ومن كان من أهل الصدقة [480] دُعيَ من باب الصدقة” قال أبو بكر رضي الله عنه، بأبي أنت وأُمي يا رسول الله! ما على من دُعيَ من تلك الأبواب من ضرورةٍ، فهل يدعى أحدٌ من تلك الأبواب كلها؟ قال: “نعم وأرجو أن تكون منهم” متفقٌ عليه().

Abū-Hurayra (May Allāh be pleased with him) also reported:

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, “He who spends a pair in the way of Allāh will be called from the gates of paradise: ‘O slave of Allāh! This is goodness’ and one who is among the people of ṣalāt (prayer), will be called from the gate of ṣalāt; and whoever is eager in fighting in the cause of Allāh, will be called from the gate of jihād; and one who is regular in fasting will be called from the gate Ar-Rayyān. The one who is a charitable person will be called from the gate of charity.” Abū-Bakr (May Allāh be pleased with him) said: “O Messenger of Allāh ﷺ ! May my mother and father be sacrificed for you! Those who are called from these gates will stand in need of nothing. However, will anybody be called from all of those gates?” He replied, “Yes, and I hope that you will be one of them.” ”.

Narrated by Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“ The Messenger of Allāh said, “He who spends a pair in the way of Allāh will be called from the gates of paradise: ‘O slave of Allāh! This is goodness’ ”

Support MuslimMatters for Just $2 a Month

MuslimMatters has been a free service to the community since 2007. All it takes is a small gift from a reader like you to keep us going, for just $2 / month.

The Prophet (SAW) has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Click here to support MuslimMatters with a monthly donation of $2 per month. Set it and collect blessings from Allah (swt) for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it.

In some narrations of this ḥadīth it is added: “It was said: what is a pair? He ﷺ said: two horses, two cows, or two mules”.

It is possible that his ḥadīth applies to all virtuous actions, be it two ṣalāt, fasting two days, or two acts of charity. That is substantiated by the wording of the rest of the ḥadīth, which enumerates those different actions.

In the way of Allāh applies to all acts of goodness [i.e for Allāh’s sake]. It is also said that it is specific to jihād, but the first interpretation is more correct and apparent. That is Imām Al-Nawawī’s position.

Goodness here is said to mean reward and delight. It is also said that it means this is better i.e we think that this is better for you than the rest of the doors, due to the abundance of its reward and bounties. Come and enter through it.

Ḥāfiẓ Ibn-Ḥajar however contends in Fatḥul-Bārī: “The meaning of goodness is virtue, not superiority, although the wording may lead to think so. The intent of the statement is to provide additional encouragement to the individual for entering through that door”.

“And one who is among the people of ṣalāt (prayer), will be called from the gate of ṣalāt; and whoever is eager in fighting in the cause of Allāh, will be called from the gate of jihād; and one who is regular in fasting will be called from the gate Al-Rayyān.”

Al Qurṭubī explains: to be among the people of ṣalāt means that one performs abundant optional prayers to the point that it represents the most common of his optional actions. The obligatory ṣalāt is not meant, because all people are equal in that respect.

The same reasoning applies to fasting and ṣadaqa.

The door is called Al-Rayyān i.e the one who is satiated/quenched, as opposed to the one who is thirsty i.e the person fasting. This is to signify that he is rewarded for his thirst through a permanent satiation in paradise.

“The one who is a charitable person will be called from the gate of charity.”

After the mention of this door, four of the five pillars of Islām have been included, leaving the pillar of Ḥajj. There is no doubt that there is a door for [those who performed] Ḥajj [abundantly]. That leaves a remainder of three doors to complete the number of eight doors.

One of those doors is the door for ﴾ الْكَاظِمِينَ الْغَيْظَ وَالْعَافِينَ عَنِ النَّاسِ ﴿ “those who control their wrath and are forgiving toward mankind” (s. Āl-ʿImrān, v. 134). Imām Aḥmad bin-Ḥanbal narrates from Al-Ḥasan [in a ḥadīth mursal] “Certainly Allāh has a door in paradise which none except those who forgive injustice will enter through”.

Another one of those doors is “the door of the right side.” That is the door of the mutawakkilīn i.e those who used to put their entire trust in Allāh, through which will enter those who will not go through any reckoning nor will they be subject to any punishment.

As for the third door, it may be the door of the remembrance of Allāh, as a ḥadīth in Tirmidhī alludes to it. It is also possible that it is the door of knowledge.

Considering the fact that the types of virtuous actions number much more than eight in total, it is then possible that the doors through which people will be called are in fact internal doors which are located beyond the eight main doors of paradise.

Al-Suyūṭī explains in Al-Dībāj: “Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ explains: the remaining doors are mentioned in other aḥādīth: the door of repentance, the door of “those who control their wrath and are forgiving toward mankind”, the door of those who are content, the door of the right side from which will enter those who will not undergo any reckoning”.

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn-Ḥajar explains in Fatḥul-Bārī: for one to spend in the way of Allāh in ṣadaqa, jihād, knowledge and ḥajj is obvious. It is however not so obvious for other actions.
Spending in ṣalāt may refer to acquiring its tools such as the water to purify oneself, and one’s suitable garments or the like thereof.
As for spending while fasting it would be on those things which strengthen one to do such as suḥūr [pre-dawn meal] and fuṭūr [meal after sunset].
Spending to forgive others would mean that one forsakes those rights which he is entitled to from them.
Spending in tawakkul would be that which one spends during a sickness which prevents them for earning a living, while exerting patience in one’s affliction. It can also be that which one spends on someone else who is afflicted by the same, seeking thereby reward.
Spending for dhikr would be along the same lines.

It is also possible that what is meant by spending on ṣalāt and fasting is for one to exert their person in those acts. In the language of the ʿArab, exertion of one’s person is called expenditure [nafaqa]. They will for instance say, “I have expended my life on it” when referring to a trade which one has learnt. Exerting one’s body in fasting and ṣalāt would therefore be considered expenditure.

“Abū-Bakr  (May Allāh be pleased with him) said: “O Messenger of Allāh ﷺ ! May my mother and father be sacrificed for you! Those who are called from these gates will stand in need of nothing. However, will anybody be called from all of those gates?” ”

He means that one being called by anyone of these doors would certainly not suffer any diminution or loss. This statement brings alertness to the fact that very few people will be called from all those gates.

The one who has all those actions to his account is called from all the doors is an expression of merit, but entrance will nevertheless occur from only one door . That door is likely to be the one corresponding to the action which was most dominant for that person.

In this same context, one should not be confused by the ḥadīth of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim which says “Whoever performs ablution and does so most adequately, and then says I bear witness that there is no deity but Allāh…” and then it mentions “then the eight doors of paradise will open and he may enter from whichever one he choses”. The takeaway from this ḥadīth is that the doors are opened in this instance as a sign of esteem. One will nonetheless only enter through the door corresponding to their most abundant action.

Al-Zarkashī explains: “It is possible that the paradise is a fortress with embedded walls, and each wall would have its own door. Some will be called from the first door only, while others will be made to skip to the first door and taken to the interior door. So on and so forth…”.

“He replied, “Yes, and I hope that you will be one of them.” ”

The ʿulamāʾ explain: “Hope from Allāh and His Nabī ﷺ unequivocally comes to realization”.

The author-Imām Nawawī-explains: among the things which are inferred from this ḥadīth is the virtue of Abū-Bakar , and the permissibility of praising a person in their presence as long as a tribulation is not feared for them such as them becoming fond of themselves.

 وعن سهل بن سعدٍ رضي الله عنه عن النبي ﷺ، قال: “إن في الجنة باباً يُقالُ له: الريانُ، يدخلُ منه الصائمون يوم القيامة، لا يدخلُ منه أحدٌ غيرهم، يقالُ: أين الصائمون؟ فيقومون لا يدخل منه أحدٌ غيرهم، فإذا دخلوا أُغلق فلم يدخل منه أحدٌ” متفقٌ عليه().

Sahl bin-Saʿd  (May Allāh be pleased with him) narrates:

The Prophet ﷺ said, “In paradise there is a gate which is called Al-Rayyān through which only those who observe fasting will enter on the Day of Resurrection. No one else will enter through it. It will be called out, “Where are those who observe fasting?” so they will stand up and no one else will enter through it. When the last of them will have entered, the gate will be closed and then no one will enter through that gate.”

Narrated by Bukhārī and Muslim.

“The Prophet ﷺ said, “In paradise there is a gate which is called Al-Rayyān”

The significance of the name Rayyān i.e the one who is satiated/quenched has been explained earlier. One may add here that being satiated has been used to also signify that one’s hunger is satisfied, because they clearly go hand-in-hand.

“Through which only those who observe fasting will enter on the Day of Resurrection”

The mention of the day of resurrection is because that is when this will occur. It can also be said that it’s to differentiate from the souls of the martyrs and those of the believers which enter paradise during the duration of this lowly world, without it being contingent upon the action of fasting.

“No one else will enter through it. It will be called out, “Where are those who observe fasting?” so they will stand up and no one else will enter through it. When they have entered, the gate will be closed and then no one will enter through that gate. ”

The narration of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim mentions “when the last one of them will have entered”.

The repetition of the fact that no one else will enter through it is done for emphasis. The wording of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim is also narrated by Ibn Abī-Shayba in his Musnad, Abū-Nuʿaym in his Mustakhraj, Ibn-Khuzayma, and Al-Nasāʾī. Al-Nasāʾī added: “Whoever enters will never ever experience thirst again”.

Both Bukhārī and Muslim narrated this ḥadīth in the chapter of fasting.

وعن أبي سعيد الخدري، رضي الله عنه، قال: قال رسول الله ﷺ: “ما من عبدٍ يصومُ يوماً في سبيل الله إلا باعد الله بذلك اليوم وجههُ عن النار سبعين خريفاً()” متفقٌ عليه().

Abu Saʿīd Al-Khudrī  (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, “There is no slave of Allāh who observes fasting for one day in the way of Allāh, except that Allah will detach his face from hell-fire to the extent of a distance to be covered in seventy years. ”

Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, “There is no slave of Allāh”

Meaning no legally responsible individual, and what will be mentioned next is true for both men and women. This is substantiated by the fact that a narration of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim does not specify a gender “Whoever fasts a day in the way of Allāh, He detaches their face from the hell-fire for a distance of seventy years”.

“Who observes fasting for one day in the way of Allāh”

Meaning in the obedience of Allāh.

“Except that Allāh will detach his face from hell-fire to the extent of a distance to be covered in seventy years.”

Meaning for the duration of a journey lasting seventy years.

وعن أبي هريرة، رضي الله عنه، عن النبي ﷺ، قال: “من صام رمضان إيماناً واحتساباً، غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه” متفقٌ عليه().

Abū-Hurayra (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Prophet ﷺ said, “He who observes the fast of the month of Ramaḍān with faith and reflecting upon its reward, will have his past sins forgiven.”

Narrated by Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“The Prophet ﷺ said, “He who observes the fast of the month of Ramaḍan with faith”

Meaning in a mental state where one affirms the truth of the reward related regarding it.

“And reflecting upon its reward”

Reflecting upon it and seeking thereby Allāh’s countenance [i.e His pleasure].

“Will have his past sins forgiven.”

Al-Nasāʾī and Aḥmad both add in a fine [ḥadīth ḥasan] narration, “and future sins”.
The sins which are forgiven on account of acts of obedience are those minor sins which relate to Allāh’s rights.

Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting. Hadiths 1-2

Support Our Dawah for Just $2 a Month

MuslimMatters has been a free service to the community since 2007. All it takes is a small gift from a reader like you to keep us going, for just $2 / month.

The Prophet (SAW) has taught us the best of deeds are those that done consistently, even if they are small. Click here to support MuslimMatters with a monthly donation of $2 per month. Set it and collect blessings from Allah (swt) for the khayr you're supporting without thinking about it.

Continue Reading
.
.
.
.

MuslimMatters NewsLetter in Your Inbox

Sign up below to get started

.
Ads by Muslim Ad Network
.
.
.

Trending

you're currently offline