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The Amazing Virtues of Duha Prayer

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The virtues of Duha prayer are vast, uplifting, life-changing, and of immense benefit to those who implement the habit of praying it on a daily basis. What follows is an in-depth description of Duha prayer for readers who prefer to understand the full context of the prayer, including its definition, description, recommended times, virtues and rewards, number of rakʿahs, and related questions. For readers who are looking to quickly skim through the inspirational virtues, scroll down to “Virtues & Rewards of Duha Prayer”.

Definition of Duha prayer

Duḥa is linguistically defined as the time of sunrise.

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The jurisprudential definition: It is an optional two-rakʿah prayer that the Prophet ﷺ prayed frequently and advised the companions to pray, and its time is between sunrise and Dhuhr.

The ruling is that Duha prayer is a sunnah mu’akkadah (confirmed Sunnah), which entails massive rewards and blessings if established, but there is no sin on the one who leaves it.

Description of Duha prayer

Duha (forenoon or “chasht”) prayer, also referred to as Salāt al-Awwābeen (the prayer of the oft-repentant), is prayed like most other voluntary prayers in that you pray two units and you end the prayer with the tasleem to the right and left. If you wish to pray more than two units, then you may pray as many as you wish, two units at a time.

The Prophet ﷺ said: “The [voluntary] prayers of the day and night are to be offered two by two.”[1]

What is meant by two by two?


Ibn ʿUmar raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) said: “Saying the tasleem after each two rakʿahs.”  [Muslim]

Recommended time

The time of Duha begins after the sun fully rises and it ends approximately 15 minutes before Dhuhr prayer. The most preferred time for Duha prayer is at the hottest part of the day, when the sun has reached its zenith (its highest point), and this is approximately halfway between sunrise and Dhuhr prayer.

The Prophet ﷺ said: “The prayer of those who are repentant is observed when your weaned camels feel the heat of the sun.”[2]

Virtues & Rewards of Duha Prayer

1. It fulfills charity on every joint in your body.

The Prophet ﷺ said:

“In the morning, every single joint of yours must pay a sadaqah (charity). Every SubhanAllah is a sadaqah, every Alhamdulillāh is a sadaqah, every La Ilaha Illa Allah is a sadaqah, every Allahu Akbar is a sadaqah, every commanding good is a sadaqah, and every forbidding evil is a sadaqah, and all this is accomplished through two rakʿahs one can pray in Duha [prayer].”[3]

This hadith emphasizes the status and virtue of Duha prayer, two rakʿahs of which is sufficient as a charity on behalf of every joint in the body, and a sign of genuine gratitude to Allah (swt).

2. It is the prayer of the oft-repentant. 

The Prophet ﷺ said:
“None is diligent in establishing Duha prayer except one who is oft-repentant (awwāb), and it is the prayer of the oft-repentant.”[4]

The term “Salat al-Awwabeen” comes from this narration, in which the Messenger ﷺ emphasizes that only the oft-repentant are persistent in praying Duha prayer habitually. Thus, one of the signs of true repentance is to return to Allah (swt) by not only cutting off a major sin, but striving diligently to increase in one’s voluntary deeds, especially the optional prayers.

3. It was an advice from the Messenger himself.

Abu Hurayrah raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) reported: My beloved (the Prophet  ﷺ) advised me to do three things, which I will never abandon so long as I live: to fast three days of each month, to pray two rakʿahs of Duha prayer, and not to sleep until I pray Witr.[5]

Imam al-Qurtubi raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) said: “The advice of the Prophet ﷺ to Abu Hurayrah and Abu ad-Dardā’ indicates the virtues of Duha prayer, and the vast rewards of the prayer as well as its significance; thus, both companions safeguarded this habit and never abandoned it.”[6]

4. Under certain conditions, the reward for praying it is equivalent to a complete Hajj and ʿUmrah.

The Prophet ﷺ said:
“Whoever prays the Fajr prayer then sits in his place of prayer remembering Allah until sunrise, then prays two rakʿahs, shall be rewarded as if he had performed Hajj and ʿUmrah, with a reward that is complete, complete, complete.”[7]

Note: This doesn’t fulfill the requirement to perform Hajj.

5. Forgiveness of one’s sins.

Abu Hurayrah raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:
“Whoever regularly prays the two rakʿahs of Duha, his sins are forgiven even if they are like [the vastness of] the foam of the sea.”[8]

The Prophet ﷺ also said:
“If anyone sits in his place of prayer when he finishes the dawn prayer till he prays the two rakʿahs of the forenoon prayer, saying nothing but what is good, his sins will be forgiven even if they are more than the foam of the sea.”[9]

6. Equivalent to ʿUmrah and a lofty position.

Abu Umāmah raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) reported that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:
“If anyone leaves his home after performing ablution for the prescribed prayer in congregation (in the mosque), his reward will be like that of one who goes for Hajj after wearing (the clothes of) ihram. And he who goes out for the forenoon (Duha) prayer, and takes the trouble solely for this purpose, will have the reward like that of a person who performs ʿUmrah. And a prayer followed by a prayer with no worldly talk during the gap between them will be recorded in ʿIlliyyūn[10].”[11]

7. Allah will suffice you!

The Prophet ﷺ said:
“Allah the Exalted says: ‘O Son of Adam, do not be heedless of praying 4 rakʿahs for Me in the beginning of your day and (as a result) I shall be your sufficiency at its end.’”[12]

In another narration:
“Allah the Exalted says: ‘O Son of Adam, pray to Me in the beginning of the day with four units and I shall thereby suffice you at the end (of it).’”[13]

The meaning of “suffice” in these narrations, according to various scholars, includes the protection of Allah from all evil and harm, protection against misguidance and sinfulness, alleviation of anxiety and worries, and forgiveness for one’s shortcomings during that day, or a combination of any of the above. Reflect on the fact that Allah, the Creator and Sustainer, will Himself suffice you of any of your worldly needs in ways that you cannot begin to imagine.

The scholars differed about whether this hadith refers to 4 units of Duha prayer or if it refers to Fajr prayer with its sunnah. The scholars who held the view that the hadeeth refers to Duha prayer include Abu Dāwūd, at-Tirmidhi, al-Irāqi, Ibn Rajab, and others. The wise believer, therefore, would strive to implement both views – Fajr and its sunnah as well as four units of Duha prayer – in order to maximize the reward, protection, and blessings.

8. A palace of gold in Paradise.

Anas b. Mālik raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:
“Whoever prays twelve rakʿahs of Duha, Allah will build for him a palace of gold in Paradise.”[14]

Abu ad-Dardā’ raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him)  narrated that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ said:
“Whoever prays Duha will not be written amongst the heedless (people), and whoever prays four (rakʿahs) will be written amongst the worshipers, and whoever prays six (rakʿahs), it will suffice him on that day, and whoever prays 8 (rakʿahs) will be written amongst the pious, and whoever prays 12 rakʿahs, Allah will build for him a palace in Paradise.”[15]

Number of Rakʿahs

5.1 Minimum number of rakʿahs

The minimum for Duha prayer is 2 rakʿahs according to scholarly consensus.[16]

5.2 Maximum number of rakʿahs

There is no clear report that indicates a restriction on the number of rakʿahs for Duha prayer; however, there are three common opinions on the matter:

First opinion: 8 Rakʿahs

This is the opinion of Mālikis and Ḥanbalis based on the following report:

It was narrated from Umm Hāni’ bint Abu Tālib that on the day of the Opening (of Makkah), the Messenger of Allah ﷺ prayed Duha with eight rakʿahs, saying the salaam after each two rakʿahs.[17]

Umm Hāni’ said: “I never saw the Prophet ﷺ offering a lighter prayer than that [Duha] prayer, but he was performing perfect bowing and prostrations.”[18]

 The Mālikis considered it makrooh (disliked) to pray more than 8 rakʿahs if the additional prayers were with the intention of Duha,[19] and they considered 6 rakʿahs to be moderate and preferred.[20]

Second opinion: 12 Rakʿahs

This is the opinion of the Hanafis, Shāfiʿis,[21] and one of the views of the Ḥanbalis,[22] based on the aforementioned narration:

“Whoever prays Duha with twelve rakʿahs, Allah will build for him a palace of gold in Paradise.”

This narration is weak[23] according to most scholars of hadeeth; however, even if it reached a unanimous level of soundness, the narration would not necessarily indicate a maximum restriction on the number of units one can pray.

Third opinion: Unrestricted

This is the opinion held by al-Aswad b. Yazīd (d. 75/694), Ibrahīm an-Nakhaʿī (d. 96/714), at-Tirmidhi (d. 279/892), al-ʿIrāqi (d. 806/1403), as-Suyūti (d. 911/1505), and many of the earlier and later scholars, as well as this author’s preferred opinion due to its evidence and reasoning.

Al-ʿIraqi (r) says, in his commentary on Sunan at-Tirmidhi:

“None of the companions or [their] successors are known to have restricted it to twelve rakʿahs.” As-Suyūti raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) agreed with this opinion.

Ibrahīm an-Nakhaʿī raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) reports that al-Aswad b. Yazīd was asked: “How many rakʿahs are to be prayed for Duha?” He answered: “As many as you wish.”

In other words, there is no restriction on how many optional prayers you can pray at the time of Duha, and as the reports indicate, none of the companions or their successors were known to have restricted Duha prayer to twelve rakʿahs. Therefore, any nafl mutlaq (general optional prayer) prayed between sunrise and Dhuhr would fall under the category of Duha prayer, and Allah knows best.

5.3 Preferred number of rakʿahs

Even within each madhhab, the scholars held different opinions about the preferred number of rakʿahs to pray for Duha prayer as a habit.

The Mālikis preferred 6 rakʿahs,[24] the Hanafis preferred 4 or 8 rakʿahs,[25] the Shāfiʿis preferred 8 rakʿahs,[26] and the Ḥanbalis did not specify a preferred number of rakʿahs.

Based on the authentic aforementioned evidences, what seems to be most preferable – and Allah knows best – is to pray at least 4 rakʿahs, as two individual units, based on the following two narrations: 

  1. ʿAishah raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her) said: The Messenger of Allah ﷺ used to observe four rakʿahs in the forenoon prayer and he sometimes observed more as Allah pleased.[27]
  1. The Prophet ﷺ said: “Allah the Exalted says: ‘O Son of Adam, do not be heedless of praying 4 rakʿahs for Me in the beginning of your day, and (as a result) I shall be your sufficiency at its end.’”[28]

Questions pertaining to Duha prayer

Q: Can it be prayed while the sun is rising?

No, that time is forbidden for prayer. The sun takes approximately 15-20 minutes to fully rise, so wait from the beginning of the known time of ‘sunrise’ for at least 15 minutes.

Q: Do I have to stand while praying Duha prayer?  

No. It is permissible to pray a voluntary (sunnah) prayer while sitting, whether at home, at work, in a moving vehicle, or elsewhere, but the reward is decreased significantly if one has the physical ability to stand.[29] Nevertheless, it is lawful to sit, and in the case that one would not pray Duha unless they were able to sit, for whatever circumstances, then it is encouraged to pray it while sitting if that is the only option.

Q: Do I have to recite a specific surah in Duha prayer?

The Shāfiʿi opinion[30] is to recite Sūrat al-Kāfiroon in the first rakʿah and Sūrat al-Ikhlās in the second rakʿah, due to the massive rewards of reciting both suwar.[31] The Hanafi opinion[32] is to recite Sūrat ash-Shams in the first rakʿah and Sūrat ad-Duha in the second rakʿah, based on a narration[33] that is considered by some scholars to be fabricated.[34] What seems to be most correct is that there is nothing clearly authentic narrated about the matter, so you may recite any sūrah you wish after Sūrat al-Fātihah.

Q: For the reward of Hajj and Umrah, can a woman receive this reward if she prays at home?

Yes.

Q: For the reward of Hajj and Umrah, does one need to remain in the same spot they prayed, or can they move about the prayer area?

There is a known difference of opinion about this matter; some scholars were of the view that moving about the mosque is fine because the entire masjid is considered the prayer place, while others emphasized the importance of staying in one’s particular prayer place due to several narrations, including the following:

I (Samik) asked Jābir b. Samurah: Did you sit in the company of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ? He replied: Yes, very often. He would not stand from the place he prayed the dawn prayer till the sunrise. When the sun rose, he would stand (to pray Duha).[35]

Ibn Ḥajar (d. 852/1449) stated, “The ‘place of prayer’ referred to in the hadith is the place in which the prayer took place (i.e., the masjid) … so if the individual moves about to another area within the masjid with the intention of waiting to pray (the Ishraq/Duha prayer), he will have the same (reward).”[36]

Zain ad-Deen al-ʿIrāqi (d. 806/1403) stated, “What is meant by ‘prayer place’? Does it refer to the specific place a person prays in, and moving about the masjid would cause him to lose the reward (of Hajj and Umrah)? Or does the prayer place refer to the entire masjid he prayed in? Perhaps it is both of these meanings and most likely the second meaning is more apparent and correct.”[37]

Q: Is it permissible to pray Duha prayer in congregation?

Some voluntary prayers are recommended to always be performed in congregation, such as the prayer for rain, the eclipse prayers, and taraweeh. Other prayers, such as the greeting of the masjid, Duha prayer, and the regular voluntary prayers, are generally to be prayed alone, but it is permissible to infrequently pray the latter in congregation.

Thus, it is permissible to infrequently pray Duha in congregation, but most of the narrations describing the Prophet ﷺ praying Duha were not in congregation, and praying it in congregation should not become a habit as that would contradict the sunnah. As for narrations which indicate that it is permissible, we have the following report:

Abu ‘Abdullah said: Abu Hurayrah raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) said, “The Prophet ﷺ advised me to offer two rakʿahs of Duha prayer.” Itbān b. Mālik raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) said, “Allah’s Messenger ﷺ and Abu Bakr came to me after sunrise and we aligned behind the Prophet ﷺ and offered two rakʿahs.”[38]

Q: Ishraq (or Shurooq) prayer – what is its relation to Duha prayer? 

Some scholars specified that Ishrāq prayer was the prayer of 2 rakʿahs performed after one has remained in their prayer spot until sunrise – mentioned in virtue #4 above – and has the reward of a complete Hajj and Umrah; therefore, it is the earliest possible Duha prayer. Others, and this can be observed in many classical books of fiqh, stated that there is no difference between the two prayers, since any prayer between sunrise and Dhuhr falls under the category of “Duha”, including these two rakʿahs, and Allah knows best.

Action Items

1. Set your intention now to begin praying Duha prayer habitually in order to obtain its vast rewards, blessings, and virtues, and encourage others to pray it habitually as well.

2. Take action! If necessary, set repeated reminders for yourself to establish this new habit.

3. Try to encourage your loved ones by striving for the reward of Hajj and Umrah together, particularly on days in which it is possible to remain in your prayer place until sunrise.

4. Share this article with others in order to maximize their reward and yours too.


May Allah grant us the vast blessings and virtues of Duha prayer, sound knowledge, and consistent implementation.

 

[1] at-Tirmidhi (597) and Ibn Mājah (1322).

[2] Sahih Muslim (748).

[3] Sahih Muslim (720).

[4] Reported by Ibn Khuzaymah; authentic according to the conditions of Muslim. Sahih at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/164).

[5] Sahih al-Bukhāri (1981).

[6] al-Qurtubi, Al-Mufhim Lima Ushkila min Talkhīs Kitab Muslim.

[7] at-Tirmidhi (586), al-Mundhiri in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/220), and Sahih al-Jāmiʿ (6346).

[8] at-Tirmidhi (476) and Ibn Mājah (1382). This narration is weak according to some scholars, but strengthened by multiple reports according to others.

[9] Abu Dāwūd (1287), Ibn Ḥajar in Takhreej Mishkāt al-Masābeeh (2/74), and al-Mundhiri in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (2/221).

[10] ʿIlliyyūn: The record of the righteous, or a high place for the righteous after death.

[11] Abu Dāwūd (558), Sahih al-Jāmiʿ (6556), al-Mundhiri in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/320), al-Khulāsa of an-Nawawi (1/313).

[12] Abu Dāwūd (1289), Musnad Ahmad (22469), al-Haythami (2/239), and Sahih at-Targheeb (672).

[13] at-Tirmidhi (475), Sunan al-Bayhaqi (4786), Sahih Ibn Hibbān (2534), Ibn Ḥajar in Takhreej Mishkāt al-Masābeeh (2/73), and Sahih al-Jāmiʿ (4339).

[14] Classified as hasan by Ibn Ḥajar in Takhreej Mishkāt al-Māsabih (2/74) and Ibn al-Mulqin in Tuḥfatul Muhtāj (1/415). Classified as ghareeb by at-Tirmidhi, and daʿeef by al-Albāni.

[15] Its narrators are trustworthy according to al-Mundhiri in at-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb (1/320) and as-Safāreeni in Sharh Thulāthiyyat al-Musnad (2/306), and weak according to al-Albāni in Da’eef at-Targheeb (405).

[16] Al-Mawsuʿah al-Fiqhiyyah, p. 225.

[17] Sunan Ibn Mājah (1323).

[18] Sahih al-Bukhāri (4292).

[19] The response to this is that any prayer performed at that time is considered Duha regardless, rather than only a nafl mutlaq (general voluntary prayer).

[20] ad-Dusqooi, Hāshiyat ad-Dusooqi, 1/313.

[21] The opinion of the Shāfiʿis, according to an-Nawawi, is 12 rakʿahs. Al-Majmūʾ 4/36.

[22] Al-Mawsuʿah al-Fiqhiyyah, p. 226.

[23] Ibn ʿĀbideen stated: What has been repeated (by many scholars) is that a weak narration may be acted upon for virtuous deeds. Hāshiyat Ibn ʿĀbideen, 1/459.

[24] ad-Dusqooi, Hāshiyat ad-Dusooqi, 1/313.

[25] Al-Haskafi, ad-Durr al-Mukhtār 1/459.

[26] An-Nawawi, Rawdat at-Tālibeen, 1/332.

[27] Sahih Muslim (719).

[28] Abu Dāwūd (1289), Musnad Ahmad (22469), al-Haythami (2/239), and Sahih at-Targheeb (672).

[29] Based on the narration, “Whoever prays while standing, that is better, and whoever prays while sitting will have half the reward of one who prays standing.” Reported in Sahih al-Bukhāri (1116), Ibn Majah, at-Tirmidhi, an-Nasa’i.  This applies to voluntary prayers.

[30] ar-Ramli, Nihāyatul Muhtāj, 2/112.

[31] It was narrated, “Qul Huwallāhu Aḥad is equivalent to one-third of the Qur’an, and Qul Yā Ayyuhal Kāfiroon is equivalent to one-fourth of the Qur’an.” Sahih Muslim (811) and Sahih al-Jāmiʿ (4405).

[32] Ibn ʿĀbideen, Hāshiyat Ibn ʿĀbideen, 1/458.

[33] Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ al-Bāri, 3/55.

[34] Classified as mawdooʿ in as-Silsilah ad-Daʿeefah (3774).

[35] Abu Dāwūd (1294).

[36] Ibn Ḥajar, Fatḥ al-Bāri, 2/136.

[37] al-ʿIrāqi, Ṭarḥ at-Tathreeb, 2/367.

[38] Sahih al-Bukhāri (1171).

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Imam Suleiman Hani is an international lecturer and resident scholar from Michigan who currently serves as an AlMaghrib Institute instructor, a Yaqeen Institute scholar, and a graduate student at Harvard University. At the age of 14, Suleiman completed a 10-month Qur’an memorization program and began his intensive studies under numerous scholars, later earning a Master of Arts degree from the University of Jordan's College of Shari’ah, ranking first in his class. Over the past decade, he has served as an Imam and community leader in Michigan, lectured in dozens of countries, and was featured on the largest Islamic TV stations worldwide. His recent hobbies include mixed martial arts, archery, and skydiving.

20 Comments

20 Comments

  1. Avatar

    Taimur

    November 6, 2016 at 1:41 AM

    Very nice MashAllah . May Allah (SWT) reward you for this

  2. Avatar

    Nicolás

    November 6, 2016 at 2:55 AM

    Superb article. Very beneficial and well-referenced. May Allāh reward you.

  3. Avatar

    Haroon

    November 7, 2016 at 2:37 AM

    Important message. Allah bless.

  4. Avatar

    Abdullah

    November 7, 2016 at 9:07 AM

    Jazakumullahu kheyran very beneficial article. Let us all race for Allah’s reward insha’llah.

  5. Avatar

    Umm Hadi

    November 9, 2016 at 3:39 AM

    Barak Allahu feekum. May Allah make us steadfast on our Deen.

  6. Avatar

    Mustapha umar

    December 21, 2016 at 5:20 AM

    Jazakumullahu Bi Khair

  7. Avatar

    Bari

    March 16, 2017 at 12:58 PM

    Very informative

  8. Avatar

    Arjmand

    December 16, 2017 at 4:25 PM

    Jazak Allah khair, very beneficial and informative.

  9. Avatar

    Naswiru shema

    December 21, 2017 at 12:15 AM

    I have a question is it permissible to pray duha at home for example u finish al fajr u go home sit and wait for total sunrise and pray duha is it allowed ?Please get back to me as soon as possible

    • Aly Balagamwala

      Aly Balagamwala

      December 22, 2017 at 5:30 AM

      Yes you can do so. You can read the Duha prayer from 10 minutes after sunrise till before Zawal in any place (Masjid, home, school, office, park, etc)

    • Suleiman Hani

      Suleiman Hani

      December 23, 2017 at 8:12 AM

      Assalamu alaykum Naswiru,

      As Ustadh Aly mentioned, you can pray Duha from the time the sun fully rises (approximately 10-15 minutes after the listed “sunrise” time in the prayer schedules) until approximately 10 minutes before Dhuhr adhan time, whether you’re at home or work or any general permitted environment to pray in.

      If, however, you were asking specifically about the reward of Hajj & Umrah mentioned in the virtues of the article, then as was noted, some of the scholars held the opinion that the reward is for the one who stays in the prayer area (masjid). If there is a dire, urgent need to leave the prayer area and the individual continues to worship Allah until sunrise and subsequently prays the 2 rak’ahs when the sun fully rises, then we hope and pray for the same reward, but it should be noted that it is explicitly mentioned – and opined by scholars – to try to remain in the general prayer place until sunrise. As was noted, some scholars even opined that it’s restricted to the literal place in which one prayed the morning prayer, showcasing the different viewpoints. For women, if their prayer is at home and they remain in the area in which they prayed – in a state of worship via Qur’an, dhikr, du’aa, etc. – then we believe the reward applies to them as well, wallahu a’lam.

      • Aly Balagamwala

        Aly Balagamwala

        January 1, 2018 at 9:47 AM

        SubhanAllah Shaykh! May you be rewarded for the title but I am not an Ustadh or even close to it.

        اللهمَ اجْعَلْنِى خَيْرًا مِمَّا يَظُنُّونَ وَاغْفِرْ لِى مَا لَا يَعْلَمُونَ وَلَا تُؤَاخِذْنِى بِمَا يَقُولُون

        O Allah, make me better than what they think of me, and forgive me for what they do not know about me, and do not take me to account for what they say about me.

  10. Avatar

    doaharianislami

    March 31, 2018 at 2:29 AM

    alhamdulillah thank for dhuha payer..jazakallah

  11. Avatar

    Prayer Time Dubai

    June 10, 2019 at 3:01 PM

    very Important message. Allah bless.

  12. Avatar

    Salat Time London

    August 3, 2019 at 8:13 AM

    Such an inspiring article boosts up our whole system and we pray that ALLAH always keeps you in good health.

  13. Avatar

    Yusuf Cincinnati

    September 18, 2019 at 8:02 AM

    As. Few questions

    1) what is the significance/importance of timing from narrations mentioning the sun is a “spear length above the horizon”?

    2) if we follow the opinion that it’s preferable to pray nawafil in home, is this specific prayer an exception to that opinion per the narrations of the Prophet sallAllahu ‘alaihi wa Sallam standing at Duha time?

    JAk

  14. Avatar

    Ramadan 2020

    April 15, 2020 at 8:18 PM

    Wow, really impressive Article Thanks for sharing.

  15. Avatar

    Ahmed Abdulla

    April 23, 2020 at 11:59 AM

    Wow…Jazakallah for creating such a detailed article.

  16. Avatar

    iftar dua

    April 28, 2020 at 6:55 AM

    Mashallah you have put up a very nice website cataloguing really good material. Inshallah will be visiting their in future when looking for some lectures to listen on my way to and form work.

  17. Avatar

    Farah

    June 9, 2020 at 5:31 AM

    Really enjoyed the article and all the questions that l had always wanted to ask were answered in it. Allah khair!

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Help! I Can’t Make Dua For More Than 30 Seconds On The Day Of ‘Arafah

Much emphasis has been given on the importance of fasting on the day of ‘Arafah, but don’t forget, this was a day the Prophet Muhammad (upon him be peace) “made du’a from the time of Dhur til the time of Maghrib on the day of ‘Arafah while STANDING.” (Sahih Muslim)

He ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) also said, “The best du’a is that which is made on the day of ‘Arafah.” (Sahih Muslim)

If we can develop the capacity to binge watch on Netflix 5-6 for hours a day, we can develop the capacity to make du’a longer than 30 SECONDS on the day of ‘Arafah.

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I used to be a person who couldn’t make du’a longer than 2 minutes.

3 things changed

1. I started writing my personalized du’as on a mini-notebook

2. I started reading du’as using Hisnul Muslim (The Fortress of the Muslim)

3. I started following the etiquettes of making du’a.

As an Imam, I have numerous meetings with members of my community. Sometimes, at the end of my meetings, I asked the community member to end our meeting with a du’a. It is surprising that many of them do not know the etiquettes of making du’a. By following the above etiquettes of making du’a, you can make du’a longer than 2 minutes inshAllah!

Here are 16 etiquettes of making du’a from the Qur’an and Sunnah

1) Have 100% conviction that Allah will answer you

2) Find a way to praise Allah before making your request

3) Use the proper names of Allah

4) Send salutations upon Muhammad (upon him be peace)

5) Raise your hand like a beggar

6) Face the qibla

7) Be in a state of wudu

8) Cry

9) Be a lone wolf (Be alone)

10) Ensuring that your food is pure

11) Acknowledge your sins (Privately)

12) Repeat the du’a 3 times

13) Start the du’a by praying for yourself

14) Expand your heart, pray for everyone (in particular those Muslims in China who wish they could fast on the day of ‘Arafah, but they are prohibited from doing so.)

15) Say Amin after making du’a.

16) Make du’a during the “prime-times” (From Dhur till Maghrib on the day of Arafah is primetime!)

Bonus tip: If you’re like me, you may get stuck when making du’a. An excellent tip given by our master Muhammad (upon him be peace) is to use the “filler du’a”. This “filler du’a” was actually what Muhammad (upon him be peace) and all of the Prophets made on the day of Arafat!

He said, “The best invocation is that of the Day of Arafat, and the best that anyone can say is what I and the Prophets before me have said:

Lā ‘ilāha ‘illallāhu

wahdahu lā shareeka lahu,

lahul-mulku wa lahul-hamdu

wa Huwa ‘alā kulli shay’in qadeer.

Translation:

None has the right to be worshipped but Allah

Alone, Who has no partner.

His is the dominion and His is the praise,

and He is Able to do all things. (Al-Tirmidhi)

To recap, here are 5 action items you and your family can perform on the day of Arafah.

1. Go over the following hadith with your family members.

“Allah frees far more people from Hellfire on the Day of Arafah than on any other day, and Allah comes closer this day and proudly says to the angels, ‘What do these people want and seek?’” (Sunan an-Nasa’i)

2. Say to your family members or whoever you have influence over,

“The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) made du’a on the day of Arafah from Dhur till Maghreb. How long do you think we can make du’a for on this day?”

3. Go over the 16 etiquettes mentioned in this post.

4. Challenge your family members to make a 10 minute du’a.

     Materials needed

  • Whiteboard
  • Markers
  • A Creative mind
  • Brainstorm with your family members what du’a you want to make and then write them on a whiteboard.

5. Whenever you get stuck and you can’t don’t know what du’a you want to make, make the “filler du’a” the Prophet (upon him be peace) made on the day of ‘Arafah.

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30 Khawaatir in 30 Days- A Parent’s Guide | Day 19: My Mercy Encompasses All Things

Now that we have learnt about when the angels surround us, let’s now talk about how Allah’s subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) mercy encompasses all things.

We say بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ  (bismillah Ar-Rahman ar-Raheem) a lot, right? It means ‘in the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Most Compassionate.’ 

We say it when we pray, before we eat, and we’re encouraged to say it before we begin any new task. But do we really understand what rahma (mercy) means? 

Question: What do you think rahma means?

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Do you know that the word rahma comes from the root word, رحم (rahim), which means womb? 

Question: Who can tell me what a womb is?

That’s right. A baby is usually in their mommy’s womb for 40 weeks. The baby gets all the nourishment it requires; the temperature in the womb is perfect, the nutrients are always administered, it is safe and warm. All the baby has to do is grow, and alhamdulillah all its needs are being met. 

Question: How do you think the womb relates to Allah’s subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) mercy?

Allah’s subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) mercy is constantly surrounding us like a safety net. That doesn’t mean that we’ll never experience any pain, but Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) is constantly showing us mercy with every breath we take. Even blinking is a mercy from Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) that we don’t even have to think about. Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) even has more mercy for us than a mother has for her own child! 

One day the Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) was walking with a group of his companions, and they passed by a woman who was frantically looking for her child. She would take any child to her breast and try to feed him/her. Then the Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said to the companions: “Do you think that this lady can throw her son in the fire?” We replied, “No, if she has the power not to throw it (in the fire).” The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) then said, “Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) is more merciful to His slaves than this lady to her son.”

And guess what? There’s even more mercy in the hereafter than we’re experiencing right now. 

Salman al-Farisi reported: The Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said, “Verily, on the day Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) created the heavens and earth, He created one hundred parts of mercy. Each part can fill what is between heaven and earth. He made one part of mercy for the earth, from it a mother has compassion for her child, animals and birds have compassion for each other. On the Day of Resurrection, He will perfect this mercy.” [Sahih Muslim]

99 parts of mercy on the Day of Judgment! That is one reason why it’s so important to have a good opinion of Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He)! Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) even tells us in Surat Al-A’raaf:

وَرَحْمَتِي وَسِعَتْ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ ۚ

“My mercy encompasses all things” (Surat Al-A’raaf; 156]

And you all, my dears, are all encompassed by Allah’s subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) mercy, alhamdulillah. 

 

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The Inner Dimensions of the Udhiyah

Apart from Ḥajj, the greatest action a Muslim can do in the blessed days of Dhū al-ijjah is to offer the udḥiyah (qurbāni/sacrifice).

‘Āisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her) reports that Rasūlullah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said: “A human does no action from the actions of the Day of Naḥr [slaughtering; refers to the day of Eid al-Adḥā] more beloved to Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) than sacrificing the animal. On the Day of Judgement, it will appear with its horns, and hair, and hooves, and indeed the blood will be accepted by Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) before it even falls upon the ground, so let your heart delight in it.” [Tirmidhī]

Although we all know that this is an action that is traditionally performed on Eid al-Adā, a lack of understanding of its reality has led some to question the importance of doing it in the first place. In past years, and increasingly during the current pandemic, many have been asking, “Can I give ṣadaqah (charity) instead?”

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To answer this, it is necessary to understand the following.1 Everything in this world is comprised of an outer form – an appearance and a desired outcome – a “soul.” These two are intertwined in such a way that separating them is impossible. One cannot survive without the other. The clearest example of this reality is in ourselves.

سَنُرِيهِمْ آيَاتِنَا فِي الْآفَاقِ وَفِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَهُمْ أَنَّهُ الْحَقُّ ۗ

“Soon we will show them Our Signs in the horizons [external] and in themselves [internal] until it becomes clear to them that it is the Truth.” [Surah Fussilat; 53]

We are made of a body, which is comprised of several parts, and a soul, which fills the entire body and allows each part to fulfill its unique function. Without a body, our soul cannot survive, and without a soul, our body cannot survive. Additionally, if any part is missing, the whole person will be considered to have some deficiency. Likewise, the same principle applies to our n. Our n has an outer form, which is comprised of the actions that we perform, and a soul as well. The fact of the matter is that our goal in life is to achieve a complete connection with Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He). The Quran identifies this quality with the word taqwā. The soul that permeates our entire n and therefore, all our individual actions is taqwā. All these actions display a different aspect of taqwā and together form complete n in a person. If anything is missing, a person’s n will be deficient.

For example, the soul of ṣalāh is the portion of taqwā that relates to expressing humility in front of Allāh. The soul of fasting is the portion of taqwā that relates to suppressing one’s desires for Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He). The soul of is adaqah is the portion of taqwā that relates to curing one’s love for wealth by donating in the path of Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He).

Each of these things is necessary, and although they are all types of taqwā, they are not interchangeable. To expand on this, imagine that a person had $100 in cash, $100 worth of food, and $100 worth of furniture.2 The values of all three would be the same, but the functions they perform are different. None is more important than the other but all are necessary.

Similarly, a person cannot discard the outer form (different forms of ibādāt) and say that the only thing that matters is the soul (taqwā). If this were the case, our entire religion could be discarded. Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) says:

لَن يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَٰكِن يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَىٰ مِنكُمْ ۚ

“Neither their flesh reaches Allāh nor their blood (the udḥiyah animal); it is your taqwā that reaches Him.” [Al Hajj; 37]

There goes udḥiyah. Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ

“Oh you who have believed, fasting has been prescribed on you as it has been prescribed upon those before you so that you may become people of taqwā.” [Surah Al-Baqarah; 183]

There goes fasting.

 إِنَّ الصَّلَاةَ تَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ ۗ

“Verily ṣalāh prevents indecency and sin” (in essence, taqwā) [Surah al-‘Ankabut; 45]

Ṣalāh can also be put to the side.

لَّيْسَ الْبِرَّ أَن تُوَلُّوا وُجُوهَكُمْ قِبَلَ الْمَشْرِقِ وَالْمَغْرِبِ وَلَٰكِنَّ الْبِرَّ مَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةِ وَالْكِتَابِ وَالنَّبِيِّينَ وَآتَى الْمَالَ عَلَىٰ حُبِّهِ ذَوِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَابْنَ السَّبِيلِ وَالسَّائِلِينَ وَفِي الرِّقَابِ وَأَقَامَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَى الزَّكَاةَ وَالْمُوفُونَ بِعَهْدِهِمْ إِذَا عَاهَدُوا ۖ وَالصَّابِرِينَ فِي الْبَأْسَاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَحِينَ الْبَأْسِ ۗ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ صَدَقُوا ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ

“Virtue is that one sincerely believes in Allāh, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book and the Prophets and, out of His love, spend of one’s choice wealth for relatives and orphans, for the needy and the wayfarer, for beggars and for the ransom of slaves, and establish ṣalāh and give zakāh. And the virtuous are those who keep their pledges when they make them and show fortitude in hardships and adversity and in the struggle between the Truth and falsehood; such are the truthful people, and such are the people of taqwā.” [Surah Al-Baqarah; 77]

There goes our entire dīn.

The soul of udḥiyah is that portion of taqwā that expresses our total submission to Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He). “O Allāh, my life is in your Hands. Do with it whatever you wish!” The actual command was to sacrifice the thing that is most dear to you – a life. And in Ibrahīm 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) case, the life of his only child. The life of the child who for decades, he prayed and hoped for. Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) commanded Ibrahīm 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) in a dream to sacrifice his beloved son, Ismā’īl 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him). Ibrahīm 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) said, “My beloved son, I have seen that I was sacrificing you in dream. What do you think?” Without hesitation, Ismā’īl 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) responded, “O my beloved father, do as you have been commanded. Inshā Allāh, you will find me among the patient.” When Ibrahīm 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) tried to push the knife on his son’s neck, it became dull and “We called on to him, O Ibrahīm! You have surely fulfilled your dream. This is how we reward those of excellence. Indeed, this was a clear test. We ransomed him with a mighty sacrifice.” [As-Saffat; 100-107]. From that day until the end of time, Muslims have and will continue emulate this sacrifice of Ibrahīm 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) as a reminder of what true submission is.

When standing before Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He), we will need to present all types of taqwā. If we were to have a surplus of one type, for example, ṣadaqah, we would be rewarded for it, but that would not change the fact that something else is missing. If we were to tell our child to make sure that their room is clean for Eid and, instead of doing that, they cooked a delicious meal, we would thank them for their gesture, but then say that there is a time and place for everything and this time is for cleaning your room.

The purpose of ṣadaqah is to cleanse our hearts from the love of wealth by giving it to the poor. Although it is recommended to give a portion of the sacrifice to the poor, it is not the purpose, nor is it a requirement for its validity. The purpose of udḥiyah is to follow the command of Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He), in the way that He commanded it. In the past, and even now in some agrarian societies, the most beloved belonging to many people was their animals. This is because unlike other wealth, animals serve many purposes. They are a means of milk and clothing, a status symbol, a means of breeding, and also can be sold or eaten. To sacrifice an animal was truly a great sacrifice.

However, times have changed. Yet due to this very reason, udḥiyah is still a sacrifice, especially in America. We are used to the comforts of our home and would much rather donate money than take a day off from work and spend time, money, and energy in going to a farm and performing the udḥiyah. This is our sacrifice. We cannot abandon this great act.3,4

May Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) preserve our pristine religion in the manner it was practiced by Rasūlullah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) and his companions.

قُلْ إِنَّ صَلَاتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَايَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

“Surely my prayer, my sacrifice, my living, and my dying are for Allāh alone, the Sustainer of Universe. He has no partner. This is what I have been ordered, and I am the first to submit.” [Al-An’am; 162]

و ما توفيقي إلا باالله عليه توكلت و إليه أنيب

[1] The concept of actions having an outer form and inner soul were expanded upon in the Khutbāt of Hakīm al-Ummah Mawlāna Ashraf Alī Thanvī (throughout volume 16 – Barakāt e Ramaḍān) and Hakīm al-Islām Qāri Muḥammad Ṭayyib رحمهما الله تعالى رحمةً واسعةً . Qāri Ṭayyib specifically spoke about this concept in relation to the udḥiyah (Sunnat e Khalīl ‘Alayh al-Salām, volume 3, page 211). I benefited from these works immensely in the course of writing this article and hope the readers appreciate the depth and foresight of our pious predecessors’ foresight.

[2] This general idea – actions of being of the same value but different types – is proposed by ‘Allāma Ibn Taymiyyah and mentioned by Muftī Rashīd Aḥmad Ludhiyanvi رحمهما الله تعالى رحمةً واسعةً  in Aḥsan al-Fatāwā in relation to another topic, but the concept fits here as well.

[3] This article is not meant to say that having someone else perform your sacrifice by sending it overseas is invalid. Its purpose is to explain that the sacrifice itself is an important part of our dīn, and its full benefit will be realized when we perform the sacrifice by ourselves. It should also be noted that perhaps the reason that there is confusion over why the sacrifice cannot be substituted with ṣadaqah and thus, the distinction between the two is not clear.

[4] This article was started before the current pandemic. In a situation like this, if someone does not feel comfortable from a health perspective to perform the sacrifice on their own, they can appoint someone else to perform it for them, whether here or overseas. However, the current situation does not allow for ṣadaqah to be given in place of the sacrifice. Many ahadith (Bukhārī, Ahadith 968, 984, 985; ‘Ilā al-Sunan 17:212-217) indicate that the sacrifice is wājib. A wājib act cannot be substituted based simply on our thoughts or opinions. For more details on the obligation of the sacrifice, please read Muftī Abdullah Nana’s upcoming article about the fiqh of the udḥiyah.

* Two more points should be kept in mind. First, despite the pandemic, people have not stopped eating meat. In the current climate, if one is not able to perform the sacrifice by themselves, having it done in another country will also be a means of helping others. In fact, for many, Eid al-Adhā is the only time of the year that they able to eat meat. Second, we must broaden our thinking about charity. Our charity should not be restricted to only those things that are obligated upon us by Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) such as zakāh and udḥiyah. If Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has blessed us with the means,  we should strive to give ṣadaqah above and beyond these obligated act.

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