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UAE Forum Silencing Populations With Legitimate Grievances

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by Amir Aboguddah

The UAE’s Forum for Promoting Peace in Muslim Societies released its most recent statement urging Muslim populations to refrain from any call for democracy if they want to live in peace. As many can see, the statement is disappointing as it essentially tells Muslims to accept the tyranny of their autocrats (unless they want to live in chaos and bloodshed). Problematically, it places the onus of preserving peace on populations rather than governments (whose main job is to preserve peace) and gives oppressive governments a pass on all of their egregious and horrific violations while asking populations to waive their rights. Even more disturbing is the fact that this argument was given an Islamic garb. The religious justification for the claim that “a call for democracy is a call for war” must be addressed as it is – with all due respect- flawed and ignores the clear Islamic tradition which encourages non-violent opposition to tyranny. Islam cannot be used as a tool by which to silence populations with legitimate grievances.

The Forum for Promoting Peace in Muslims Societies published its more recent document stating:

“In societies that are not ready, the call for democracy is essentially a call for war…Our Sharī‘ah goes to great lengths to avoid bloodshed and to maintain harmony and serenity, and our tradition teaches us that reform is preferable to revolution, as revolution brings destruction without offering solutions. History has taught us that damage to humans is very different from damage to structures. Reform is also more familiar to Arab and Islamic cultures.”[i]

Problematically, the statement equates the mere call for democracy with revolution and, consequently, suggests that it will inevitably cause bloodshed. One wonders: If a simple “call” for something is equal to revolution, then what does reform look like? Isn’t a “call” for change the practical definition of “reform” (which the Forum claims to prefer)? If a “call” for democracy is equal to revolution, thus removing that option off the table, what other options do Muslims have to exercise the power of “reform”? Nothing. The Forum has drawn a false image where there are only two options on the table, tyranny and bloodshed (with tyranny being the preferred choice).

With all due respect to the scholars that participated in the Forum and without questioning any intentions, the Forum’s statement does not seem consistent with the Islamic tradition which has clearly encouraged Muslims to hold their leaders accountable and demand change when it is needed. The Forum is correct in that the Sharia avoids bloodshed and that Muslims scholars, over the centuries, have shown an aversion to revolution due to the bloodshed and destruction it causes. However, those same scholars drew a clear distinction (which the Forum seems to ignore) between armed revolution and non-violent opposition to those in authority. A faithful reading of the Islamic tradition reveals not only that Muslims have the right to oppose those in power and hold them accountable, but that they have the duty to do so. Engaging in such action is not the same as engaging in armed rebellion.

Any Muslim with a rudimentary knowledge of his/her faith knows that every Muslim has a duty to perform ‘amr bil-maarouf (enjoining the good) and nahi ‘an al-munkar (forbidding the evil).[ii] A Muslim is commanded to change the munkar (evil) by either taking physical action, speaking up against it or, at least, rejecting it with one’s heart.[iii] It may occur to some that this duty only applies between individuals and that it doesn’t apply to the relationship between subjects and rulers, especially in light of the many hadiths that demand obedience to “those in authority”. However, the Prophet Muhammed ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him)  —the same man who commanded Muslims to pay heed to those in authority— praised the one who stands up to a tyrannical leader by commanding him (i.e the ruler) to do good and forbidding him from doing evil. According to the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him), a person killed by a tyrant after commanding him to do good and forbidding him from doing evil is “the master of martyrs”, equating him with his martyred uncle (Hamza raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him)). Interestingly, the words used in this Hadith, ‘amr and nahi (i.e commanding (the good) and forbidding (the evil) respectively), are the same words used in the Quran to describe the duty of Muslims to enjoin the good and forbid the evil.

The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) also declared:

The best Jihad is a word of justice in front of an oppressive ruler.[iv]

Our Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) clearly encouraged Muslims to change evil and to speak truth to power. The Prophet promises immense reward and a noble status to the one who opposes tyrannical rulers. How can the Islamic tradition encourage such behaviour while at the same time, according to the Forum, view a mere call for accountability and human dignity as a call for war? It is either that the Islamic tradition draws a clear line between revolution and non-violent demands by citizens, or that the Islamic tradition is internally inconsistent.

As a result, Muslim jurists have often drawn a distinction between ‘amr bil-maarouf wal nahi ‘an al-munkar and al-khurouj bil-sayf (rebelling with the sword).[v] The former is encouraged while the latter is, according to many (but not all) scholars, prohibited. Muslims are not only free to speak up against the tyranny of those in authority, but they are also permitted to refuse to carry out their unjust policies and to physically undo their actions, as these forms of conduct do not constitute rebellion.[vi]

This is evident in how Muslim scholars dealt with the tyrannical rulers of their time. Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة الله was called upon by the Ummayads to endorse a clamp-down on an uprising. Abu Hanifah defied the demands of the Ummayad governor and declared, “If he ordered me to count for him the doors of the mosque I wouldn’t comply. So how can I comply when he wants me to endorse his command to strike the throat of a Muslim?!”. Abu Hanifah was consequently detained and beaten for days.[vii]

The Imam remained equally true to his principles after the Abbassids overthrew the Ummayads. As part of his effort to secure his rule, Al-Mansur, the Abbasid Caliph, made the people of Mosul pledge allegiance to him and that their blood would be “lawful” if they break their pledge; essentially, they had to pledge their lives as collateral. When the people of Mosul broke their pledge, Al-Mansur, moved to act on the “agreement”. Abu Hanifah defied the Caliph and told him: “They pledged to you that which they do not have [i.e the right to contract their life away] and you took from them a pledge which you cannot take.”[viii]

More importantly, not only did Imam Abu Hanifah رحمة الله  voice opposition to the rulers of his time and refuse to obey or endorse their commands, he also supported armed rebellion against them. The Imam financially supported the uprising of Zaid Ibn Ali against Ummayad rule and also encouraged people to stand with the uprising.[ix] Similarly, and after becoming disillusioned with the rule of the Abbassids, he voiced support for the uprising of Muhammed Al-Nafs Al- Zakiyyah against the Caliph Al-Mansur and instructed one of Al-Mansur’s military men to refrain from fighting Al-Nafs Al-Zakiyyah. As a result, Abu Hanifah was imprisoned and remained in prison until his death.[x] Although I do not aim to make an argument about the permissibility of armed rebellion, I make mention of this in order to show that if Abu Hanifa was willing to support armed rebellion, then, a fortiori, anything short of that is certainly more permissible.

This is also a good time to note that the debate on the permissibility of armed revolution is a nuanced and unsettled debate. Any claim that armed revolution is categorically impressible is simply false. However, that is an issue for another time.

Imam Malik ibn Anas رحمة الله was also detained and tortured during the reign of Al-Mansur for supporting the uprising of Al-Nafs Al-Zakiyyah. People came to the Imam asking him if they can pledge allegiance of Al-Nafs Al-Zakiyyah despite having already made a pledge to Al- Mansur. The Imam said: “You were compelled to pledge allegiance. And no compelled person can be held to a pledge.”[xi]

Imam Izzideen ibn Abdulsalam رحمة الله serves as another striking example. While in his hometown, Damascus, Ibn Abdulsalam learned that the King of Damascus, Al-Saleh Ismail, formed an alliance with the Crusaders. He had agreed to sell them weapons (to be used in their crusade against the Egyptians), and surrendered to them a number of Muslim citadels. This angered Ibn Abdulsalam who declared, “It is forbidden upon you to sell to them [weapons] as you are certain that they purchase [these weapons[ to wage war against your brothers!” The Imam denounced the King from the pulpit of the largest mosque in Damascus. He was detained and, upon his release, he went into self-exile.[xii]

The Imam moved to Egypt where his bold opposition to rulers made an appearance. Ibn Abdulsalam became known as the “auctioneer of kings” because he demanded that the princes and generals of Egypt (the Mamluks) be auctioned off in the public market as slaves in order to establish their freedom (this raises a lot of questions, but that is another topic for another time).[xiii] He refused to give any legal effect to their decrees until the Mamluks complied with his demand. The Mamluks refused, prompting the Imam to pack his belongings and depart to the outskirts of the city. However, and after having attracted a large base of followers and supporters, the entire population followed him to the outskirts of the city in solidarity with their beloved Imam.[xiv] Fearing that their state would collapse, the princes and generals invited Ibn Abdulsalam back and complied with his order. The Imam was such a strong check against the power of kings and generals that upon his death, the ruling Sultan, Baybars, said in relief “Only now is my reign secure.”[xv]

All the above indicates that Muslims have the right — if not the duty— to serve as a check against the power of rulers, especially the tyrannical ones. They should be free to demand better forms of government. The words of the Prophet Muhammed ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) make clear that a Muslim is rewarded for his/her opposition to tyranny. This is further supported by the actions of prominent Islamic scholars who applied that teaching in their lives. Even if we are to accept the prohibition on armed rebellion (and that is certainly a reasonable conclusion), this does not force us to adopt the opposite extreme, which is acceptance and passiveness in the face of tyrannical governments. Non-violent defiance and opposition to tyrannical rulers cannot be equated with revolution. When Muslim populations call on their governments to free political prisoners, respect fundamental rights and freedoms, and allow for the public accountability of public officials, they are enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, as per the Prophet’s instructions.

The bloodshed is not caused by those who use their voices as the Prophet commanded. It is caused by those who respond to those voices with bombs and bullets.

Allah knows best.

Amir Aboguddah is a JD Candidate at the University of Toronto.

[i] https://drive.google.com/file/d/1TOts39QzfEg-QQGZ-I0WD731KlSy_nL7/view

[ii] See: Quran [Al-Imraan: 104,110]

[iii] Sahih Muslim, Kitab Al-Iman, Hadith no. 73.

[iv] Sunan Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith no.. 2174

[v] See: Ibn Rajab Al-Hanbali, Jami’ Al-‘Uloom Walhikam, p. 954

[vi] Ibid.

[vii] Al-Muwaffaq Al-Makki, Manaqib Abi Hanifa, p. 23 – 24.

[viii] Muhammed Abu Zahra, Tareekh Almathahib AlIslamiyyah p. 348-353.

[ix] Ibid.

[x] Ibid.

[xi] Ibid.

[xii] Tajuddin Abu Nasr Al-Subki, Tabaqat Al-Shafiyyah Al-Kubra, p, 243, vol 8.

[xiii] Muhammed Al-Zuhayli, Al-Izz Ibn Abdulsalam: Sultan Al-Ulamaa wa Ba’ii Al-Mulouk p. 179-183

[xiv] Ibid.

[xv] Ibid.

3 Comments

3 Comments

  1. Avatar

    Abu Musa

    December 26, 2018 at 7:55 AM

    An excellent piece – Jazakumullahu Khairan. Clarifies the misrepresentation of our Islamic tradition and even three misrepresention of facts and reality.

  2. Avatar

    khan

    January 1, 2019 at 1:00 PM

    All the rulers and systems in muslims world are remanence of colonial era and continue serve their interest in the region. Why these leaders keep telling if you change the current status-co in muslim world result will be ISIS ? Why can’t they see the return of Islam and work for it …

  3. Avatar

    DI

    January 2, 2019 at 10:37 PM

    Salam Amir,

    A couple of things.

    Abu Hanifa and Imam Malik were supporting viable alternatives from the Family of the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wasalam) to the existing leadership. It is not injustice they were fighting alone, but assisting those from the Prophetic Household which is a very serious albeit neglected duty. If we had individuals such as Muhammad al-Nafs al-Zakiyya or Zaid Ibn Ali around today…then the discussion might be different…

    It is naive to imagine Islamic scholars having the same success as Imam Izz-ud-Din. I don’t think Muslims follow their scholars that loyally in our time. Most scholars who would act thus, in our day, would disappear overnight. Case in point: Shaykh Salman al-Oudah. Where is he now? Now, imagine that happening to all the ulema present at the UAE Peace forum.

    I feel much of what is being written on MM is doing a disservice and harm to Islamic scholarship (including scholars who write on this website) than any harm done by the UAE Peace forum.

    Anyways, I blogged a number of other references from Islamic history worth reading.

    di.

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#Current Affairs

Why Israel Should Be ‘Singled Out’ For Its Human Rights Record

Unlike other countries, ordinary citizens are complicit in the perpetual crimes committed against defenseless Palestinians.

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Why is everyone so obsessed with Israel’s human rights abuses? From Saudi Arabia, to Syria, to North Korea to Iran. All these nations are involved in flagrant violations of human right, so why all the focus on Israel – ‘the only democracy in the Middle East’? Clearly, if you ignore these other violations and only focus on Israel, you must be anti-Semitic. What else could be your motivations for this double standard?

This is one of the most common contentions raised when Israel is criticized for its human rights record. I personally don’t believe in entertaining this question – it shouldn’t matter why an activist is choosing to focus on one conflict and not others. What matters are the facts being raised; putting into question the motives behind criticizing Israel is a common tactic to detract from the topic at hand. The conversation soon turns into some circular argument about anti-Semitism and the plight of the Palestinian people is lost. More importantly, this charge of having double standards is often disingenuous. For example, Representative Ihan Omar has been repeatedly accused of this recently and her motives have been called ‘suspicious’ – despite her vocal criticism of other countries, especially Saudi Arabia.

However, this point is so frequently brought up, I think that perhaps its time activists and critics simply own up to it. Yes – Israel should be singled out, for some very good reasons. These reasons relate to there being a number of unique privileges that the country enjoys; these allow it to get away with much of the abuses it commits. Human right activists thus must be extra vocal when comes to Israel as they have to overcome the unparalleled level of support for the country, particularly in the US and Canada. The following points summarize why Israel should in fact be singled out:

1) Ideological support from ordinary citizens

When Iran and North Korea commit human right abuses, we don’t have to worry about everyone from journalists to clerics to average students on campuses coming out and defending those countries. When most nations commit atrocities, our journalists and politicians call them out, sanctions are imposed, they are taking them to the International Court of Justice, etc. There are instruments in place to take care of other ‘rogue’ nations – without the need for intervention from the common man.

Israel, however, is unique in that it has traditionally enjoyed widespread ideological support, primarily from the Jewish community and Evangelical Christians, in the West. This support is a result of the historical circumstances and pseudo-religious ideology that drove the creation of the state in 1948. The successful spread of this nationalistic dogma for the last century means Israel can count on ordinary citizens from Western countries to comes to its defense. This support can come in the form of foreign enlistment to its military, students conducting campus activism, politicians shielding it from criticisms and journalists voluntarily writing in its support and spreading state propaganda.

This ideological and nationalistic attachment to the country is the prime reason why it is so incredibly difficult to have any kind of sane conversation about Israel in the public sphere – criticism is quickly seen as an attack on Jewish identity and interpreted as an ‘existential threat’ to the nation by its supporters. Any attempts to take Israel to account through standard means are thwarted because of the political backlash feared from the country’s supporters in the West.

2) Unconditional political support of a world superpower

The US is Israel’s most important and closest ally in the Middle-East. No matter what war crimes Israel commits, it can count on America to have its back. This support means the US will use its veto power to support Israel against actions of the UN Security Council, it will use its diplomatic influence to shield any punitive actions from other nations and it will use its military might to intervene if need be. The backing of the US is one of the main reasons why the Israeli occupation and expansion of the colonial settlement enterprise continues to this day without any repercussions.

While US support might be especially staunch for Israel, this factor is certainly not unique to the country. Any country which has this privilege, e.g. Saudi Arabia, should be under far great scrutiny for its human rights violations than others.

3)  Military aid and complicity of tax-payers

US tax-payers are directly paying for Israel to carry out its occupation of the Palestinian people.

Israel is the largest recipient of US-military aid – it receives an astonishing $3 billion dollars every year. This aid, according to a US congressional report, “has helped transform Israel’s armed forces into one of the most technologically sophisticated militaries in the world.”

Unlike other countries, ordinary citizens are complicit in the perpetual crimes committed against defenseless Palestinians. Activists and citizens thus have a greater responsibility to speak out against Israel as their government is paying the country to carry out its atrocities. Not only is this aid morally reprehensible, but it is also illegal under United States Leahy Laws.

4) The Israeli lobby

The Israeli lobby is one of the most powerful groups in Washington and is the primary force for ensuring continued US political support for the nation. It consists of an assortment of formal lobby groups (AIPAC, Christians United for Israel), think-thanks (Washington Institute for Near East Policy), political action committee or PACs, not-for-profit organizations (B’nai B’irth, American Jewish Congress, Stand for Israel) and media watchdogs (CAMERA, Honest Reporting). These organizations together exercise an incredible amount of political influence. They ensure that any criticism of Israel is either stifled or there are serious consequences for those who speak up. In 2018 alone, pro-Israel donors spent $22 million on lobbying for the country – far greater than any other nation. Pro-Israel lobbies similarly influence politics in other places such as the UK, Canada, and Europe.

5) One of the longest-running occupation in human history

This point really should be the first one on this list – and it is the only one that should matter. However, because of the unique privileges that Israel enjoys, it is hard to get to the crux of what it is actually doing. Israel, with U.S. support, has militarily occupied the Palestinian territories (West Bank, Gaza and East Jerusalem) since 1967. The belligerent occupation, over 50 years old, is one of the longest, bloodiest and brutal in human history.

Israel continues to steal land and build settler colonies the West Bank – in flagrant violation of international law. It has implemented a system of apartheid in these territories which is reminiscent of the racist regime of South Africa. The Gaza strip has been under an insufferable siege which has made the living conditions deplorable; it has been referred to the world’s largest ‘open-air prison’. In addition to this institutional oppression, crimes committed against Palestinians include: routinely killing civilian protesters, including teenagers and medics, torture of Palestinians and severe restrictions on the everyday movement of Palestinians.

The brutality, consistency and the duration for which Israel has oppressed Palestinians is alone enough reason for it being ‘singled out’. No other nation comes close to its record. However, for the reasons mentioned above, Israel’s propaganda machine has effectively painted itself as just another ‘liberal democracy’ in the eyes of the general public. Any attempt to bring to light these atrocities are met with ‘suspicion’ about the ‘real’ motives of the critics. Given the points mentioned here, it should be evident that the level of support for Israeli aggression is uniquely disproportionate – it is thus fitting that criticism of the country is equally vocal and unparalleled as well.

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#Society

Ya Qawmi: Strengthen Civic Roots In Society To Be A Force For Good

Dr. Muhammad Abdul Bari

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For believers the traditions and teachings of the Prophets (blessings on them), particularly Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him), are paramount. Each Prophet of God belonged to a community which is termed as their Qawm in the Qur’an. Prophet Lut (Lot) was born in Iraq, but settled in Trans-Jordan and then became part of the people, Qawm of Lut, in his new-found home. All the Prophets addressed those around them as ‘Ya Qawmi’ (O, my people) while inviting them to the religion of submission, Islam. Those who accepted the Prophets’ message became part of their Ummah. So, individuals from any ethnicity or community could become part of the Ummah – such as the Ummah of Prophet Muhammad.

Believers thus have dual obligations: a) towards their own Qawm (country), and b) towards their Ummah (religious companions). As God’s grateful servants, Muslims should strive to give their best to both their Qawm and Ummah with their ability, time and skillset. It is imperative for practising and active Muslims to carry out Islah (improvement of character, etc) of people in their Ummah and be a witness of Islam to non-Muslims in their Qawm and beyond. This in effect is their service to humanity and to please their Creator. With this basic understanding of the concept, every Muslim should prioritise his or her activities and try their utmost to serve human beings with honesty, integrity and competence. Finding excuses or adopting escapism can bring harm in this world and a penalty in the Hereafter.

Like many other parts of the world, Britain is going through a phase lacking in ethical and competent leadership. People are confused, frustrated and worried; some are angry. Nativist (White) nationalism in many western countries, with a dislike or even hatred of minority immigrant people (particularly Muslims and Jews), is on the rise. This is exacerbated through lowering religious literacy, widespread mistrust and an increase in hateful rhetoric being spread on social media. As people’s patience and tolerance levels continue to erode, this can bring unknown adverse consequences.

The positive side is that civil society groups with a sense of justice are still robust in most developed countries. While there seem to be many Muslims who love to remain in the comfort zone of their bubbles, a growing number of Muslims, particularly the youth, are also effectively contributing towards the common good of all.

As social divisions are widening, a battle for common sense and sanity continues. The choice of Muslims (particularly those that are socially active), as to whether they would proactively engage in grass-roots civic works or social justice issues along with others, has never been more acute. Genuine steps should be taken to understand the dynamics of mainstream society and improve their social engagement skills.

From history, we learn that during better times, Muslims proactively endeavoured to be a force for good wherever they went. Their urge for interaction with their neighbours and exemplary personal characters sowed the seeds of bridge building between people of all backgrounds. No material barrier could divert their urge for service to their Qawm and their Ummah. This must be replicated and amplified.

Although Muslims are some way away from these ideals, focusing on two key areas can and should strengthen their activities in the towns and cities they have chosen as their home. This is vital to promote a tolerant society and establish civic roots. Indifference and frustration are not a solution.

Muslim individuals and families

  1. Muslims must develop a reading and thinking habit in order to prioritise their tasks in life, including the focus of their activism. They should, according to their ability and available opportunities, endeavour to contribute to the Qawm and Ummah. This should start in their neighbourhoods and workplaces. There are many sayings of the Prophet Muhammad on one’s obligations to their neighbour; one that stands out – Gabriel kept advising me to be good to my neighbour so much that I thought he would ask that he (neighbour) should inherit me) – Sahih Al-Bukhari.
  2. They must invest in their new generation and build a future leadership based on ethics and professionalism to confidently interact and engage with the mainstream society, whilst holding firm to Islamic roots and core practices.
  3. Their Islah and dawah should be professionalised, effective and amplified; their outreach should be beyond their tribal/ethnic/sectarian boundaries.
  4. They should jettison any doubts, avoid escapism and focus where and how they can contribute. If they think they can best serve the Ummah’s cause abroad, they should do this by all means. But if they focus on contributing to Britain:
    • They must develop their mindset and learn how to work with the mainstream society to normalise the Muslim presence in an often hostile environment.
    • They should work with indigenous/European Muslims or those who have already gained valuable experience here.
    • They should be better equipped with knowledge and skills, especially in political and media literacy, to address the mainstream media where needed.

Muslim bodies and institutions

  • Muslim bodies and institutions such as mosques have unique responsibilities to bring communities together, provide a positive environment for young Muslims to flourish and help the community to link, liaise and interact with the wider society.
  • By trying to replicate the Prophet’s mosque in Madinah, they should try to make mosques real hubs of social and spiritual life and not just beautiful buildings. They should invest more in young people, particularly those with professional backgrounds. They should not forget what happened to many places where the Muslim presence was thought to be deep-rooted such as Spain.
  • It is appreciated that the first generation Muslims had to establish organisations with people of their own ethnic/geographical backgrounds. While there may still be a need for this for some sections of the community, in a post-7/7 Britain Muslim institutions must open up for others qualitatively and their workers should be able to work with all. History tells that living in your own comfort zone will lead to isolation.
  • Muslim bodies, in their current situation, must have a practical 5-10 year plan, This will bring new blood and change organisational dynamics. Younger, talented, dedicated and confident leadership with deep-rooted Islamic ideals is now desperately needed.
  • Muslim bodies must also have a 5-10 year plan to encourage young Muslims within their spheres to choose careers that can take the community to the next level. Our community needs nationally recognised leaders from practising Muslims in areas such as university academia, policy making, politics, print and electronic journalism, etc.

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#Current Affairs

Seyran Ates, A Sixty-Eighter In Islamic Camouflage

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By Dr Mohammad Usman Rana

In their orientalist enthusiasm to reform Islam, in the sense of reconciling Islam with the always changing ideas and goals of liberal values, Western European liberals and neo-atheists are searching high and low for persons who may serve as Muslim alibies for their project. For many years Ayaan Hirsi Ali was given this role but now the relay baton has been handed over to the German-Turkish activist Seyran Ates.

Does not believe in religion

Ates is of current interest in Norway because her book by the Norwegian title Islam trenger en seksuell revolusjon (Islam needs a sexual revolution, originally published in German in 2011)* was just released in Norwegian translation. Ates is well-known primarily because Western media have hailed her as a freedom fighter among Muslims since she opened a so-called liberal mosque in Berlin in 2017 and titled herself a female imam.

Obviously, Ates is part and parcel of an essential debate about the future of Muslims in Europe as it is a fact that a lot of traditional mosques in Western Europe have a big job to do in order to become more relevant to young Muslims, that is, more inclusive and adapted to a European context. Not least the issue of women’s rights is rightfully important to many people in the Muslim world, whether they are liberals or conservatives. In the midst of all the praise, Ates receives in Western media one essential question is however forgotten: What Islamic credibility does Ates have? In line with postmodern nihilism where concepts, ideas, and identities are emptied of meaning and content, the fact is ignored that Ates in her book points out that she believes in God but not in religions. She has no Islamic theological education and explains that she has recently started taking courses in Islamic studies and Arabic in order to be more credible among Muslims.

This is not only the case with Ates. It is a general weakness of so-called progressive and liberal Islam (reformers) that the movement lacks a foundation of religious and theological structure; it is rather founded on personalities with a political mission.

More journalists than worshippers

In her book about Islam needing a sexual revolution, Ates applauds European Christians’ dissociation from the church after 1968. Paradoxically, she later opened a mosque for Muslims. Further, she praises secularly thinking individuals as the most honourable people.

This is why the question should be raised whether the mosque, the imam title, and other religious references are just an Islamic camouflage for what can be understood as a political secularisation, assimilation and liberalisation project by Ates and her supporters. Due to the missing religious credibility and seriousness of this commitment, it should come as no surprise that it has little appeal to European and German Muslims.

When the New York Times visited the mosque, its journalists reported that there were more journalists than worshippers present. She has, on the other hand, a strong appeal among extreme right-wing anti-Muslim thinkers and movements in Europe. It is noteworthy that Ates received a solidarity claim from the extreme anti-Islam German AfD party, and has been praised by the infamous anti-Muslim blog of “Human Rights Service” in Norway.

The positive development aspect is missing

Why should German and European Muslims listen to an activist who attacks the fundamental principles of Islam and in her book paints a stereotypical image of the world’s Muslims?

There is no denying that Ates addresses a number of important challenges for Muslim women. Still, her arguments become oversimplified when she confuses female-hostile habits in the East with Islam and completely forgets the positive development today’s Muslim women in Europe experience where they, as opposed to their mothers’ generation, receive a university education, have a career, and choose whom they want to marry.

Seyran Ates’ project is not about a necessary contextualisation of Islam’s holy texts in a European reality, maintaining the characterisations of the region. The project is rather about a total change of Islam. In her book, Ates justifies such a change by creating strawmen with sweeping generalisations about Muslims. She, for instance, writes that ‘it is a fact that Muslim men have a considerable problem with our free world’, and that ‘Islamic politicians do not distinguish between religion and politics’ – without mentioning the widespread authoritarian secular tradition in Muslim countries in modern times such as in Turkey and Baathism in Syria and Iraq.

Less sexual restraint

Ates’ main argument in Islam needs a sexual revolution is that Muslim men and women are sexually oppressed because sexuality is defined as a blessing and source of love only within – and not outside of – the frames of marriage. The rule of intimate relationships being reserved for marriage meets with unison agreement from Muslims from different schools of thought; Ates, however, absurdly calls it an expression of “fundamentalist” Islam. In this view, Seyran Ates disagrees with the well-known American feminist Naomi Wolf who, after having travelled in Muslim countries, believes that this marital channelling of intimacy, in fact, strengthens sexuality and family ties at the same time.

The German-Turkish author wants less sexual restraint, more promiscuity and a liberal attitude to nakedness, in line with the ideals of the sixty-eighters. Seyran Ates praises the sixty-eighters’ revolution as an ideal for Muslims. Although the #metoo campaign, which can be said to have brought to light the negative consequences of the sexual revolution, was released after Ates’ book was published, it makes her attitudes to this revolution seem somewhat doubtful. The heritage of the sixty-eighters is not only freedom and equality but also the breaking up of the family as well as selfishness and decadence. It is also ironical that someone like Ates, who claims religious credibility, calls attention to Alfred Kinsey, the atheist sexologist who believed in open relationships, as a model for Muslims.

Public pillory

Ates’ book is mainly about freedom, a personal freedom in the name of value liberalism and sixtyeighters. A well-known American intellectual, Patrick Deenen from the University of Notre Dame, however, criticises such a perception of the concept of freedom believing we should ask ourselves if freedom can really be defined as human beings pursuing their instincts more or less uncritically. Deenen maintains that human beings are then in effect unfree and slaves of their instincts, while real freedom is achieved if we manage to free ourselves from being governed by human appetites.

Seyran Ates and her non-Muslim supporters seem to have no understanding at all of such a definition of the concept of freedom. Even more problematic is that they want to make their sixty-eighters’ liberal values absolute, believing Muslims must adhere to them if they wish to belong to modern society. Harvard professor Adrian Vermeule calls this form of liberalism aggressive because it only tolerates itself and no differences of opinion. It maintains its rituals in the form of checkpoints of ‘correct’ opinions in particular about sexuality, gender, and identity. Disagreeing with this can result in reprisals in the form of public pillory or even legal steps.

Obsessed with removing the hijab

When Muslims are met with such absolute-making of liberal values it is like an extension of colonial cultural imperialism when French and British colonial masters wanted to westernise Muslim populations, believing it was the only way of making them civilised. Some of them were obsessed with removing Muslim women’s hijabs, just as Seyran Ates is. The British consul general in Egypt, Lord Cromer, was a representative of this view. He wanted to free Muslim women from the hijab while at home in the UK he was ardently against feminism and women’s suffrage (source: Ahmed, Leila (1992). Women and Gender in Islam. New Haven: Yale University Press).

Worth noting is also that extensive surveys by Gallup Coexist Index among West-European Muslims show that they are far more religious than the majority population. Similar findings in relation to Norwegian Muslims were made by Bushra Ishaq in her book Hvem snakker for oss? (Who speaks for us?) from 2017. Considering these figures, it would be utopian as well as illiberal to expect Muslims to opt for a liberal values morality. On the contrary, it should be expected that religious European Muslims understand their religious practice as belonging to a Western context, that they value equality and that they support the liberal state governed by rule of law that actually allows people to live according to liberal as well as conservative norms of value.

*The original German-language version of the book, Der Islam braucht eine sexuelle Revolution: Eine Streitschrift, was published in 2011

Dr Mohammad Usman Rana is a Norwegian columnist, author and a commentator on Islam

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