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The Inauguration of Ignorance Impedes The Eradication of Extremism  

President Donald J. Trump wants to unite the world against what he calls “Radical Islamic Terrorism”, but by his own admission, he has yet to figure out “what the hell is going” when it comes to why such violence is occurring. He doesn’t exactly possess a sophisticated understanding of the political, social, psychological and ideological factors behind contemporary terrorism. Of course, this has not prevented him or other Islamophobic allies from rallying around a common agenda of attributing violence to the faith itself and promoting discrimination of Muslims.  Last month, the Washington Post published an article entitled “Trump’s coming war against Islam”, outlining the central dogma of Stephen Bannon, Michael Flynn, Jeff Sessions, and other Trump’s appointees  – that Islam itself is an enemy to western Judaeo-Christian civilization, and the cause of terrorism.

The notion of countering radicalism and religious violence is frequently used as the pretext for targeting Muslims and directing venomous attacks at their faith identity, Islam. But what seems to be missing is any intellectual discourse which factually examines the causes of violent movements, including modern religious violence, and analyzes how these ideologies develop. In an effort to rectify the contemporary discourse and educate on the subject, the Yaqeen Institute recently published a comprehensive review entitled, “Forever on Trial – Islam and the charge of violence“. This study explores the complex factors underlying ideological violence, the manipulation of religious terms and texts by radical groups, and provides an evidence-based demonstration of Islam’s clear denunciation of violence. The Islamic teachings on the subject are epitomized for example by the following verses in the Quran which Islamophobes and extremists alike ignore:

مَنْ قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا

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….Whoever kills a soul, it is as if he has slain all humanity (5:32)

وقاتلوا في سبيل الله الذين يقاتلونكم ولا تعتدوا إن الله لا يحب المعتدين

Fight only those who fight you and do not commit aggression (2:190)

Violent movements will exploit any ideology to serve their agenda

Is Islam itself the cause of religious violence, or do terrorists opportunistically exploit religion to service their own agenda? The first point worth noting is that violence can be and has been perpetrated on the basis of numerous creeds and ideologies. Consider a violent Christian cult like the Lord’s Resistance Army in Uganda, which had kidnapped over 66,000 children by 2005 forcing many to become child soldiers or sex slaves, or the violence perpetrated by the Soviet regime in the name of eradicating religion and replacing it with “militant atheism“, or the ethnic-based violence seen in the Rwandan genocide, or the nationalism that fuelled World War 1, etc.

It is not the religious or secular content of an ideology that spawns violence, but rather it is the infusion of xenophobic ideas which terrorists use to dehumanize the outsider and permit atrocities against their victims.

There are many reasons for the emergence and proliferation of violent movements. Sociologists point to the impact of decades of warfare and despotic dictators and the vulnerability of a brutalized population; political scientists point to the influence of leaders and ideologues in mobilizing the population against a system perceived to have failed its people; and psychologists focus on the profile of those recruited, identifying factors like social isolation and alienation. In order to have an intelligent conversation on the subject, all of these factors must be considered rather than a reductionistic approach which attempts to blame everything on religion. Like a combustion triangle which depicts the prerequisites of fire – air, heat, and fuel – the proliferation of extremists movements depends on political turmoil, fanatical ideas, and a population whose suffering can be exploited.

Just because Terrorists call themselves Islamic doesn’t mean they are

Although the same five-letter word ‘Islam’ is used by both the terrorists and the global faith community of 1.6 billion Muslims, that doesn’t mean they are referring to the same thing. By insisting on using the label ‘Islam’ for terrorists, media pundits and politicians insist on lumping criminals together with one fifth of the world’s population.

The fact of the matter is, there is a clearly discernible extremist ideology that permeates radical groups, and it is composed of ideas that are anti-thetical to Islamic teachings, with many ideas that would be regarded as pure mythology from the standpoint of mainstream Islamic theology.  By perseverating on the word ‘Islam’, pundits ignore these critical doctrines which set violent movements apart from mainstream Muslims. So what are the hallmarks of the ideology of modern-day groups like ISIS? Their mythology may be summarized as comprising five key pillars:

  1. Caliphal Utopianism
  2. Dehumanization in the name of Walaa’ wal-Baraa’
  3. Takfeerism
  4. Totalitarian “Jihad”
  5. Apocalypticism

Each of these doctrines has been explained in detail in the Yaqeen study, “Forever on Trial – Islam and the Charge of Violence”.

For mainstream Muslims, their understanding of Islam is epitomized by the Qur’anic instructions to respond with peace in the face of hostility (25:63) and to treat with compassion and justice those who do not fight you (60:8). The Prophet Muhammad said to “Show compassion to all those on earth” and to “Donate in charity to people of all faiths” (as recorded in al-Tirmidhi and Ibn Abi Shaybah, respectively).

On the other hand, terrorists reject the aforementioned ethical values of the Islamic faith, of compassion and justice. They have taken the vocabulary of Islam but redefined the words ‘Jihad’, ‘Shari’ah’, etc, in order to construct a totalitarian ideology of xenophobia and dehumanization.

The word ‘Shari’ah’ actually refers to a path towards God which has five aims – the preservation of faith, life, intellect, family and property. Far from the perverse caricature on television, the Shari’ah cannot be interpreted in manners that are cruel, unjust, or bereft of wisdom, as explained by the classical theologian Ibn al-Qayyim. A recent study by Yaqeen Institute has also shed light on the way portions of the Shari’ah, like the Hudood laws, have been misrepresented in western culture.

The word ‘Jihad’ refers to an effort exerted for the sake of coming closer to God and caring for His creation; physical force is only permitted for the sake of repelling oppression or aggression on the part of others (Qur’an 22:39-40). Yaqeen Institute has also published on the concept of Jihad and how it has been misrepresented by extremists and Islamophobes alike.

All of this goes to show why the popular suggestion to interrogate Muslims on their support for terms like ‘Shari’ah’ and ‘Jihad’ makes absolutely no sense – it assumes and legitimizes the definitions assigned to these terms by criminals and terrorists.

The way forward

Can education and facts correct virulent hatred and ignorance? It may be too much to hope for, particularly in an era of ‘post-truth politics’ and alternative facts where people would much rather be surrounded by myths that reinforce their opinions than truths that challenge their bigotry. Nevertheless, the way forward is to collectively support educational efforts that foster the values of love and respect for all human beings.

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3 Comments

3 Comments

  1. Avatar

    Kristy

    January 24, 2017 at 11:45 PM

    I do not understand why Muslims rarely quote the entire thought of 005.032 and 005.033 which reads:

    005.032 “On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if any one slew a person – unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land – it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. Then although there came to them Our messengers with clear signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit excesses in the land”
    005.033
    “The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter”

    Peace.

    • Avatar

      Ibn Adam

      January 25, 2017 at 10:30 AM

      Shalom Kristy

      You quoted Qur’an 5:32-33 and put forth the argument that why Muslims don’t put it in context. I am very glad that you started taking verse in context. I hope you keep this momentum and do justice while quoting Qur’an which christians seldom does.

      Now let’s understand in context.

      The above verse states that if any person were to kill another human, if not for murder or corruption (mischief) it is as if killing whole of humanity. The shedding of blood is prohibited in Islam, unless it be for spreading mischief. The mischief in the Quran entails murder, armed robbery and rape, as the next verse (5:33) states.This verse (5:33) is often quoted by some that it sanctions the killing of innocents. This in reality is not true.In order to understand this particular verse (5:33), we have to go back to Prophet Muhammad’s life-time, with the historical sources available to us, and find out how it was interpreted by the Muslims then.

      I hope this link helps you

      https://discover-the-truth.com/2016/03/18/those-who-wage-war-and-make-mischief-quran-533/

  2. Avatar

    Kawthar

    January 25, 2017 at 10:28 PM

    Excellent article. It is so refreshing to hear a Muslim perspective on Trump’s latest explosive statement. May Allah protect us from those who would wish us evil and grant us the strength to stand up for what’s right

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#Society

Shaykh Seraj Hendricks: An Obituary

This article was originally published at Al-Madinah Institute.

 

An internationally recognised Islamic scholar, who saw spirituality, justice, and knowledge as integral to an authentic religious existence.

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Shaykh Seraj Hendricks, who passed away on the 9th of July 2020 at the age of 64, was a scholar of international repute, able to communicate and engage on the level of state leaders, religious scholars and the broader public. As a scion of one of the most prominent Islamic institutions in South Africa and internationally, who also spent a decade studying at the hands of the most prominent of Makkan scholars, he not only inherited a grand bequest, but expanded that legacy’s impact worldwide. In particular, he upheld a normative understanding of Islam, embedded in a tradition stretching back more than a millennium – but deeply cognisant of the needs of the age, including the need to strive to make the world a better place.

Shaykh Seraj Hendricks was a high school English teacher between 1980 and 1982 in Cape Town before leaving for Saudi Arabia in 1983 to study at the Umm al-Qura University in Makka. Before this, he spent many years studying particularly at the feet of his illustrious uncle, the late Shaykh Mahdi Hendricks – erstwhile Life President of the Muslim Judicial Council and widely regarded as one of the foremost scholars of Islam in southern Africa – as well as his father, Imam Hassan Hendricks.

Shaykh Seraj Hendricks studied the Islamic sciences for more than a decade in the holy city of Makka, spending three years at the Arabic Language Institute in Makka studying Arabic and related subjects, before being accepted for the BA (Hons) Islamic Law degree. He specialised in fiqh and usul al-fiqh in the Faculty of Shariʿa of Umm al-Qura University and graduated in 1992. Shaykh Seraj took ijazat from both the late Sayyid Ahmad Mashur al-Haddad and Sayyid ʿAbd al-Qadir b. Ahmad al-Saqqaf, as well as his extensive time spent with the likes of Shaykh Hasan Mashhat and others. These scholars are all known as some of the pre-eminent ‘ulama of the ummah in the 20th century, worldwide.

Additionally, he obtained a full ijaza in the religious sciences from his primary teacher, the muḥaddith of the Hijaz, the distinguished al-Sayyid Muhammad b. ʿAlawi al-Maliki, master of the Ṭarīqa ʿUlamaʿ Makka – the (sufi) path of the Makkan scholars. Together with his brother, the esteemed Shaykh Ahmad Hendricks, Shaykh Seraj and I wrote a book on this approach to Sufism entitled, “A Sublime Way: the Sufi Path of the Sages of Makka”. Alongside his brother, he became the representative (khalifa) of the aforementioned muhaddith of the Hijaz.

Further to his religious education, Shaykh Seraj was also actively engaged in the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa during the 80’s and early 90’s, alongside the likes of figures like Ambassador Ebrahim Rasool, comrade of Nelson Mandela, and the renowned journalist, Shafiq Morton. His commitments to furthering justice meant insistence on expressing constant opposition to injustice, while fiercely maintaining the independence of the institution and community he pledged himself to his entire life. At a time when different forces in Muslim communities worldwide try to instrumentalise religious figures for partisan political gain, Shaykh Seraj showed another, arguably far more Prophetic, model.

The shaykh also was keenly supportive of the rights of women, whom he saw as important to empower and cultivate as religious figures themselves. His students, of which there were many thousands over the years, included many women at various levels of expertise. I know it was his wish that they would rise to higher and higher levels, and he took a great deal of interest in trying to train them accordingly, aware that many unnecessary obstacles stood in their way.

After his return to Cape Town he received an MA (Cum Laude) for his dissertation: “Tasawwuf (Sufism) – Its Role and Impact on the Culture of Cape Islam” from the University of South Africa (UNISA), which is currently being prepared for publication as a book. He translated works of Imam al-Ghazali, and summarised parts of the Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihyaʾ ʿUlum al-Din), most notably in the Travelling Light series, together with Shaykhs ʿAbdal Hakim Murad and Yahya Rhodus.

Some of his previous positions included being the head of the Muslim Judicial Council’s Fatwa Committee (which often led to him being described as the ‘Mufti of Cape Town’), lecturer in fiqh at the Islamic College of Southern Africa (ICOSA), and lecturer in the Study of Islam at the University of Johannesburg (UJ). He was a member of the Stanlib Shariʿa Board, chief arbitrator (Hakim) of the Crescent Observer’s Society, and was listed consecutively in the Muslim500 from 2009 to 2020. He was also appointed Dean of the Madina Institute in South Africa, a recognised institution of higher learning in South Africa and part of the world Madina Institute seminaries led by Shaykh Dr Muhammad Ninowy. Shaykh Seraj was also appointed as professor at the International Peace University of South Africa, holding the Maqasid Chair for Graduate Studies.

Apart from fiqh and usul al-fiqh, some of Shaykh Seraj’s primary interests are in Sufism, Islamic civilisation studies, interfaith matters, gender studies, socio-political issues and related ideas of pluralism and identity. He lectured and presented papers in many countries, sharing platforms with his contemporaries. Shaykh Seraj taught a variety of Islamic-related subjects at Azzawia Institute in Cape Town, where he was its resident Shaykh, together with his brother Shaykh Ahmad Hendricks. His classes showed an encyclopaedic knowledge that was rooted in the tradition, while completely conversant with the modern age.

But beyond his classes, he was a pastoral figure to many – a community made of thousands – whom he gave himself completely to, in service of the religion, and counselling them as a khidma (service), with mahabba (love), in accordance with the Prophetic model. Many urged him to restrain himself in this way, fearing for his health, which suffered a great deal in his final years as a result – but he saw it as his duty.

The Shaykh was an international figure, a teacher to thousands, and an adviser to multitudes. Many today ask the question as to why ‘ulama truly matter, seeing as it seems so many of them can be compromised by different forces in pursuit of injustice, rigidness and petty partisanship. Such a question will not be asked by those who knew Shaykh Seraj, for in him they saw a concern for spirituality, not paltry political gain, and a commitment to justice and wisdom, not oppression or slogans. In him, many saw, and will continue to see hope for an Islamic commitment to scholarship that seeks to make the world a better place, rising to the challenge of maintaining their values of mercy and compassion, and exiting the world in dignity.

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#Current Affairs

Oped: The Treachery Of Spreading Bosnia Genocide Denial In The Muslim Community

The expanding train of the Srebrenica genocide deniers includes the Nobel laureate Peter Handke, an academic Noam Chomsky, the Serbian Prime Minister Ana Brnabić, as well as almost all Serbian politicians in Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. One name in this group weirdly stands out: “Sheikh” Imran Hosein. A traditionally trained Muslim cleric from Trinidad and Tobago, Hosein has carved his niche mostly with highly speculative interpretations of Islamic apocalyptic texts. He has a global following with more than 200 hundred thousand subscribers to his YouTube channel, and his videos are viewed by hundreds of thousands. He has written tens of books in English, some of which had been translated into major world languages. His denial of the Srebrenica genocide may seem outlandish, coming from a Muslim scholar, but a close inspection of his works reveals ideas that are as disturbing as they are misleading.

Much of Hosain’s output centers around interpreting the apocalyptic texts from the Qur’an and Sunnah on the “end of times” (akhir al-zaman). As in other major religious traditions, these texts are highly allegorical in nature and nobody can claim with certainty their true meaning – nobody, except Imran Hosein. He habitually dismisses those who disagree with his unwarranted conclusions by accusing them of not thinking properly. A Scottish Muslim scholar, Dr. Sohaib Saeed, also wrote about this tendency.

In his interpretations, the Dajjal (“anti-Christ”) is American-Zionist alliance (the West or the NATO), the Ottomans were oppressors of the Orthodox Christians who are, in turn, rightfully hating Islam and Muslims, Sultan Mehmed Fatih was acting on “satanic design” when he conquered Constantinople, the terrorist attacks of 9/11 were a false flag operation carried out by the Mossad and its allies, and – yes! – the genocide did not take place in Srebrenica. Such conspiratorial thinking is clearly wrong but is particularly dangerous when dressed in the garb of religious certainty. 

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Hosain frequently presents his opinions as the “Islamic” view of things. His methodology consists of mixing widely accepted Muslim beliefs with his own stretched interpretations. The wider audience may not be as well versed in Islamic logic of interpretation so they may not be able to distinguish between legitimate Muslim beliefs and Hosain’s own warped imagination. In one of his fantastic interpretations, which has much in common with the Christian apocalypticism, the Great War that is nuclear in nature is coming and the Muslims need to align with Russia against the American-Zionist alliance. He sees the struggle in Syria as part of a wider apocalyptic unfolding in which Assad and Putin are playing a positive role. He stretches the Qur’anic verses and Prophetic sayings to read into them fanciful and extravagant interpretations that are not supported by any established Islamic authority.

Hosain does not deny that a terrible massacre happened in Srebrenica. He, however, denies it was a genocide, contradicting thus numerous legal verdicts by international courts and tribunals. Established by the United Nations’ Security Council, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) delivered a verdict of genocide in 2001 in the case of the Bosnian Serb General Radislav Krstić. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Hague confirmed, in 2007, that genocide took place in Srebrenica. In 2010, two more Bosnian Serb officers were found guilty of committing genocide in Bosnia. The butcher of Srebrenica, Ratko Mladić, was found guilty of genocide in 2017.

In spite of this, and displaying his ignorance on nature and definition of genocide, Hosain stated in an interview with the Serbian media, “Srebrenica was not a genocide. That would mean the whole Serbian people wanted to destroy the whole Muslim people. That never happened.” In a meandering and offensive video “message to Bosnian Muslims” in which he frequently digressed to talking about the end of times, Hosain explained that Srebrenica was not a genocide and that Muslims of Bosnia needed to form an alliance with the Orthodox Serbs. He is oblivious to the fact that the problems in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in the former Yugoslavia stem not from the Bosniaks’ purported unwillingness to form an alliance with the Serbs, but from the aggressive Greater Serbia ideology which had caused misery and destruction in Bosnia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Kosovo. 

Hosein’s views are, of course, welcome in Serbia and in Republika Srpska (Serb-dominated entity within Bosnia), where almost all politicians habitually deny that genocide took place in Srebrenica. He had been interviewed multiple times on Serbian television, where he spewed his views of the Ottoman occupation and crimes against the Serbs, the need to form an alliance between Muslims and Russia, and that Srebrenica was not a genocide. His website contains only one entry on Srebrenica: a long “exposé” that claims no genocide took place in Srebrenica. Authored by two Serbs, Stefan Karganović and Aleksandar Pavić, the special report is a hodge-podge of conspiracy theories, anti-globalization and anti-West views. Karganović, who received more than a million dollars over a six year period from the government of the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska for lobbying efforts in Washington, was recently convicted by the Basic Court in Banja Luka on tax evasion and defamation. The Court issued a warrant for Karganović’s arrest but he is still on the loose. 

True conspirators of the Srebrenica killings, according to Hosain, are not the Serbian political and military leaders, and soldiers who executed Srebrenica’s Muslims. The conspirators are unnamed but it does not take much to understand that he believes that the massacres were ultimately orchestrated by the West, CIA, and NATO. Hosain even stated on the Serbian TV that if people who knew the truth were to come forward they would be executed to hide what really happened. Such opinions are bound to add to an already unbearable pain that many survivors of the Srebrenica genocide are experiencing. It is even more painful when Bosniak victims – who were killed because they were Muslims – are being belittled by an “Islamic” scholar who seems to be more interested in giving comfort to those who actually perpetrated the heinous crime of genocide than in recognizing the victims’ pain. These views are, of course, welcome in Serbia, Russia, and Greece.

It is not difficult to see why Hosain’s views would be popular in today’s day and age where misinformation and fake news are propagated even by the world leaders who should know better. A conspiratorial mindset, mistrust of established facts, undermining of international institutions – these are all hallmarks of the post-truth age. In another time, Imran Hosain would be easily exposed for what he truly is: a charlatan who claims religious expertise. Today, however, his opinions are amplified by social media and by the people who already question science and established facts. For these reasons, he needs to be unmasked to safeguard the very religious foundations which he claims to uphold but ultimately undermines. 

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#Life

A Festival Amidst a Pandemic: How to Give Your Kids an Eid ul-Adha to Remember

Eid ul-Adha is less than 3 weeks away!  This year, more than ever, we want to welcome Eid ul-Adha with a full heart and spirit, insha’Allah, despite the circumstances we are in with the global pandemic.

If you follow me on social media, you probably know that my husband and I host an open house brunch for Eid ul-Adha, welcoming over 125 guests into our home. It’s a party our Muslim and non-Muslim neighbors, friends, and family look forward to being invited to each year. It’s a time to come together as a community, share heart-felt conversations, have laughs, chow down lots of delicious food, and exchange gifts. Kids participate in fun crafts, decorate cookies, and receive eidi. The reality is that we cannot keep up with the tradition this year.

Despite social distancing, we have decided that we will continue to lift our spirits and switch our summer décor to Eid décor, and make it the best Eid for our family and our child. We want to instill the love of Islam in my daughter and make the Islamic festivals a real part of her life. We want to create warm Eid memories, and COVID-19 isn’t going to stop us from doing that. I really hope you plan to do the same.

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Here are 4 ideas to inspire you to bring that festive spirit alive for your family this Eid ul-Adha:

Hajj and Eid ul-Adha themed activities and crafts

There are so many activities to keep the little ones engaged, but having a plan for Eid-ul-Adha with some key activities that your child will enjoy, makes the task so much easier.

Kids love stories, and for us parents this is a great way to get a point across. Read to them about hajj in an age appropriate way. If you don’t have Hajj and Eid-ul-Adha related books, you can get started with this Hajj book list. Read together about the significance and the Islamic traditions of hajj, and the story of how zamzam was discovered. While you teach them the story of the divine sacrifice of Ibrahim 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him), ask relatable questions. As a lesson from the story, give your child examples of how they can sacrifice their anger, bad behavior, etc. during this season of sacrifice for the sake of Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He). Ask your children how they would feel if they had to give away their favorite toys, so that they can comprehend the feeling.

Counting down the 10 days of Dhul Hijjah to Eid ul-Adha is another fun activity to encourage kids to do a good deed every day. Have different fun and education activities planned for these 10 days.

Family memories are made through baking together. In our household, Eid cannot pass without baking cookies together and sharing with friends and family. Bake and decorate Eid ul-Adha themed cookies in the shape of a masjid, camel, or even lamb, and share with the neighbors one day, and color in Islamic wooden crafts the next. This DIY Ka’bah craft is a must for us to make every year while learning about the Ka’bah, and it’s an easy craft you can try with your family. Have the kids save their change in this cute masjid money box that they can donate on the day of Eid.

Decorate the main family areas

We are all going to be missing visiting friends and relatives for Eid breakfast, lunch, and dinner this year, so why not jazz things up a bit more at home than usual?

Start decorating the areas of your home that you frequently occupy.  Brighten up the living area, and/or main hallway with a variety of star and masjid-shaped lights, festive lanterns, and Eid garlands, to emphasize that Eid has indeed arrived. Perhaps, decorate a tent while you tell your children about the tent city of Mina.

Prep the dining room as if you are having Guests Over

Set up the breakfast table as if you are having family and friends over for Eid breakfast.

These times will be the special moments you spend together eating as a family. Now, with all hands on deck, plan to get everyone involved to make it a full-on affair. What specific tasks can the little ones take on to feel included as part of the Eid prep and get excited?

While the Eid table set-up itself can be simple, the moments spent around the table sharing in new traditions and engaging in prayer will insha’Allah be even more meaningful and memorable.

 An afternoon picnic

Family picnics are a perfect way for family members to relax and connect. If Texas weather permits, we may take advantage of a cool sunny day with a picnic at a nearby, shady park. With the heat wave we are experiencing, it may either not happen or will be an impromptu one.

Out of all the picnics, it’s the impromptu family meals on the lawn or at a park that I love the most. The ones where we grab an old quilt, basket, light meals, fresh fruits and venture out into the backyard or a nearby park. It’ll be a perfect socially distanced Eid picnic.

Eid ul-Adha comes around just once a year, so let’s strive to make the best of it for our children, even amidst this global pandemic.

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