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Islam, like other major world religions (with the very recent exception of certain liberal denominations in the West), prohibits categorically all forms of same-sex erotic behavior. Scholars have differed over questions of how particular same-sex acts should be technically categorized and/or punished, but have never differed over the fact of their prohibition. The full and unbroken Islamic consensus on this issue embraces all recorded legal schools, theological persuasions, and historically documented sectarian divisions.
The evidentiary basis underlying Islam’s categorical prohibition of liwāṭ (sodomy) and other same-sex behaviors lies in explicit proscriptive statements of the Qurʾān and Ḥadīth, the transmitted consensus of the Prophet’s Companions and Successors, and the documented unanimity of the Islamic legal tradition throughout the ages. Notwithstanding, the past decade and a half has witnessed the rise of Muslim reformist voices, primarily in the West, challenging Islam’s proscription of homosexual activity and calling for the religious affirmation of same-gender sexual expression, relationships, and identities. This challenge has consisted not only in a questioning of the probative value of the relevant ḥadīth evidence and a disregard for juristic and wider community consensus, but also in the assertion that the Qurʾān itself does not prohibit same-sex relations per se, but only homosexual rape motivated by inhospitality with intent to dishonor. It has been further argued that the Qurʾān should not be taken to prohibit same-sex behaviors categorically since it does not specifically address the abstract modern concept of “homosexuality” as an orientation or, for that matter, the notion of “sexual identity” more broadly.
The present article attends to such revisionist readings of the Qurʾān, particularly as pertains to revisionist efforts to accommodate homoerotic behavior as religiously permissible in Islam. Although a fair amount of research and effort have gone into addressing the Islamic tradition’s treatment of homoerotic behavior, analysis has often centered on juridical discussions concerning punishment, medieval poetry, and exegetical texts. The only sustained attempt to argue for the permissibility of same-sex acts in Islam to date has come from Scott Kugle in both his contribution to the 2003 anthology Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, entitled “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics in the Agenda of Progressive Muslims,” and his later book Homosexuality in Islam: Critical Reflection on Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Muslims (2010). Though this article will address both simultaneously, Kugle refers the reader in Homosexuality in Islam back to his previously published piece in Progressive Muslims for his full argument on certain points. Accordingly, Kugle’s Progressive Muslims piece will constitute the focus of this study, with Homosexuality in Islam serving as a point of departure for additional arguments not contained in, or altered since, the earlier piece.
The current article begins by evaluating the conceptual basis for Kugle’s Qurʾānic revisionism. This includes his deployment of the notion of “sexuality,” Islam’s purported “sex positivity,” and the Qurʾān’s celebration of diversity, to which Kugle attempts to assimilate a diversity in sexual orientations and related practices. After evaluating this foundation, we proceed to review Kugle’s critique of the tafsīr tradition, and in particular the interpretation of the Lot narratives recorded in the work of the famous early exegete Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923). From this, we transition into Kugle’s proposed revisionist hermeneutic, which makes use of both what he calls a “semantic analysis” and a “thematic analysis,” evaluating the sources used to develop both heuristics. Finally, we review the contributions of the distinguished Andalusian jurist and belletrist Ibn Ḥazm of Cordoba (d. 456/1064), whose approach and literalist methodology Kugle claims to endorse. The reader should note that the present article follows Kugle’s own order of presentation (particularly in his 2003 piece), which contains a number of preliminary discussions prior to taking up the question of the people of Lot in the Qurʾān. Accordingly, roughly the first half of this article attends to Kugle’s conceptual, terminological, and other preliminaries, while the second half (as of “IV. Kugle and the Qurʾān” below) analyzes his attempted rereading of the Lot narrative.
II. Sexual Orientation, Homosexuality, and Sexuality as Categories
In his Progressive Muslims chapter, Kugle begins by articulating the “integral relationship between spirituality and sexuality,” later positing Islam as a “sex-positive” religion, particularly when compared to other, ostensibly more repressive and prudish, faiths. Kugle buttresses this view of a purportedly sex-positive Islam on the basis of several considerations, including: (1) the intersectionality of sexuality and spirituality in Islam; (2) the Qurʾān’s treatment of the Adamic fall as resulting from a shared failing of both Adam and Eve, rather than from sex or sexual desire per se; and (3) the Qurʾān’s affirmation of “diversity” as part of God’s signs, a diversity which Kugle will argue should be extended to diverse sexual orientations and related erotic practices.
Kugle proceeds to affirm sexuality as “an indicator of our core being, a sexuality which interweaves thoughts, desires, motivations, acts and psychological and mental well-being,” a definition borrowed from Momin Rahman’s Sexuality and Democracy. Kugle later points to the historical and cultural contingency of homosexuality as a category, engaging with essentialist and constructionist responses to the homo/hetero binary and suggesting “queer” (in the 2003 piece) as a superior neologism for describing “sexual orientations and practices” that are distinct from the more common heteronormative sexuality. A similar argument appears in Homosexuality in Islam, where Kugle remarks (correctly) that the Islamic tradition never expressed a conception of “sexuality” that exactly parallels modern psycho-social categories, in which one’s sexuality is interpreted as a psychological marker and a central part of one’s being.
Kugle uncritically endorses contemporary terms and categories related to sex and sexual identities that stand at the core of his entire argument. Yet the willingness to approach such categories from a critical perspective is an unavoidable prerequisite for any serious discussion of the relationship between the Sharīʿa and same-sex acts in Islam. Kugle is correct to note that the homo/hetero binary is a recent one and can be accounted for as a product of modernity. In this regard, one in fact finds a layer of complexity when addressing the enterprise of “sexuality” in the pre-modern tradition (both Islamic and otherwise) that is considerably more nuanced than the contemporary Western notions of “sexuality” and “queer” that Kugle endorses. In both the notions of “sexuality” and “queer,” there is an undifferentiated conglomeration of desires, motivations, psychological well-being and, crucially, acts. These definitions elide any meaningful distinction between inclinations and behavior—the very distinction which is, however, most relevant to the discourse and moral valuation of the Sharīʿa. In addition, Kugle treats sexuality and sexual orientation as predetermined, essential, and immutable, a claim disputed even in contemporary queer studies circles. Though the exact date of the emergence of the homo/hetero binary is difficult to pinpoint, historians tend to agree that it emerged sometime in the late 19th century. Some constructionist scholars have further argued that the conceptual categories of “gay” and “straight” were developed in order more clearly to locate sexual irregularity as a distinct psychological condition.
Though not the main focus of this paper, it is important to distinguish between the constructionist and essentialist approaches precisely because of the way in which Kugle employs the contested essentialist conception of homosexuality in service of his project, a conceptualization that can only anachronistically be applied to the Islamic tradition. Although Kugle acknowledges debates over the historical and cultural contingency of the term “homosexuality” and the corresponding conceptual category, he ultimately endorses “homosexuality” and “heterosexuality” as adequate categories for conceptualizing the psychological makeup of human beings in the sexual and affective realms. Homosexuality is presented as natural and fundamentally innate to one’s makeup. Accordingly, just as God created all human beings with definable characteristics that are celebrated as part of this God-given diversity (e.g., variation in color, gender, etc.), so too should homosexuality—though not, conspicuously, bisexuality—be celebrated as yet another discrete trait demonstrative of human diversity. Moreover, because homosexuality is presented as an entrenched psychic state that lies “deep in the core of the human personality,” critiquing it as “un-Islamic” would, for Kugle, be akin to denouncing a person’s skin color or gender as un-Islamic: just as one cannot select one’s biological sex or the pigmentation of one’s skin, one does not choose his or her sexual disposition.
In evaluating this set of claims, we must begin by asking what is meant by Kugle’s description of homosexuality as innate or natural. If by natural Kugle is referring to the popular claim of genetic substantiation (he alludes vaguely to the claimed findings of modern science without, however, citing any particular studies), it should be noted that there exists no proven definitive epigenetic marking that correlates to same-sex attraction or that supports the notion of straightforward biological determinism for sexual orientation. Even if research were to appear at some point identifying a genetic marker that corresponds to same-sex attraction, it is unclear by what principle such a correspondence could be used as a moral justification for acting upon said genetic predispositions in Islamic Law. A recent study claims, in fact, that human males have a “genetic, evolutionary impulse to cheat.” Should Islam—or any other ethical system for that matter—therefore permit adulterous relations on the basis of this finding? Commenting on this study, Daniel Haqiqatjou asks, “Based on this, would there be a need to categorize people into identity groups or communities based on that [i.e., a genetic propensity for cheating]? For example, would those with a greater pull to cheat self-identify as “extrasexuals” with everyone else identifying as “intrasexuals”? Would there be “extrasexual pride parades” and an “extrasexual rights movement” that would demand that Islamic and Catholic schools make space for “alternative (read, ‘adulterous’) lifestyles” and give voice to loud and proud cheaters? Would refusal by these institutions then be stigmatized as “extraphobia”?”
Alternatively, if what is meant by the claim that homosexuality is natural or innate is that people with same-sex attractions experience those feelings outside of their personal election and control, then it can readily be conceded that people do not generally choose their dominant sexual attraction. However, feelings that arise independent of one’s conscious choice are not immediately deemed “natural” in many other instances, and if they are, it is certainly not, for that reason, automatically deemed morally valid that they be acted upon. In fact, the Islamic tradition often speaks of temptation as stemming from the self (nafs)—an ingrained part of one’s being if there ever was one—and the overtures of the self are characterized as requiring discipline and control. For example, God states in the Qurʾān that man was created “anxious” (halūʿ) and “weak” (ḍaʿīf). Elsewhere, He says that man is a creature made “of haste” (min ʿajal). And in a ḥadīth, the Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have stated that the Fire is surrounded by temptation and desires (ḥuffat al-nār bi’l-shahawāt). According to another ḥadīth, the Angel Gabriel was commanded to look at the Fire, after which he said to God, “By Thy Honor, none shall enter it.” God then ordered that the Fire be surrounded by pleasures and instructed the Angel to look at it once more. Upon seeing the temptation and pleasures surrounding the Fire, Gabriel remarked, “By Thy Honor, I fear none shall be saved from it but that all shall enter it.” Despite constituting part of our human disposition, temptations, the overtures of the nafs, and our inherent impatience and anxiety are not things that we may use as an excuse to succumb to sin. Opposite-sex attraction, for example, is experienced by most men and women, but its presence does not legitimate casual intimacy, kissing, or even hugging, for that matter, outside of an Islamically valid legal relationship. Additionally, the impulse to lie, steal, or cheat may strike regularly and without consultation. All such impulses may be conceived of in some way as “natural” (and they certainly befall us absent any conscious choice), yet acting on them is nonetheless prohibited. As such, individuals struggling with same-sex desires may take comfort in knowing that they are not unique in being burdened with powerful drives that nonetheless must be disciplined and restrained.
In addition, we must recognize the cultural and historical contingency of the concept of “homosexuality” as a modern Western development. Did pre-modern peoples ever conceive of themselves as “heterosexual” or “homosexual”? Did sexual proclivities ever enter into their conception of self? If we take what has been registered in historical record seriously, then the answer to both questions is “no.” This is not to say that pre-modern persons did not write about love or possess sexual inclinations (even ones directed to the same sex), but rather to say that the presence of those desires was never viewed as constitutive of one’s very identity. By contrast, modern Western societies pigeonhole individuals at a young age into one of two (or more) sexual “orientations” that they must self-identify as at the risk of being “inauthentic” to the very “core of who they are.”
Muslims societies also differ from the modern West in that, in a great many times and places, they seem not to have found the presence of (at least certain kinds of) homoerotic desires particularly exceptional, and often versified their pervasiveness and allure in medieval poetry—a reality Kugle acknowledges when he states, “When one looks through the historical and literary records of Islamic civilization, one finds a rich archive of same-sex sexual desires and expressions, written by or reported about respected members of society.” Such attractions generally took the form of adult male infatuation with a “beardless youth,” or amrad (pl., murd / murdān), who had not yet outgrown the finer physique and smooth skin of a male not yet fully matured. (Adult male-male sexual desire and expression are, by comparison, relatively marginal in this same literature.) A critical distinction Kugle fails to mention, however, is that Muslim scholars never affirmed homoerotic behavior—as clear and distinct from homoerotic attractions—to be anything other than rigorously prohibited (ḥarām) from a normative religious perspective. Indeed, the very figure that Kugle references in his citations, Muḥammad b. Dāwūd al-Ẓāhirī (d. 297/909), son of the eponymous founder of the Ẓāhirī legal school who wrote the Kitāb al-Zahra and later confessed unrequited feelings of love for a young male companion of his, never acted on the desires he possessed. Instead, the Kitāb al-Zahra insists on the importance of governing one’s sexual desires through pious restraint and speaks of the “martyrdom of chastity.” In a very real sense, Ibn Dāwūd al-Ẓāhirī may present an early paragon for many Muslims struggling with same-sex attraction today as he conceded his own affection for another male yet, despite those propulsions, maintained God-consciousness (taqwā) and remained morally upright by refusing to express such feelings in the form of prohibited acts of physical consummation. This conduct in the face of moral struggle is often noted in al-Ẓāhirī’s biographies as a point of praise, with some citing a contested tradition of the Prophet Muḥammad (pbuh) that states, “Whoever loves passionately (ʿashiqa) but remains chaste, patient, and keeps his love a secret and dies, dies as a martyr,” a tradition that al-Ẓāhirī would recount on his death bed.
Like Ibn Dāwūd al-Ẓāhirī, Ibn Ḥazm, a fellow member of the Ẓāhirī school, wrote his own belletristic work on the topic of love entitled Ṭawq al-ḥamāma, or The Ring of the Dove. In this work, Ibn Ḥazm attends not only to male-female sexual attraction, but to male-male and male-boy attraction as well, a fact that Kugle adduces as part of his revisionist argument in Homosexuality in Islam. The presence of this content in Ṭawq al-ḥamāma has led to speculation on the part of some Western scholars that Ibn Ḥazm was himself a “homosexual” insofar as his dominant sexual attractions were concerned. Be that as it may, Ibn Ḥazm was unwavering in his commitment to the categorical Qurʾānic prohibition of same-sex behaviors affirmed by the consensus view of Muslim scholarship, as noted by Lois A. Giffen in “Ibn Hazm and the Tawq al-Hamama,” where she says:
Ibn Hazm, in dealing with cases of love, makes no essential difference between instances of passionate attachment—man for man (or youth), boy for girl, man for woman (or maiden), or vice versa. (Homoerotic attachments between women are not a subject of discussion.) As long as a story reveals some aspect of the nature of love and the psychology of lovers, it is most valuable grist for his mill. Whether the behaviour [emphasis mine] of the lover or the lovers has his approval, sympathy, pity or condemnation is quite another thing.
Camilla Adang reaches much the same conclusion as Giffen in her review of Ṭawq al-ḥamāma, where she states that Ibn Ḥazm held that the only “lawful form of intercourse for a man is within wedlock, or with a slave-woman he owns. For a woman, only intercourse with her husband is lawful.” Of note is not simply that Ibn Dāwūd al-Ẓāhirī and Ibn Ḥazm maintained this consensus view on licit and illicit sexual behaviors in Islam, but that neither of them seem to have viewed homoerotic—and specifically pederastic—sentiments as particularly aberrant in and of themselves. On the contrary, both were only too aware of their presence, but were concerned more pointedly with maintaining the behavioral standards of sexual conduct established by revelation, which calls for chastity as a rule and which permits sexual relations only within explicitly delineated, legally defined relationships between a male and a female. We will revisit Ibn Ḥazm in a forthcoming section, as his view that male-male anal intercourse (liwāṭ)—though categorically prohibited—does not constitute a ḥadd crime figures prominently in Kugle’s argumentation in Homosexuality in Islam.
III. Sexuality in the Islamic Discursive Tradition
As discussed in the preceding section, the conceptual framework of the Sharīʿa presents an understanding of sexual desire and conduct that diverges considerably from essentialist notions of orientation and disposition currently popular in the West. Far from being predetermined or immutable, sexual predilections are conceived within a framework that accounts for their general heterogeneity vis-à-vis human experience. Indeed, any individual may feel attraction toward another, and the presence of that desire is not essentialized into any defining identity. Rather, ethical valuations focus on what remains within the purview and concern of the Sacred Law, namely, governable actions. Such actions, however, include actions of the heart and mind (aʿmāl al-qalb), since one’s thoughts are essential to internalizing proper conduct as they influence both a person’s actions and his soul. It is in this regard that Muslim scholars have emphasized the importance of self-consciously aligning one’s thoughts with the Will of God. Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī (d. 505/1111) states in his famous tract on happiness, “The aim of moral discipline is to purify the heart from the rust of passion and resentment, till, like a clear mirror, it reflects the light of God.” In a ḥadīth reported in multiple collections, the Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have specified how God adjudicates the deeds of man: intending a good deed and performing it earns manifold rewards, intending a good deed but not being able to carry it out earns a single reward, intending to sin but then refraining for the sake of God earns a single reward, while intending to sin and following through with it earns a single punishment. In commenting on this ḥadīth, Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī (d. 795/1393) remarks that the reward for one intending a sin that he does not carry out is exclusively for the one who abandons this sin for the sake of God. He further delineates that the intent behind abandoning the sin could itself constitute a sinful deed, even with no accompanying act of the limbs, such as when a person leaves a sin merely for fear of what people might think. Moreover, even one who intends to sin and allows that intention to settle in his heart such that it becomes a firm resolution but later abandons that intent without reason may be considered sinful, for allowing the sin to settle constitutes an act of the heart. Ibn Rajab registers divergent views among the scholars on this issue. But scholars did not stop at simply cautioning against sinful thoughts; they stressed the importance of praiseworthy ones as well. Accordingly, having a good opinion of God (ḥusn al-ẓann bi’Llāh) was something the Prophet (pbuh) urged upon believers, instructing us to be confident in God’s response to our prayers and never to lose hope in God’s Mercy. Thoughts and internal musings, therefore, are hardly without consequence, and though one may not necessarily have complete jurisdiction over his or her thoughts, the decision to fixate upon those thoughts or to dispel them is, in principle, amenable to control. This ongoing process of self-regulation and cognitive evaluation is central to the Islamic moral and spiritual tradition, where the practice of spiritual maturation focuses on shepherding people to a place where they come to conceive of the world in a way that coincides with the demands of faith and the pleasure of God Almighty.
To be clear, I am not suggesting that someone can simply “think” himself out of spontaneous same-sex desires, but instead positing that the potency and frequency of those desires can be attenuated to make the moral and spiritual struggle a more manageable one. When, however, one accepts “homosexuality” not only as a substantive conceptual category but as a central marker of one’s very identity, then the need to regulate or somehow temper one’s same-sex desires will inevitably be conceived of, and internalized as, living with a “double consciousness” or “being unfaithful to one’s true self,” if not downright “oppressive.” But if we dispense with the contingent category of an essentializing homosexuality, then individuals spontaneously experiencing same-sex attraction can more readily situate their own struggle within the context of similar struggles, and not conceive of it as an exceptional condition calling either for especial stigmatization, on the one hand, or full embrace and “validation” on pain of being “untrue to one’s core self,” on the other. For this reason, Muslims should reject the essentializing and confining category of “homosexuality” (and its many cognates) altogether—particularly when touted as the basis of a personal “gay” or “queer” identity (as opposed to being strictly descriptive of one’s sexual inclinations)—and instead remain faithful to the more flexible, and truer, conceptual categories underlying Islam’s own discursive approach to sexuality.
Unlike contemporary Western notions of sexual orientation, the taxonomy of the Qurʾān and Sunna reflects not a particular set of contingent, historically and socially bound sensibilities, but rather establishes an independent, divinely instituted conceptual and normative framework for guiding Muslims’ approach to questions of gender and sexuality in any age. Terms such as shahwa (desire), fāḥisha (iniquity, gross indecency), farj (sexual organs), buḍʿ (genitalia; intercourse), liwāṭ (sodomy), maʾbūn (the receptive partner in homosexual sodomy), ḥarth (tillage), nikāḥ (marriage), nasl (family lineage), ʿiffa (continence, chastity), and other terms are all indigenous to the Islamic discursive tradition as based on revelation and, therefore, rightly determine the frame of reference in terms of which Muslims have always navigated questions of desire, sexual acts (same-sex or otherwise), chastity, and related matters. Kugle protests the use of the terms liwāṭ (‘sodomy’) and lūṭī (‘sodomite’) in Islamic legal literature as running contrary to a literal commitment to the Qurʾān. Although he is correct that the Qurʾān does not employ the specific nouns liwāṭ or lūṭī, let alone contain a specific term directly corresponding to “homosexuality” as a modern social construct understood to reflect the “core of one’s identity,” this argument is little more than a red herring. The Qurʾān also contains no terms that exactly render contemporary notions of “rape,” “consent,” and “sexual assault,” but surely Kugle would reject the allegation that any talk of a normative Qurʾānic perspective on these topics amounts to no more than an illegitimate projection onto the text that runs contrary to a commitment to the “literal specificity of the Qur’an as revelation.” The fact that the Qurʾān does not use specific terms corresponding directly to modern-day “homosexuality” and “sexual orientation” does not, therefore, mean that it contains no normative doctrine related to the substantive content implicit in these terms.
More to the point, Kugle nowhere justifies how the abstract, subjective, and culturally contingent notion of “sexual identity” can justifiably be wielded to override an explicit textual prohibition of discrete sexual acts that Muslims consider to be divinely revealed (and hence objective, absolute, and unchanging). The fact of the matter is that the Islamic tradition employs no term for distinguishing persons exclusively on the basis of internal sexual desire or “orientation.” Persons are not branded as fornicators merely on account of their desire to fornicate. Likewise, persons who experience same-sex attractions are not branded with any unique label, singled out from all other types of persons—whether, as we have stated, for the purposes of pathologization and stigmatization or for those of celebration and “affirmation.” Although the comparison between fornication and homosexual behavior may be perceived as offensive to current Western sensibilities, Islamic norms and sensibilities consider all forms of misdirected attraction as undesirable. Additionally, because revelation and the Sharīʿa based on it are exclusively preoccupied with objective acts and not with vague, subjective notions of orientation or disposition, the predomination of certain desires over others is immaterial in determining the legal qualification (ḥukm) assigned to objective discrete acts. Indeed, in the realm of sexuality, the cardinal legal axiom (qāʿida fiqhiyya) regarding sexual behavior in Islamic Law is: al-aṣl fī al-abḍāʿ al-taḥrīm, that is, all sexual acts are prohibited by default except those explicitly permitted by Sacred Law. Accordingly, even persons who experience unelected and exclusive same-sex attractions—such that marriage, for instance, may not be a viable option for them given their lack of any erotic attraction to the opposite sex—are nevertheless subject to the objective parameters of the Law and required to observe abstinence if necessary. The prospect of abstinence has been characterized by some revisionists as unduly onerous—even prejudicially burdensome—on persons who experience same-sex desires and attractions, but in reality the situation of such persons is not categorically different from the requirement of celibacy that applies to multitudes of people who are unable to marry for any number of reasons. Not every desire has a permissible outlet, and there are many circumstances that may prevent individuals from being able to regularize sexual relationships even in opposite-sex contexts (poverty, disease, looks, happenstance, etc.). To mention an example that has received some attention as of late, Muslim women living in the West have lamented a number of factors that have contributed to the recent emergence of spinsterhood: unsupportive parents, a rapidly closing window for fertility, and few eligible Muslim bachelors. Given these circumstances, should Muslims abandon the juristic consensus prohibiting Muslim women from marrying outside the faith? The answer is “no.” Like persons experiencing same-sex attractions, such persons fall under the obligation to preserve their chastity, abide by the dictates of the Sacred Law, and observe abstinence.
Additionally, because Kugle is concerned with subjective notions of disposition and orientation, he fails to account for the myriad terms indigenous to the Islamic tradition that are used in reference to acts that today would be referred to as “homosexual,” including ʿamal qawm Lūṭ (‘the act of the people of Lot’), liwāṭ (‘sodomy’), mulāwaṭa (synonym of liwāṭ), and other such variants that correlate the sexual indiscretions of Sodom to those that resembled them afterwards, namely, homosexual intercourse between men. One would, in effect, have to dismiss the entire corpus of Islamic scholarship if each and every term employed therein required explicit specification in the Qurʾān with no latitude for alternatives. “Uṣūl,” “sunna,” “ḥadīth,” “fiqh,” and numerous other technical terms indigenous to the Islamic sciences are not mentioned in their widely known technical senses in the Qurʾān, yet no one would doubt their legitimacy and appropriateness for conceptualizing and naming central aspects of Islamic religious discourse. Terms such as “liwāṭ” and “lūṭī” are no exception.
Kugle objects that the terms liwāṭ/lūṭī were popularized “in later times,” but how much later? In one ḥadīth, the Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said, “God has cursed whoever carries out the actions of Lot’s people (man ʿamila ʿamal qawm Lūṭ).” It is difficult to date with precision when this term was first employed, but the phrase “ʿamal qawm Lūṭ” is used in the exegetical work of al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923), appears in several early ḥadīth reports, and is employed in juristic works discussing whether or not male-male anal intercourse is subject to a divinely stipulated punishment (ḥadd), and if so, on what grounds. The term liwāṭ appears later in Ibn Manẓūr’s (d. 711/1311-12) famous dictionary Lisān al-ʿArab, which was written in the seventh/eighth century hijra, and numerous works thereafter, though of course the terms liwāṭ/lūṭī do not represent any departure from the phrase “ʿamal qawm Lūṭ” but are merely derivatives thereof and are not employed in any categorically different sense. In a ḥadīth attributed to Ibn ʿAbbās reported in the canonical collection of Abū Dāwūd, Ibn ʿAbbās uses the term “lūṭiyya” to refer to sodomy. In another report largely graded as weak (ḍaʿīf) found in the collection of Ibn Mājah, the Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have cautioned against directing the term lūṭī toward another man on pain of receiving twenty lashes. The authenticity of these specific traditions is less important here than the fact of their dating to at least the early third century of the hijra. Even if one were to dismiss them as fabrications, the inclusion of both traditions in works collected in the early third century establishes the existence of the term lūṭī in this early period, though it should be mentioned that “ʿamal qawm Lūṭ” as a term signifying sodomy figures more prominently in the earliest juristic works. The point here is that although scholars have employed varying terms when discussing same-sex acts, the substance and meaning of the terms were always used unambiguously in reference to one and the same act. This is no different than, say, the fact that the science of Islamic theological beliefs is referred to alternatively as “ʿaqīda,” “uṣūl al-dīn,” “ʿilm al-tawḥīd,” and other terms—none of which are mentioned in the Qurʾān or reported on the authority of the Prophet (pbuh), all of which were “innovated” at a later date, yet all of which refer to one and the same essential reality that no one would deny is part and parcel of the Islamic religion. Kugle’s quibble with the mere terminology at play is, therefore, entirely irrelevant to the discussion of the status of same-sex acts in Islam.
Kugle also presents the lack of explicit punishment in the Qurʾān for sexual acts between two men or two women as further proof for their permissibility. We must note, however, that the Qurʾān also does not stipulate an explicit punishment for rape, incest, bestiality, necrophilia, and a host of other sexual acts agreed upon by consensus to be immoral and prohibited. Can one therefore assume the Qurʾān’s endorsement, or even tacit permission, of these acts as well?
It is also here that we arrive at another problematic aspect of Kugle’s framing: one may concede that the Islamic tradition may be read as “sex positive,” as Kugle avers, but that positivity must be qualified in concrete terms. What does it mean to be a “sex-positive” faith? The pursuit of sexual pleasure in Islam is, in fact, viewed as laudable only within the confines of very specifically delineated circumstances (all of which are invariably male-female), outside of which sexual activity—particularly penetrative intercourse—constitutes an offense that actually figures among the most serious that one can commit in the faith. This is a critical distinction that Kugle goes out of his way to disregard, frequently translating and representing ḥadīth reports, statements of scholars, and verses from the Qurʾān as advocating sexual release and celebrating sexual pleasure in their own right, irrespective of the context or avenue through which such release occurs, or of the gender or legal relationship between the persons involved—both of which considerations are, however, critical to the religion’s own delineation of licit and illicit sexual acts.
Take, for example, the introductory passage that Kugle quotes from Madelain Farah’s translation of al-Ghazālī’s “Book on the Etiquette of Marriage” from his Revival of the Religious Sciences. Kugle reproduces the passage faithfully from Farah’s translation (with the exception of a few minor editorial changes), with one notable exception: the original phrase “subjecting creatures to desire through which He drove them to tillage (ḥirātha) [emphasis mine]” has been altered by Kugle into “subjecting creatures to desire through which God impelled them toward sexual intercourse [emphasis mine].” What is lost in this “emendation” is the direct implication and meaning of the term ḥirātha, which linguistically denotes cultivation or tillage (used as a metaphor for sexual intercourse) and, as such, can only refer to a (lawful) sexual relationship between a male and a female (i.e., the only type of relationship that can possibly constitute an act of “cultivation” or “tillage,” namely, through the possibility of conception). In his Companion to the Qur’an, W. M. Watt explains ḥirātha as “a development of the primitive metaphor which compares sexual intercourse with the sowing of seed, and speaks of children as the fruit of the womb.” This point is absolutely essential, as cultivating land and tilling soil directly evoke imagery of what a land can potentially yield. Although Islamic Law allows certain methods of contraception to avoid pregnancy, just as it does not restrict legitimate sexual enjoyment between lawful male and female partners to penetrative intercourse alone, the message here is quite clear that sexual relations are only lawful and praiseworthy when they occur within a paradigmatically procreative (and therefore necessarily opposite-sex) context. The importance of progeny and lineage is further expounded upon by al-Ghazālī in the sentences immediately following the excerpt cited by Kugle:
Then He glorified the matter of lineage, ascribed to it great importance, forbade on its account illegitimacy and strongly denounced it through restrictions and reprimands, making the commission thereof an outlandish crime and a serious matter, and encouraging marriage through desire and command.
Later al-Ghazālī states, “The first advantage—that is, procreation—is the prime cause, and on its account marriage was instituted [emphasis mine]. The aim is to sustain lineage so that the world would not want for humankind.” It should be noted here that despite the “sex positive” moniker Kugle applies to Islam, the Islamic tradition is resolute in its absolute and uncompromising denunciation of sexual relations in any context not expressly permitted by Sacred Law. Chastity is a chief attribute of belief and virtue, while licentiousness is reproached and censured. Illicit sexual intercourse (zinā) is one of the few religious prohibitions for which God has mandated a ḥadd penalty, indicating that sexual activity falling outside of the sanctioned parameters is not only spiritually deleterious but socially damaging to the moral fabric of the community as well.
The fact that Islam limits its positive appraisal of the sexual life to discrete divinely sanctioned acts that occur within a paradigmatically procreative context is further elucidated in the ḥadīth of the Prophet (pbuh), in which he states, “And in intercourse (buḍʿ) there is [the reward of] charity.” Upon hearing this the Companions were stunned and inquired how such a reward was possible when all one did was satisfy his desires (shahwa), to which the Prophet (pbuh) responded by explaining that had one satisfied his desires in an illicit manner, he would have been sinful; therefore, by satisfying one’s desires in a sanctioned manner, one is rewarded. In another ḥadīth, the Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said, “Whoever guarantees me what is between his two jaws and what is between his two legs, I shall guarantee him Paradise (man yaḍman lī mā bayna laḥyayhi wa mā bayna rijlayhi aḍman lahu al-janna).” In multiple places in the Qurʾān, God praises the one who guards his or her private parts, even including this in one verse among the principal characteristics of belief for which Paradise is rewarded as an inheritance. Elsewhere, He instructs believing men and women to lower their gaze as a precautionary measure against sexual misconduct. The implication of these teachings is quite clear: chastity is a difficult (but essential) virtue to uphold and restraint a challenging (but likewise essential) ethical imperative to enact. When one is able, through Divine Grace (tawfīq), to realize such a virtue successfully, he is rewarded by God generously in the Hereafter with Paradise. Toward this end, Ibn Ḥazm remarks in Ṭawq al-ḥamāma, in a chapter entitled “Of the Virtue of Continence”:
The finest quality that a man can display in love is continence: to abstain from sin and all indecency. For so he will prove himself to be not indifferent to the heavenly reward, that eternal bliss reserved by God for those who dwell in His everlasting kingdom, neither will he disobey his Master Who has been so gracious to him, in appointing him to be a creature worthy to receive His commandments and prohibitions, Who sent unto him His Messengers, and caused His Word to be immovably established with him—all this as a mark of His care for us, and His benevolence towards us.
The man whose heart is distraught and his mind preoccupied, whose yearning waxes so violent that it overmasters him, whose passion desires to conquer his reason, and whose lust would vanquish his religion; such a man, if he sets up self-reproach to be his strong tower of defense, is aware that the soul indeed “commands unto evil” (Koran XII 53). […]
How then shall it be with a man whose breast enfolds a passion hotter than blazing tamarisk, whose flanks convulse with a rage keener than the edge of a sword, who has swallowed the draughts of patience more bitter than colocynth and converted his soul by force from grasping at the things it desired and was sure it could reach, for which it was well prepared, and there was no obstacle preventing its attainment of them? Surely he is worthy to rejoice tomorrow on the Day of Resurrection and to stand among those brought near to God’s throne in the abode of recompense and the world of everlasting life; surely he has a right to be secure from the terrors of the Great Uprising, and the awful dread of the Last Judgement, and that Allah shall compensate him on the Day of Resurrection with peace, for the anguish he suffers here below!
With respect to the Qurʾān’s treatment of “diversity” (ikhtilāf), Kugle’s disquisitions on homosexuality fail to account for fairly obvious qualitative differences between the types of diversity celebrated in the Qurʾān, such as variant tribal, ethnic, and national groupings on the one hand, and homosexual inclinations-cum-practices on the other—the former of which bear no relevance to belief or action, whereas the latter, particularly where same-sex desires are translated into acts, fall under the direct scrutiny of religious valuation. One may legitimately affirm the existence of sexual “diversity,” just as Muslim scholars of the past did, as a trait present across an array of people, fully acknowledging that some people’s sexual impulses may predominate in one form or another (same-sex, opposite-sex, pederastic, etc.), but only with the all-important caveat that all are required to abide by God’s Law and to abstain from sexual acts that He has made illicit. Kugle goes to great lengths to demonstrate the Qurʾān’s recognition of disparate sexual dispositions, including his mentioning of Q. (al-Nūr) 24:30 that speaks of “men who are not in need of women,” but that recognition in no way renders same-gender sexual activity permissible. Rather, it only substantiates, if anything, the point that a recognition of “sexual diversity” can indeed, as has been the consensus of Muslims throughout history, coexist with an absolute prohibition of any sexual act that occurs outside the context of legally sanctioned—invariably male-female—relationships.
IV. Kugle and the Qurʾān
Having set the conceptual basis for his revisionism, what then follows is an elaborate attempt by Kugle to proffer an interpretation of the Qurʾānic discourse on the people of Lot (qawm Lūṭ) accommodative of homosexual practice. The Lot narrative appears in the Qurʾān on nine separate occasions. The relevant citations and passages have been provided below in the Appendix, along with accompanying synopses that briefly explain the verses in light of the exegetical tradition.
Of the nine passages cited, six make mention of male-male sexual acts either explicitly with words such as “you come unto men / males (taʾtūna al-rijāl / al-dhukrān) instead of women,” or implicitly by referring to the context of Lot confronting his people outside his home, entreating them to fear God and to consider his daughters who, on account of their female gender, are “purer” for them as mates (see Appendix, passages a, b, c, e, f, and g). The three passages that do not mention male-male sexual acts are brief, typically referencing Lot’s station as a pious messenger of God as well as his people’s disobedience in general terms (see Appendix, d, h, and i). Of the six passages that do make mention of male-male sexual acts, only the passage in Sūrat al-ʿAnkabūt mentions the additional indiscretions of “cutting off the road” and “practicing evil deeds in your assemblies” (see Appendix, g). The remaining five passages speak only about male-male sexual acts to the exclusion of any other wrongdoing, reinforcing the notion that although the people of Lot may have had several charges to their account, it is homosexual intercourse between men that remains their emblematic crime. Passages in Sūrat al-Aʿrāf, Sūrat al-Shuʿarāʾ, and Sūrat al-Naml make explicit mention of “coming / coming with desire unto men instead of women” (see Appendix, a, e, and f), whereas the passages in Sūrat Hūd and Sūrat al-Ḥijr recount Lot’s pleading with the people of Sodom to take “his daughters” (often understood as the women of the tribe) as mates instead of Lot’s male visitors (see Appendix, b and c).
It is also clear, when all these verses are taken together, that it is specifically and exclusively the same-gender aspect of the sexual practices of the people of Lot that is being condemned in them. No mention is made—even by implication—of coercion, dishonoring, or any other factor. The Qurʾān employs a rich vocabulary of terms for indicating force and aggression, yet none of these terms appear anywhere in the numerous passages that address the sexual practices of the people of Lot. By contrast, the only words that are used in this regard—and repeatedly at that—relate directly to “sexual desire” (shahwa) practiced by men on other men instead of on women, making it unequivocal that the men of Sodom’s incrimination for sexual malfeasance was specifically predicated on the gender sameness of their chosen sex partners. The plain sense of these verses is so clear and unequivocal that no exegetes have differed over their interpretation in that regard.
In arguing for a reinterpretation of the Lot narratives indulgent of consensual same-sex relations, Kugle calls for an adherence to the “literal specificity” of the Qurʾān, accusing medieval jurists and theologians of interpolating their own prejudices into exegetical and legal texts. Kugle rests his Qurʾānic hermeneutic on two interpretive methods, which he refers to as a “semantic analysis” and a “thematic analysis.” It is after performing an investigation within these two analytical contexts that he then attempts to drive home his conclusion. I will here attempt to engage Kugle’s hermeneutic on its own terms and to interrogate both analytical frameworks, as well as Kugle’s employment of them as part of his interpretive revisionism. In the final section of the article, I will address Kugle’s use of the figure of Ibn Ḥazm as part of his revisionist project.
Kugle and al-Ṭabarī’s Method of “Definition and Substitution”
Kugle sets the stage for his semantic analysis by reviewing the famous exegetical work of Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī (d. 310/923) as an example of a tendentious “heteronormative” reading of the Qurʾān. Kugle evaluates al-Ṭabarī’s treatment of Q. (al-Aʿrāf) 7:80-81, which reads: “(80) And (mention) Lot, when he said to his people, ‘Do you commit iniquity (fāḥisha) such as none in creation have committed before you? (81) For you come with desire unto men instead of women. Nay, you are a people transgressing (beyond bounds).’” Kugle cites selectively from al-Ṭabarī’s work, accusing him of the curious charge of “definition and substitution” in which al-Ṭabarī allegedly defines the nature of iniquity (fāḥisha) mentioned in the verse on his own whim and then substitutes that subjective definition into his exegesis of the Qurʾān. Kugle translates al-Ṭabarī’s commentary of Q. 7:80-81 as follows:
The transgression [fahisha] that they approach, for which they were punished by Allah, is “penetrating males sexually” [ityan dhukur]. The meaning is this: it is as if Lut were saying “You are, all of you, you nation of people, coming to men in their rears, out of lust, rather than coming to those that Allah has approved for you and made permissible to you from the women. You are a people that approach what Allah has prohibited for you. Therefore you rebel against Allah by that act.” That is what the Qur’an means by going beyond the bounds [israf] when Lut said, You are a people who go beyond all bounds.
A full translation of al-Ṭabarī’s commentary, however, renders the following (Qurʾānic verses are set in bolded italics):
When he said to his people – when he said to his people from Sodom, and to them Lot was sent – Do you commit iniquity (fāḥisha) – the iniquity that they approached and for which God punished them is penetrating men sexually – such as none in creation have committed before you? – none had committed this indecency in the world prior to them – Verily you come with desire unto men instead of women. Nay, you are a people transgressing (beyond bounds) – God is informing [us] as to what Lot conveyed to his people, and his reprimanding them for their actions: indeed you all, O people (ayyuhā ’l-qawm), approach men from their rears with desire (shahwatan) rather than coming to those whom God has approved for you and made permissible to you from among women. – You are a people transgressing (beyond bounds) – you are a people that approach what God has prohibited to you, insubordinate in your actions. And that is prodigality (isrāf) in this matter.
Far from Kugle’s accusation of a prejudicial or whimsical process of “definition and substitution,” al-Ṭabarī faithfully integrates these verses of the Qurʾān with a simple and straightforward explanation of their meanings—in fact citing none other than the Qurʾān itself in clarification of its own import. Kugle objects to al-Ṭabarī’s glossing of the iniquity (fāḥisha) in question as “coming with desire unto men instead of women.” Instead, he urges his reader to understand the term fāḥisha in its most generic and etymologically literal sense, devoid of the very context in which it is found. A full reading of Q. (al-Aʿrāf) 7:80-81, however, shows Lot accusing his people of committing an unprecedented indecency, one which is identified in the very next verse of the Qurʾān itself as “coming with desire unto men instead of women.” Kugle strains in his attempt to decouple these two verses from each other and to divorce them from their immediate context, suggesting that “iniquity” (fāḥisha) here could mean absolutely any type of indecent or unethical behavior and that al-Ṭabarī, like the community of Muslim exegetes and jurists for a millennium after him, made the “mistake” of reading these two verses sequentially (which, Kugle avers, results in a mere “speculative assertion” on their part), and as they appear in multiple places in the Qurʾān. In addition, Kugle’s charge of “definition and substitution” makes even less sense when one considers al-Ṭabarī’s exegetical method, one that is faithful to the text of the Lot narrative as it appears in the Qurʾān itself, with minimal actual commentary of his own. Far from interpolating his own words and expressions, al-Ṭabarī does nothing but quote from the Qurʾān itself in order to elucidate the meaning of Q. 7:80-81. It is shocking that Kugle dismisses as biased heterosexist interpolation on the part of al-Ṭabarī words and phrases that are, in fact, none other than the words of God Himself drawn from the very same passages which al-Ṭabarī is commenting.
Later, Kugle again cites al-Ṭabarī’s method of “definition and substitution,” this time to charge him with asserting that the sole content of Lot’s prophetic mission and purpose was to make the act of intercourse between men forbidden—with the implication that the prohibition of this act would somehow be open to question just so long as it can be shown that it was not the only, or even the principal, reason why Lot was sent to his people. Kugle quotes al-Ṭabarī as stating, “This approach [declaring anal sex between men hateful] was the content of Lut’s prophetic message [risala]; his purpose was to make this act forbidden.” Unfortunately, this statement appears nowhere in the actual exegetical work of al-Ṭabarī. Instead, al-Ṭabarī remarks when speaking of Q. (al-Aʿrāf) 7:83 (“So We rescued him and his household, save his wife; she was of those who stayed behind”):
When Lot’s people rejected him—despite his many reprimands on account of the iniquity they were committing, and his conveying to them the message of his Lord concerning what was forbidden to them—with stubborn insolence, We saved Lot and his believing family except his wife, for she was to Lot a deceiver and in God a disbeliever (kāfira).
Kugle attempts to paint al-Ṭabarī as so fixated on the prohibition of anal intercourse between men that he was incapable of reading the Lot narrative as anything else. And yet there is little evidence that al-Ṭabarī did anything other than render meanings that accord with the direct and obvious import of the verses in question. At no point does al-Ṭabarī suggest that anal sex between men was the sole, or even principal, mission for which Lot was commissioned. That said, even if al-Ṭabarī had asserted that Lot’s principal mission was to eradicate the transgression of homosexual sodomy, this would not be an altogether unreasonable conclusion given the Qurʾān’s repeated—and usually exclusive—mention of “coming with desire unto men instead of women” within the context of the Lot narrative. All exegetes acknowledged and cataloged the diverse crimes committed by the people of Sodom, but it was indeed same-sex acts between men for which they were most infamous and exegetical commentary on the Lot narrative has, unsurprisingly, never failed to reflect this. That over a thousand years’ worth of scholarship after al-Ṭabarī, and the entire community of Muslims prior to him, concurred with and echoed al-Ṭabarī’s reading of the Qurʾān on this point is dismissed by Kugle as a simple reflection of how “disempowered” later exegetes were from offering alternative readings of the Lot narrative.
Kugle and Semantic Analysis
It is at this juncture, after having evaluated the purported inadequacies of al-Ṭabarī’s classical commentary, that Kugle begins to propose his own hermeneutic, one which starts with a semantic analysis. Kugle describes a semantic analysis as one that “does not trust a simple translation” but demands that words “become enmeshed in a web of relationships to other words” to gain a fuller understanding of terms in their Qurʾānic context. Kugle states about semantic analysis:
This method gives a very “literal” reading of the text. It respects the word of the Qur’an not as defined by human authorities who assign them meanings by definition and substitution, but rather as defined by their placement in relation to other words in the Qur’an itself.
Kugle presents the article of Amreen Jamal, “The Story of Lut and the Qur’an’s Perception of the Morality of Same-Sex Sexuality,” as the “first critical attempt to reassess the Qur’an’s view of same-sex relationships.” In doing so, he reports Jamal’s conclusion that the various terms associated with the Lot narrative are not exclusive to the people of Lot or to same-sex sexuality. Jamal, for instance, demonstrates that terms such as fāḥisha (‘iniquity’), shahwa (‘desire’), and isrāf (‘prodigality’)—which appear prominently in the Lot narrative—also appear in other contexts in the Qurʾān that refer to indiscretions that are at times “heterosexual” (such as zinā, or male-female fornication and adultery) and, in other instances, to misdeeds that are entirely non-sexual in nature.
What Kugle fails to disclose, however, is the remainder of Jamal’s conclusions, many of which directly undermine his revisionist objectives. Jamal maintains in her conclusion that “[u]ndeniably, the moral terms associated with same-sex sexuality in the Qur’an ultimately give it a negative evaluation and deem it to be a sin. However, these same moral terms are often used to evaluate opposite-sex abominations such as adultery, fornication and/or incest, as well as other non-sexual practices, examples of which have already been outlined.” It is remarkable that, even after she conducted a detailed, 88-page semantic analysis of no fewer than seventeen variant root words that appear in the story of Lot across fourteen different Qurʾānic sūras, Jamal’s conclusions regarding the “undeniable sinfulness” of same-sex sexuality are not considered probative by Kugle. Kugle’s appeal to semantic analysis is thus ultimately meaningless for his larger project. Far from supporting his effort to recast same-gender sexuality as morally neutral and religiously legitimate, an exhaustive semantic analysis of the Lot narrative—encompassing all of the operative terms on which it is based as they are used throughout the Qurʾān—has led to the exactly opposite conclusion.
Kugle’s Thematic Analysis
Kugle begins his section on thematic analysis by providing background on this approach and articulating how it differs in comparison to classical methodologies. According to Kugle, a thematic analysis accounts for the structural nuances and dialectic of the Qurʾān more readily than classical commentaries, which allegedly ignore this dynamic. It is nevertheless unclear how Kugle’s proposed thematic analysis differs from Jamal’s effort to evaluate the placement of recurrent terms used in the Lot narrative as found throughout the Qurʾān. Setting this aside, Kugle demonstrates thematic analysis by using the example of water and how, depending on the context of the Qurʾānic passage and larger scriptural theme, the term water may refer to “liquid H2O” or elsewhere provide imagery as “rainfall, seas, or a means of ritual purification.” Kugle notes that by employing a thematic analysis of water, we are forced to “examine the way our economies destroy the environmental interconnectedness that is the apparent conduit for Allah’s continuous creation and provision.” Kugle’s thematic analysis of water, however, scarcely differs from the conclusions of classical commentaries and theologians. Many spoke of water as provision and essential to life and incorporated rainfall, seas, and ritual purification into their works. None of Kugle’s conclusions or interpretations on this score can be classified as revisionist, unprecedented, or uniquely insightful.
After having accused classical exegetes of ignoring thematic analysis entirely, Kugle turns to a different classical genre which he considers illustrative of the very type of thematic analysis which he advocates. The genre in question, known as qaṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ (lit. “stories of the prophets”), is concerned with collecting available reports about the various prophets mentioned in the Qurʾān and coalescing them into fluid, chronological narratives. To provide heft to his forthcoming usage of qaṣaṣ commentary, Kugle asserts that the practice of telling stories about the prophets was “just as old and just as authentic [emphasis mine] as making explicit commentaries on the Qur’an.” Such a statement can only charitably be described as dubious. In reality, the tradition of storytelling held very little authority in general, and has never held any at all in the fields of jurisprudence (fiqh) or theology (ʿaqīda).
In the formative period of Islam, a category of preachers emerged devoted to sermonizing to the masses in an accessible method by way of stories and narratives. Referred to popularly as “quṣṣāṣ” (‘storytellers,’ sing. qāṣṣ), the aim of the storyteller depended on context. In the battlefield, he was a motivator; in the mosque, a heart softener; in the streets, an admonisher or, at times, a performer. Scholars have differed with respect to the emergence of the quṣṣāṣ, with Khalil ‘Athamina dating their beginnings back to “at least one generation before the outbreak of the first civil war in 657 A.D.” With the expansion of Islam into foreign territory, there appeared an urgent need to convey the teachings of the new religion to peoples for whom the native Arabic of the Qurʾān was inaccessible. To bridge this gap and to address new converts, quṣṣāṣ emerged in order to facilitate instruction, principally about the Qurʾān and its narrative stories. ‘Athamina notes that “pious theologians exhibited a great degree of tolerance toward the phenomenon of qaṣaṣ itself, although they themselves considered it a negative innovation and a deviation from the rules of Islamic sunna.” Eventually, the genre of qaṣaṣ deteriorated into what Charles Pellat has described as fraud and charlatanism. Storytellers were cautioned against as they frequently interposed sporadic narratives from unnamed sources, myths, legends, and Isrāʾīliyyāt (patristic and midrashic traditions and folklore). Though the Prophet Muḥammad (pbuh) permitted listening to tales and narrations from the previous Abrahamic communities, he cautioned his followers neither to accept nor to deny those narrations whose content could neither be specifically affirmed nor specifically negated on the basis of Islam’s own authoritative revealed sources. (Isrāʾīliyyāt that flatly contradicted Islamic beliefs were, of course, to be rejected out of hand.)
Preachers and scholars began documenting qaṣaṣ narrations in order to convey general benefits, lessons, and morals, but the very authors of such works themselves refrained from assigning their own narrations any probative value whatsoever in the critical fields of creed (ʿaqīda) and jurisprudence (fiqh). A well-intended preacher could take up the task of conveying stories to the masses, but scholars were keen to ensure that the scope and preaching of the quṣṣāṣ did not infringe upon the preserve of proper scholarly authority, especially where the Prophet Muḥammad (pbuh), the nature and attributes of God, and the rulings (aḥkām) of the Sharīʿa were concerned. There is no work of fiqh that makes mention of a qaṣaṣ text as the prime evidence for determining a legal ruling. Therefore, to claim that qaṣaṣ works were just as authentic as exegetical commentaries—particularly in the field of legal derivation—constitutes a serious error that bespeaks a lack of familiarity with established Islamic legal norms and methods. Proper exegetical (tafsīr) works, on the other hand—and in sharp contrast to works of qaṣaṣ—were authored by prominent scholars throughout the ages, including the likes of Ibn al-Jawzī (d. 597/1116), al-Rāzī (d. 606/1209), al-Qurṭubī (d. 671/1273), and others. Walid Saleh has remarked that tafsīr “stands at the heart of the Islamic literatures produced in any age,” later describing it as the “most important bearer of religious thinking.” It is for this reason that Gibril Haddad has stated that “[a]ll the great exegetes agreed on tafsīr as requiring mastery in the entire spectrum of the Islamic disciplines.” None of this can be said for the genre of qaṣaṣ.
Despite these glaring methodological errors, Kugle not only marshals qaṣaṣ literature enthusiastically as part of his revisionist epistemology, but consecrates it as the central piece in his effort to extract a more “reliable” understanding of the Lot narrative than what can be found in the established works of tafsīr. Toward this end, Kugle cites lengthy passages from the qaṣaṣ work of Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Kisāʾī (active 5th/11th c.), which he states “quotes from earlier books that no longer exist.” It is important to note that Kugle erroneously cites the al-Kisāʾī who wrote the qaṣaṣ work in question as ʿAlī b. Ḥamza al-Kisāʾī (d. 189/804), the famous transmitter of one of the seven canonical Qurʾānic readings, or qirāʾāt, and founder of an early school of grammar based in Kufa. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Kisāʾī, however, the author of the later qaṣaṣ work in which Kugle anchors the bulk of his Qurʾānic revisionism, is by all counts an obscure figure. Little has been recorded about his life, his date of death is a matter of great uncertainty, and no other work has been attributed to him aside from his aforementioned qaṣaṣ collection, itself a marginal and relatively unknown work in the larger qaṣaṣ genre.
At any rate, in this lesser known al-Kisāʾī’s work, the Lot narrative is presented in a sequential, comprehensive format. The people of Sodom are reported to have been guilty of a variety of crimes, including idolatry and myriad forms of gambling. Concerned about foreign intrusion during a time of famine, Satan appears to them in the form of a man scolding them for not having safeguarded their orchards as they had their homes. He suggests that any foreign intruder be accosted and raped via anal intercourse. Heeding Satan’s advice, the inhabitants of Sodom become accustomed to such acts of violence and indecency until Lot appears to warn his people against them. Lot admonishes the people of Sodom for their iniquities, but to no avail. He remains with his people for some time, after which a group of angels appear in the form of men visiting the town. Lot takes the guests in immediately, fearful for them of his people’s debauched custom of penetrating men. Ultimately, the men of Sodom learn of the guests’ presence, charge Lot’s home despite his entreating them to take instead his daughters who are “purer for them,” at which point the angels reveal their true identity to Lot and invoke the punishment of God upon the people of Sodom. Soon after, the town is destroyed.
It is worth taking note of a glaring incongruence in Kugle’s epistemology. Elsewhere, he critiques the ḥadīth tradition for having insufficiently scrutinized the probity of individual ḥadīth reports. Kugle laments that people nowadays “cite hadith without discussing the reliability of the hadith’s chain of narration or judging the authenticity of the report’s content to assess what level of certainty can be attributed to the knowledge the report conveys.” Ḥadīth, he laments, have become weaponized by “neo-traditionalists” to further their own agenda, carelessly and without any concern for their authenticity. Kugle belabors the well-known point that the majority of ḥadīth reports are classified as non-definitive (ẓannī), in contrast to the certainty (qaṭʿiyya) of mass-transmitted (mutawātir) texts, a category under which falls the entirety of the Qurʾānic text in addition to a relatively small number of ḥadīth narrations. Indeed, Kugle makes much ado about the purported “unreliability” of ḥadīth and how they merely reflect a neo-traditionalist “vision of orthodoxy,” further charging that the few still trained to scrutinize ḥadīth credibility today have “abandoned their duty.” In a dedicated chapter on ḥadīth in Homosexuality in Islam, Kugle brings up reason after reason for rejecting ḥadīth reports otherwise designated ṣaḥīḥ (‘sound’)—a label he deems “optimistic” and that merely serves to make otherwise tenuous reports appear more reliable than they really are. It is curious indeed that Kugle reserves such great suspicion vis-à-vis the rigorously authenticated reports adjudged ṣaḥīḥ by centuries of ḥadīth scholarship only to lay enormous evidentiary weight upon qaṣaṣ materials from an obscure late author lacking any chain of transmission (isnād) or other evidentiary basis whatsoever.
To his credit, Kugle anticipates such an objection, referring to it as a “possible critique” and averring that some may refer to al-Kisāʾī’s account of the people of Lot as a “‘fictional’ story.” He admits that critics might “rush” to point out that al-Kisāʾī provides no reports with narrative chains extending back to the Prophet or to the Companions, dissimulating the fact that al-Kisāʾī in fact furnishes no reports with narrative chains at all. Plying qaṣaṣ materials as reliable and authoritative, if not quasi-apodictic, while casually dismissing the majority of an entire genre of diligently scrutinized revelational statements—namely, ḥadīth—as merely speculative, is both epistemologically incoherent and radically at odds with the Islamic scholarly tradition under the rubric of which Kugle claims to be advancing his cause. This epistemological haphazardness is yet another demonstration of how committed Kugle seems to be to promoting anything that advances his revisionist account, no matter how tendentious the source or incoherent the methodology.
Moreover, Kugle is selective even when quoting from these dubious sources, citing only passages that support his goals and ignoring those that run counter to them. In his presentation of events, al-Kisāʾī cites Q. (Hūd) 11:78, “He said, ‘O my people, these are my daughters; they are purer for you’ ” in conjunction with the end of Q. (al-Ḥijr) 15:71, “‘if indeed you must act’,” then specifies, “meaning sexual intercourse.” This passage occurs after the people of Sodom discover the presence of the handsome young men (in reality angels) residing at Lot’s home. When the men demand that Lot release his guests to them for sexual purposes, Lot responds by offering his daughters instead, stating that they are “purer” for them than his (male) guests. It is in this context that al-Kisāʾī interprets the purity mentioned by Lot as relating to sexual intercourse, directly implying that opposite-sex acts hold a purity that same-sex acts inherently do not. Yet Kugle fails to cite this passage from al-Kisāʾī’s account. He is also selective in his choice of qaṣaṣ works. Why, for example, is the renowned qaṣaṣ work of the famous Ibn Kathīr (d. 774/1373) ignored? Is it because Ibn Kathīr in that work states, “[The people of Sodom] invented an iniquity (fāḥisha) that none among the children of Adam had preceded them in committing by penetrating men sexually (ityān al-dhukrān) of all creatures, leaving what God had created of righteous female servants”?
Recognizing the tenuous and rather fickle nature of the narrative transmitted in the work of al-Kisāʾī, Kugle attempts to buttress his “thematic analysis” with another qaṣaṣ work, this one by the 6th/12th-century Shiite author Quṭb al-Dīn al-Rāwandī (d. 573/1177). Unlike the qaṣaṣ of al-Kisāʾī, al-Rāwandī’s qaṣaṣ work contains traditions with accompanying chains of transmission (isnād). There are two traditions that Kugle cites for his purposes, both of which he represents misleadingly. The first tradition begins with the Prophet (pbuh) asking the Angel Gabriel “why and how the people of Lut were destroyed.” Gabriel responds by mentioning that the people of Lot did not clean themselves after excreting, did not purify themselves after entering into major ritual impurity (janāba), and refused to share food generously with others. The ḥadīth as presented in context, however, does not offer the foregoing as an exhaustive list: it makes no mention of highway robbery nor of “coming with desire unto men instead of women,” both explicitly (and, in the case of the latter, recurrently) highlighted in the Qurʾān. Nonetheless, Kugle uses this obviously partial listing—for are we to conclude that highway robbery is not a crime either since it too is absent from this listing?—in order to establish the “true” infidelity of Lot’s people: greed, avarice, covetousness, and the like, deliberately excluding same-sex intercourse in direct contradiction to the literal wording of the Qurʾān to which he claims such unwavering allegiance. Kugle then mentions a second tradition in al-Rāwandī’s work that speaks of the greed and avarice of Lot’s people, reporting that the people of Sodom engaged in sexual acts as a means of deterring travelers as well as impecunious and destitute petitioners. It was not, Kugle puts forth, consensual sex among men, but violent rape, of which the Sodomites were guilty.
In responding to this line of argument, it is important to bear in mind al-Rāwandī’s location as a medieval Shiite scholar. As in Sunni scholarship, Shiite scholars would not consider al-Rāwandī’s qaṣaṣ narrations anywhere near as probative as the authoritative Shiite ḥadīth collections known as the Four Books (al-kutub al-arbaʿa), Nahj al-balāgha, Risālat al-ḥuqūq, or one of the many other primary texts that form the central corpus of the Shiite tradition. In addition, Kugle applies absolutely no scrutiny whatsoever to the narrations he cites from al-Rāwandī. Are they sound? How have they been graded by scholars? What is known about their transmitters? Kugle reveals none of this information.
Secondly, Kugle is guilty yet again of selective citation. He makes no mention of the traditions surrounding the ones he cites that make explicit mention of same-gender intercourse among the iniquities of the people of Lot. These traditions include the following:
Abū Baṣīr reports from one of the two, may God’s blessings be upon them, concerning the verse “Do you commit iniquity (a-taʾtūna ’l-fāḥisha)”: Iblis came to them in the image of an effeminate youth wearing fine clothing. He exhibited attraction toward them, directing them to have intercourse with him [as the passive partner] and they did so. Had he directed them to be the passive partner, they would have refused, but instead they grew to enjoy it. Then he left them as they were, and they continued [having intercourse] with one another after that.
As can be seen, the foregoing tradition bears no resemblance to the narrative Kugle is attempting to advance. It paints same-sex intercourse as a phenomenon engendered by Satan and alleges that it predominated among youth (shabāb). Will Kugle grant this tradition legitimacy as well? Furthermore, the narration mentions nothing of rape or coercion whatsoever. In fact, it explicitly states that the youth grew to enjoy this activity and that they continued to practice it with each other—clearly in a consensual and mutually pleasurable manner—after Satan’s departure. It also paints taking pleasure in the passive role in anal intercourse (i.e., assuming the role of maʾbūn) as particularly repugnant to the natural constitution, or fiṭra, yet something that one can nevertheless grow to enjoy through repeated acts of indulgence.
In addition, Kugle misreads the second tradition he cites as being a commentary on the people of Lot, whereas in reality it is a commentary on the potential outcome of unrestrained avarice. The tradition states that if avarice is not controlled, one may eventually end up as sexually unbridled as the people of Lot. Kugle translates the end of the tradition as stating, “They would rape them (fadahahu) without sexual need, in order to dishonor them. They persisted in this behavior until they began to search out men and force themselves on them [emphasis mine].” A proper translation of the tradition, however, renders: “They would rape the visitor (faḍaḥūhu) without desire (shahwa). They persisted in this behavior until they sought out men and provided them compensation (yuʿṭūna ʿalayhi al-niḥal).” In context, although the people of Lot are initially described as suffering from rapaciousness, it is this same consumption—namely, of their own wealth and possessions—that leads them to raping visitors of the same gender, an act in which they engage over and over to the point that they then engage in consensual same-sex intercourse among themselves thereafter. Avarice, greed, same-sex forcible intercourse, and same-sex consensual intercourse all fall equally under the opprobrium of this narration. In fact, engaging in same-sex behavior with mutual consent and pleasure is, if anything, depicted as the ultimate moral outrage to which the others can eventually lead if left unchecked.
All this still leaves a fairly important loose end which Kugle needs to square away with the revisionist narrative he is attempting to construct: Lot’s daughters. Why did Lot offer up his daughters to the people of Sodom when they came with sexual intent for his male guests? In order to reconcile this verse with the rest of his account, Kugle attributes the offering as a type of hospitality extended by Lot to his guests. To put it in other words, Kugle is asking us to believe that Lot was so troubled by the possibility of violent gang rape against his guests as reflecting poorly on his hospitality as a host that he was ready to offer up his own daughters to be raped by the people of Sodom instead! Kugle describes this gesture as a type of sacrificial offering that demonstrates the sacred need to defend unfamiliar guests over one’s very kith and kin.
Recognizing the implausibility of such an interpretation, Kugle revealingly abandons this reading in Homosexuality in Islam, where he enquires, “Would anyone believe that a Prophet would offer his daughters to assailants intent on rape, as if their raping women would make them ‘pure’?” Kugle’s indignation at such a reading is extraordinary, particularly given that he himself had proposed this very interpretation only a few years prior. In Kugle’s earlier Progressive Muslims piece, he states, “When Lut offers up his family members (who happen to be female daughters) in exchange for his guests (who happen to be male visitors), he displays in most extreme terms the sacredness of protecting guests who are elevated even above the status of offspring.” The revised hermeneutic in Homosexuality fails even to acknowledge this prior position. It makes no effort to reconcile the two, or perhaps to offer a reason as to why Kugle has modified his prior interpretation. As an alternative “exegesis,” he now insists in Homosexuality that Lot was making a “sarcastic comparison” intended to demonstrate the vile nature of the assailants’ ill intent. Despite his best efforts to offer a more credible reading of the Lot narrative, Kugle leaves his reader with yet another far-fetched and most improbable interpretation. In this revised scenario, Lot’s mentioning of his daughters as being “purer” for the men is merely tongue-in-cheek and not intended to be taken literally. That Lot’s daughters are female is presented as merely accidental, with any focus on gender being put at the feet of sex-obsessed theologians bent on supporting their heterosexualist tribe—and this charge, despite the fact that the Qurʾān itself so unmistakably links the female gender of Lot’s daughters to the one and only reason on account of which they are “purer” for Lot’s people as sexual partners than his male guests.
Kugle’s reworked narrative is thus highly implausible in that it does not square with the verses of Lot in the Qurʾān and relies exclusively upon spurious later traditions from dubious sources, cited selectively and systematically misrepresented. Furthermore, Kugle’s project requires a complete dismissal of hundreds, if not thousands, of past and present scholars as simply products of a “heteronormative economy” that became too dominant for anyone to oppose. It is, in brief, a revisionism that falls short and ultimately fails to convince in its attempt to construct an alternative reading of the Lot narrative.
V. Comparing Homosexuality in Islam with Progressive Muslims Piece
Kugle’s original piece in Progressive Muslims was written in 2003, seven years prior to the publication of his dedicated work Homosexuality in Islam (2010). It is interesting to observe the incongruities between the two works, a few of which have been mentioned in the preceding sections. For one, Kugle maintains the importance of reviewing Qurʾānic themes, but makes no mention of qaṣaṣ works in Homosexuality. Al-Kisāʾī and al-Rāwandī make no appearance in this latter work—in stark contrast to the Progressive Muslims piece in which these two qaṣaṣ works form the backbone of his thematic analysis. In addition, Kugle in Homosexuality now maintains that the people of Lot were not simply guilty of sexual assault, but of infidelity as well. In this regard he writes:
The men who attacked Lot’s guests with the intent to rape them had wives and children, as they do the men in lust besides the women [min dūn al-nisā’], as the Qur’an (27:55) emphasizes through its grammar. It makes definite both “the men” whom they are sexually assaulting and “the women” with whom they already have sexual relationships. That the Qur’an makes these nouns definite (with al- or “the”) alerts the attentive reader to the specificity of Lot’s condemnation. […] Their sexual assault was driven by their infidelity and their rejection of their Prophet.
Contrary to what Kugle asserts, the grammar of these verses makes no indication at all that the men guilty of anally penetrating other men necessarily had wives or children. Kugle seems to assume that the Arabic definite article works just like the English one (i.e., alif + lām = “the”), which (in English) always refers to a specific, as opposed to a generic, referent. That the Arabic definite article, in contrast, can and often does refer to a generic class and not to a specific referent—as in the Latin languages and others—is an elementary point covered early on in any classical Arabic grammar or modern university Arabic course. Yet Kugle seems either to be ignorant of this basic grammatical feature of the Arabic language or to be obfuscating it deliberately in order to make a point that cannot be supported by a grammatically informed reading of the text. When, for instance, the Qurʾān states, “Verily, man (al-insān) is in loss,” it is not referring to one specific man, or to any particular set of individuals, but instead to mankind as a class. In Arabic grammar, this elementary use of “al-” is referred to as the generic definite article (alif-lām al-jinsiyya). Likewise, when Lot says, “Do you come with desire unto men (al-rijāl) instead of women (al-nisāʾ)?” he says this not in reference to any particular women, but in reference to women as a class (and, obviously, as distinctly opposed to men as a class). Had Lot meant to reference the men’s wives in particular, he would have said “your women” or perhaps “your wives,” yet Lot says no such thing.
Kugle attempts to bolster the aforementioned argument by citing Q. (al-Shuʿarāʾ) 26:165-166, which he translates as, “Do you do males from the wide world and leave what mates God has created for you? Indeed you are a people exceeding in aggression.” According to Kugle, Lot is specifying here that these men have mates (azwāj) to whom they are already married, such that they are guilty not only of sexually assaulting men, but of marital infidelity as well. Although the term “mates” (azwāj) can refer to spouses, this word often occurs in the Qurʾān to refer to men and women being mates of one another as a normative principle (in contrast to a realized fact). Both Q. (al-Rūm) 30:21 and Q. (al-Shūrā) 42:11, for example, state that God has “created (30:21) / made (42:11) for you mates from amongst yourselves (khalaqa / jaʿala lakum min anfusikum azwājan).” Traditional exegetes make no mention of wives when commenting on the verses of Sūrat al-Shuʿarāʾ (26:165-166) cited above, instead interpreting them as indicating that the people of Sodom were solely interested in sex by anal penetration to the exclusion of vaginal intercourse, such that they not only partook in anal sex with men but with women as well.
In addition, if we attempt to understand this verse alongside the passage where Lot offers his daughters up for marriage [see Q. (Hūd) 11:78], then the notion that the men in question were already married becomes even less probable. Presumably, if the men of Sodom already had wives to whom they could turn, Lot would have simply directed them to go to these (already existing) wives of theirs, rather than offering them his own daughters. Moreover, when one considers the common interpretation of “daughters” in Q. 11:78 as “women of the town,” this only reinforces the conclusion that the verse is speaking not of wives, but of women more generally—i.e., the women of the town—who were created, as a generic class, to be spouses for the men. That Lot’s people responded to him in this passage by saying, “You know well that we have no claim on your daughters, and indeed, you know what we want,” only problematizes the interpretation of wives even further. The men’s “having no claim” on Lot’s daughters has been interpreted by exegetes in various ways. Al-Ṭabarī interprets it to mean that the men of Sodom were uninterested in marriage and as such had no claim upon Lot’s daughters as single, marriageable women. Al-Zamakhsharī views the people of Sodom as having spurned male-female sexual acts so completely that they held marriage and male-female relations, in terms of normative belief and social practice, to be false and wrong (bāṭilun madhhaban wa dīnan), while accepting male homosexual intercourse as legitimate and right (ḥaqq). Al-Rāzī attributes the men’s “having no claim” on Lot’s daughters to a lack of sexual interest in women given their exclusive desire for men.
Given the lack of any precedent in the tafsīr tradition maintaining that the men of Sodom had wives, the common use of azwāj in non-matrimonial contexts, and Lot’s offering of “his daughters”—be it his lineal descendants or his “spiritual daughters,” the women of his town—to the men of Sodom, it is highly improbable that Kugle’s interpretation could be considered a valid rendering of the meaning of the verse in question. This is yet another incidence that demonstrates Kugle’s willingness to force his own agenda onto the text: he approaches the Qurʾān with a settled conclusion in mind and manipulates his interpretive approach when and as needed to arrive at already predetermined views.
VI. Ibn Ḥazm and Homosexuality in Islam
Setting the allegations of infidelity aside, Kugle’s most significant addition to Homosexuality in Islam is the famous Andalusian jurist and litterateur Ibn Ḥazm (d. 456/1064) of Cordoba. Ibn Ḥazm is central to the book, with his name appearing repeatedly in every chapter. Drawing from Ibn Ḥazm’s legal treatise al-Muḥallā fī sharḥ al-Mujallā, Kugle presents his chosen hero as gallantly confronting an ossified legal tradition in need of a radical make-over. Describing Ibn Ḥazm as a “sexuality-sensitive” interpreter of the Qurʾān, Kugle praises him time and again. Ibn Ḥazm’s interpretations, Kugle asserts, are informed by “a subtle theory of human nature,” unlike others who exhibit no such understanding. Ibn Ḥazm is described as “fearlessly challenging” the “conclusions of common piety and chauvinistic self-righteousness.” His erudition was so pronounced that he was “not only a jurist, but also an ethicist and literary author.” Kugle at times refers to Ibn Ḥazm as “our guide,” idealizing his positions, methodology, and hermeneutic, which Kugle seems to want to claim as his own.
Despite Kugle’s presentation of Ibn Ḥazm as the ideal juristic champion for those advocating the modern accommodation of same-sex behaviors in Islam, Ibn Ḥazm’s views concerning the prohibitedness of homosexual activity stand in direct opposition to Kugle’s project, as, in fact, they conform perfectly with the juristic consensus regarding the unconditional illicitness of such relations. This view does not come through clearly in Kugle’s work, however, as he presents Ibn Ḥazm’s endorsement of the consensus view on the prohibition of same-sex acts as subordinate to his breaking with the dominant opinion as to whether or not the act of sodomy (liwāṭ)—though categorically forbidden—rises to the level of a ḥadd crime. Although Kugle mentions Ibn Ḥazm’s agreement with the juristic consensus regarding the proscription of male-male sexual intercourse, this point stands as a side note to Kugle’s otherwise lengthy commentary on Ibn Ḥazm’s views on the issue of the ḥadd, replete with excerpts from al-Muḥallā giving the reader the impression that Ibn Ḥazm was not simply challenging the dominant ḥadd ruling, but the very understanding of the Lot narrative as in any way indicating the categorical prohibition of same-gender sexual intercourse.
A plain reading of al-Muḥallā—including the very passages in which Ibn Ḥazm challenges the dominant view of liwāṭ as a ḥadd crime—demonstrates indeed that Ibn Ḥazm held same-sex acts to be categorically prohibited. For example, in responding to theologians who differed over the question of whether male anal intercourse amounted to a capital offense, Ibn Ḥazm responds stating, “The ruling [for anal intercourse between two men] is that when an evil (munkar) appears, it is necessary by the order of the Messenger of God, may God’s peace and blessings be upon him, to alter that evil with one’s hands. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out discretionary punishment (taʿzīr) that the Messenger of God prescribed, may God’s peace and blessings be upon him, and not to exceed that…”
Elsewhere, in discussing tribadism (siḥāq), e.g., female-to-female genital contact, Ibn Ḥazm states:
It has been transmitted by way of Muslim upon the authority of Abū Bakr b. Abī Shayba, who reported from Zayd b. Ḥubāb, who reported through [omitting narrators] ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Saʿīd al-Khudrī, who reported from his father that the Messenger of God, may God’s peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Let no man see another man’s ʿawra, nor a woman see another woman’s ʿawra; [likewise] let no man lie uncovered (yufḍī ilā) under the same sheet as another man, nor a woman lie uncovered under the same sheet as another woman.”
[And] it has been transmitted [omitted narrators] that ʿAbd Allāh b. Masʿūd said, “The Messenger of God, may God’s peace and blessings be upon him, forbade two women from lying uncovered skin to skin beneath a single sheet, lest one describe the other to her husband as if he saw her.”
And it has been reported [omitted narrators] that Ibn ʿAbbās said, “The Messenger of God, may God’s peace and blessings be upon him, cursed men who imitate (or take on the appearance of) women (al-mutashabbihīna min al-rijāl bi’l-nisāʾ) and women who imitate (or take on the appearance of) men.”
These lucid passages prohibit two men from lying uncovered and in contact with each other and two women from lying uncovered and in contact with each other, for both are, like the other, transgressions against God, and this is the same whether it ensues between two men or two women. If a woman uses her genitalia [in intimacy with another woman], then the prohibition is even greater and the vice exponentially graver. Should a woman enter into her vagina other than that which has been made lawful of her husband’s pudendum, or what is used to contain her menstruation, then she has not preserved her chastity…
Ibn Ḥazm proceeds to state that in the case of sexual acts between two women, discretionary punishment (taʿzīr) must be applied to discourage moral depravity and prevent the proliferation of vice. Of course, al-Muḥallā is not the only text in which Ibn Ḥazm discusses same-sex acts. In Ṭawq al-ḥamāma, in a chapter entitled “Of the Vileness of Sinning,” he states:
As for conduct like that of the people of Lot, that is horrible and disgusting. Allah says, “Will ye commit an abomination which no living creature ever committed before you?” (Koran VII 78). Allah hurled at the offenders stones of clay stamped with a mark (cf. Koran XI 84). Malik is of the opinion that both parties of this offence are to be stoned, whether they are married or not. Some of his followers cite in support of this doctrine the words of God, touching the stoning of the Sodomites, “And stones are not far away from those who commit iniquity” (Koran VI 84): accordingly the stones are near to those who commit iniquity after a like manner today. This is not however the place to enter into a discussion of the divergence of opinions held concerning this question. Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Ibn al-Sari informs us that Abu Bakr burnt alive a man convicted of this offence; Abu ‘Ubaida Ma‘mar Ibn Muthanna relates that the name of the man so burnt was Shuja‘ Ibn Warqa’ al-Asadi; Abu Bakr burnt him alive because he allowed himself to be used in sodomy.
The intelligent man has ample diversions to escape from the commission of sins. Allah has forbidden nothing, without having provided for His servants lawful substitutes, which are seemlier and more excellent than the thing prohibited. There is no God but He!
As can be seen from the aforementioned passages, Ibn Ḥazm, like those both before and after him, upheld the requirement of sexual restraint unless enacted within the religiously legitimate confines of (male-female) matrimonial or (male-female) ownership contexts. Otherwise, sexual appetite was something that had to be disciplined, not indulged in and “accommodated” on the basis of its mere presence. So committed was Ibn Ḥazm to this objective that he called for discretionary punishment (taʿzīr) as a means to curb the proliferation of sexual immorality, including—very explicitly—all forms of same-sex erotic behavior. Although he disputed with other scholars over their consideration of liwāṭ as a ḥadd crime due to his categorical rejection of analogical reasoning (qiyās) in matters of law, Ibn Ḥazm never demurred on the question of whether or not same-sex sexual behavior was prohibited. In fact he energetically upheld this prohibition, objecting only to the application of a ḥadd penalty for either sodomy (liwāṭ) or tribadism (siḥāq)—acts which he, along with all other Muslim jurists, held to be not only sinful in the eyes of God but even punishable in this world as well, albeit according to the discretionary powers of the judge rather than as a divinely mandated ḥadd penalty.
VII. Sloppy Scholarship
There are a number of stray claims strewn throughout Kugle’s work that are simply unsustainable upon investigation. Though many could be listed, a few include:
- Kugle’s claim that fusūq is synonymous with the worship of idols. Kugle argues that fusūq informs the term fāḥisha and that when one understands fusūq normatively as a rejection of God and worshiping of idols, then fāḥisha must be viewed in this light as well. In reality, fisq and its cognates appear throughout the Qurʾān in various contexts. Q. (al-Māʾida) 5:108 uses the term fāsiqūn to speak of those who falsify oaths; Q. (al-Anʿām) 6:121 states that eating meat over which God’s name has not been pronounced is fisq; Q. (al-Anʿām) 6:145 identifies the consumption of blood, carrion, and swine as fisq; and Q. (al-Māʾida) 5:47 states that judging by a ruling other than God’s is fisq. None of these verses pertain to idol worship.
- Kugle claims that Islam has accepted not only matrimonial relationships (permanent, and in the case of Shiite law possibly temporary as well), but also slavery and, he claims, “less formally legalized relationships” [emphasis mine]. In point of fact, no relationships other than the two mentioned (marriage and ownership) are permitted anywhere in the Qurʾān, ḥadīth, or Islamic Law. Islam’s alleged “acceptance” of “less formally legalized relationships,” which Kugle seems to want to use as a door to smuggle in modern-day homosexual relationships, is nothing but a figment of his imagination.
- Kugle states that the Qurʾān often uses the term fawāḥish (“iniquities”) in the plural when relating the narrative of Lot, when in fact the exact opposite is the case: the Qurʾān never uses the plural fawāḥish in reference to the people of Lot. Rather, it uses the singular fāḥisha each and every time—and in the immediate context of “coming with desire unto men instead of women.” Kugle’s intended point here is that in using the plural fawāḥish, the Qurʾān is not singling out the same-sex conduct of the men of Lot’s people, but rather indicting a range of unethical conduct of which they were guilty. Although it is true, as previously mentioned, that the people of Lot were guilty of a number of misdeeds recorded in the Qurʾān, it is only the singular fāḥisha that appears in the Qurʾān’s repeated denunciation of the homosexual practices of the men of Sodom—their most oft repeated and, therefore, characteristic sin.
There is an old Pakistani adage that can loosely be translated as, “Those who cannot dance always say the floor is crooked.” This statement is often used to inveigh against those who suffer shortcomings and consequently assign culpability for their shortcomings to everyone (and everything) else. This adage certainly applies in the case of Scott Kugle’s Qurʾān revisionism. The Qurʾān’s and the Sharīʿa’s proscription of homoerotic behavior is, according to Kugle, to be explained away by identifying a panoply of “culprits” that must be blamed for having “misread” the Qurʾān and the Prophetic Sunna throughout all of Islamic history. It was the scholars of ḥadīth who failed to inspect traditions thoroughly enough, the exegetes who were guilty of “definition and substitution,” the jurists who were unable to overcome their “disempowerment” in the face of a dominant patriarchy, and the Muslim community writ large that has failed to take the foregoing culprits sufficiently to task.
As an alternative, Kugle proposes a hermeneutic that lacks any internal consistency and rests upon a number of grave methodological infirmities. As I have demonstrated in the foregoing, much of Kugle’s argumentation relies on frequently misleading citations from the classical sources, the omission of relevant materials that run counter to his narrative in favor of partial quotations drawn selectively from the most dubitable of sources, mischaracterization of the positions of the classical jurists and others, the transposition of modern categories onto the classical literature in a manner that distorts the meaning of this latter when viewed in its own context, et al. In many instances, Kugle simply dismisses the established disciplines of Islamic law, theology, and exegesis outright while staking enormous claims on a tenuous body of late, unsourced qaṣaṣ materials. Yet even this material can only be gerrymandered into yielding the desired outcome when invoked selectively and in a decidedly decontextualized manner. Kugle depends heavily on the contributions of Ibn Ḥazm, but invokes his chosen standard bearer again selectively and, once more, only when it suits his agenda. As we have seen in the preceding section, Kugle’s revisionist project is, in fact, explicitly belied by Ibn Ḥazm’s own unflinching condemnation of all forms of homoerotic behavior—even as he retains apparent sympathy for those subject to same-sex and other unrequitable forms of love and desire. Kugle’s precarious handling of the source materials is only compounded by numerous conceptual incongruences, logical non sequiturs, and glaring contradictions, often at the most critical junctures of his argument. Most significantly, Kugle’s stated attempt to bypass the “speculative assertion[s]” of the (entire) Islamic tradition in favor of an allegedly “literal” reading of the Qurʾān favorable to homosexual practice yields an imaginative reconstruction of the people of Lot that is itself speculative in the extreme and that, despite Kugle’s insistence to the contrary, fails to offer an even minimally plausible interpretation of the relevant Qurʾānic verses, the “literal specificity” of which he claims—against all evidence to the contrary—to be the champion.
It should be clear by now that the revisionist reading of the Qurʾān Kugle offers in an attempt to accommodate same-sex behavior as religiously permissible in Islam has fallen well short of its stated objective. The Lot narratives in the Qurʾān are simply too clear and their meanings too obvious for this brand of hermeneutic adventurism to be anything other than a non-starter. In Islamic Law, matters such as the categorical prohibition of homosexual behavior constitute what scholars have termed maʿlūm min al-dīn bi’l-ḍarūra, that is, matters “known by necessity to be part and parcel of the faith.” God is One, Muḥammad (pbuh) is His Messenger and final prophet, prayers are required five times a day, fasting is obligated in the month of Ramadan, and other foundational beliefs and practices are all included within this category. The proscription of same-sex behavior, too, falls within this category—right along with the well-known and undisputed prohibition of other acts like fornication, adultery, drinking alcohol, gambling, murder, theft, and others.
For an argument to have intellectual integrity, it must at the very least be honest with the sources and tradition it seeks to interrogate. At some point, one must admit when one is wrong. At times, it is not the floor that is crooked, but we who cannot dance.
And Allah knows best.
Qurʾānic Verses Regarding the People of Lot
a) Sūrat al-Aʿrāf, 7:80-84
(80) And (mention) Lot, when he said to his people, “Do you commit iniquity (fāḥisha) such as none in creation have committed before you? (81) Verily you come with desire unto men instead of women. Nay, you are a people transgressing (beyond bounds).” (82) But the reply of his people was but to say, “Turn them out from your town! Truly they are people who keep themselves pure.” (83) So We rescued him and his household, save his wife; she was of those who stayed behind. (84) And We brought down upon them a rain (of stones). See then how was the fate of the wrongdoers.
Synopsis: Beginning with a confrontation, Lot reproaches his people for “coming with desire unto men instead of women.” This verse is repeated in the passage related to Lot in Sūrat al-Naml (27:54-58) and is closely related to the verses in Sūrat al-Shuʿarāʾ (26:16-175), where Lot rebukes his people not only for approaching men with desire, but for doing so at the expense of those whom God has created for them as mates, namely, women. Annoyed by Lot’s preaching, the people threaten him with eviction and castigate Lot and those with him for “keeping themselves pure.” Interestingly, the people of Lot employ the term “pure” in reference to Lot and those who follow him, in apparent contrast to themselves who delight in impure and foul deeds. It is not a stretch to state that these men no longer viewed purity as a virtue and designated Lot and his followers as “pure” as a form of disparagement, akin to contemporary notions of “prudishness” frequently alleged against those who maintain pre-marital celibacy. When God rains down His punishment upon the town, Lot and his followers are saved with the exception of his wife, who is described elsewhere as a an example of someone who, along with the wife of Noah, disbelieved in and betrayed (khānat) her righteous husband. Accordingly, her matrimonial relationship “availed her naught before God.” (See Sūrat al-Taḥrīm, 66:10.)
b) Sūrat Hūd, 11:77-83
(77) And when Our messengers [the angels] came to Lot, he was anguished on their account and constrained from helping them. And he said, “This is a trying day!” (78) And his people came hastening unto him, and before they had been working evil deeds. He said, “O my people, these are my daughters; they are purer for you. So fear God and disgrace me not with respect to my guests. Is there not among you a right-minded man?” (79) They said, “You know well that we have no claim on your daughters, and indeed, you know what we want.” (80) He said, “Would that I had strength against you or could take refuge in a strong support.” (81) They (the angels) said, “O Lot! Verily we are the messengers of your Lord; they shall never reach you. Set out with your family during a portion of the night and let not any among you look back, save your wife; indeed, she shall be struck by that which strikes them. Indeed, their appointment is [for] the morning. Is not the morning nigh?” (82) Then when Our command came, We turned (the town) upside down and rained upon them stones of baked clay in layers, (83) marked [for punishment] with your Lord; nor are they ever far from those who do wrong.
Synopsis: Lot is visited by three men who, unbeknownst to him, are angels in human form. Concerned for their welfare as foreigners in Sodom, Lot feels anguish on their account and takes them into his home as guests. News spreads in Sodom that three foreign men are staying with Lot, with some exegetes contending that it was Lot’s wife who spread the word. Others also describe the men as possessing immense beauty such that the people of Lot, having made male-male sexual relations normal, would naturally incline toward the handsome out-of-towners and demand sexual intimacy with them. Surely enough, the people of Lot surround his home and demand that he give his guests up to them to indulge their sexual designs. Lot entreats the men to consider instead his daughters, as they are “purer” for them. Exegetes have differed as to whether the daughters in question are Lot’s lineal descendants, or whether the phrase “my daughters” (banātī) refers to the women of the town in general (as prophets are the spiritual “fathers” of their peoples)—the very women these men have abandoned in their pursuit of other men. The phrase “having no claim” on Lot’s daughters has been understood by exegetes in various ways (as discussed in the body of the article). Distressed by the men’s response to him, Lot expresses his helplessness to his guests, at which point they unveil their angelic ontology and mission. The angels instruct Lot to set out with his family and followers with the exception of his wife, who suffers God’s punishment alongside the people of Sodom on the following morn.
c) Sūrat al-Ḥijr, 15:57-77
(57) He (Lot) said, “What is your purpose, O messengers?” (58) They said, “We have been sent to a people (deep) in sin, (59) except for the family of Lot. Verily, we shall rescue them all, (60) save his wife; we decreed that she shall surely be of those who stay behind.” (61) So when the messengers came to the household of Lot, (62) he said, “Verily you are a people unfamiliar.” (63) They said, “Nay, but we have come to you with that [torment] over which they were disputing. (64) And we have come to you with truth, for verily we are truthful ones. (65) So set out with your family during a portion of the night and follow behind them, and let not any among you look back, but go on to where you are commanded.” (66) We made this decree known to him: that the last remnants of those (profligates) would be cut at early morn. (67) And the people of the city came, rejoicing. (68) He said to them, “These are my guests, so disgrace me not. (69) Fear you God and put me not to shame.” (70) They said, “Did we not forbid you from [protecting] all the people?” (71) He said, “Here are my daughters, if indeed you must act.” (72) Verily, by your life [O Prophet], they wandered in their intoxication to and fro. (73) And the blast seized them at sunrise, (74) and We turned (the city) upside down and rained down upon them stones of baked clay. (75) Verily in that are signs for those who discern (by way of tokens). (76) Verily, it (the city) was [situated] on a path still standing. (77) Verily in that is a sign for those who believe.
Synopsis: This passage begins with the angelic guests who have set out to destroy the people of Sodom after bearing witness to their prodigal and sinful behavior. Lot recognizes them as strangers, whereupon the guests reveal to him their true identity and mission. They instruct Lot and his family to vacate Sodom during the night, before the descent of God’s wrath upon the town. Prior to nightfall, the men of Sodom learn of the presence of Lot’s guests and demand to have sexual relations with them. Lot entreats the men to fear God and not to shame him as a host. Frustrated by Lot’s repeated admonishments, they tell him not to interfere. Lot once again offers the men his daughters in order to prevent them from pursuing other men. (See the explanation of “daughters” in the above synopsis related to Sūrat Hūd). Intoxicated by their lust and desires, they wander to and fro until the punishment of God seizes them at sunrise.
d) Sūrat al-Anbiyāʾ, 21:74-75
(74) And to Lot (also) We gave judgment and knowledge, and We delivered him from the town that was working filthy deeds (al-khabāʾith). Indeed, they were an evil, licentious folk. (75) And We admitted him (Lot) into Our Mercy, for truly he was among the righteous.
Synopsis: The town of Sodom is described as committing “filthy deeds” and being home to an “evil, licentious folk.” Lot, by contrast, is a man of judgment and knowledge, as granted to him by his Lord. A righteous and dedicated prophet, Lot is admitted into the Mercy of God.
e) Sūrat al-Shuʿarāʾ, 26:160-175
(160) The people of Lot belied the messengers. (161) Behold, their brother Lot said to them, “Will you not be mindful (of God)? (162) Indeed, I am a faithful messenger unto you, (163) so fear you God and obey me. (164) I ask from you no reward for it; my reward is only with the Lord of the Worlds. (165) Of all creatures do you come unto males, (166) leaving what your Lord has created for you from your mates? Nay, but you are a people transgressing (the bounds).” (167) They said, “O Lot! If you desist not from this, you shall surely be driven out.” (168) He said, “I am, in truth, of those who loathe your deed.” (169) “My Lord, deliver me and my family from what they do!” (170) So We delivered him and his family altogether— (171) save an elderly woman (his wife) who stayed behind. (172) Then We destroyed the others, (173) and We brought down upon them a rain (of stones); Evil was the rain of those who had been warned! (174) Verily in that is a sign, yet most of them do not believe. (175) And verily, your Lord—He is the Exalted in Might, the Merciful.
Synopsis: Lot is described as the “brother” of his people, which for some exegetes indicates that he was indigenous to the land of Sodom. The people of Sodom are told to have fear of God and to obey Lot, who seeks no financial gain or position of worldly authority among them. Alongside his message of obedience, Lot chides his people—as he does elsewhere in the Qurʾān—for leaving those (i.e., women) whom God has created for them as mates and instead coming with desire unto men. Al-Rāzī, al-Zamakhsharī, and others interpret “leaving what your Lord has created for you from your mates” as indicating a sole interest in sex by anal penetration rather than vaginal intercourse. The people of Lot respond by threatening Lot with eviction. Undeterred, Lot expresses his disapproval of their conduct and once again beseeches God for salvation. God saves Lot and his entire family, with the exception of his wife who is described as “an elderly woman who stayed behind.” The people of Sodom suffer God’s punishment—a torrent of clay stones that rains down upon them leveling the town (see passage from Sūrat al-Ḥijr).
f) Sūrat al-Naml, 27:54-58
(54) And (mention) Lot, when he said to his people, “Do you commit iniquity (fāḥisha) with eyes wide open? (55) Do you indeed come with desire unto men instead of women? Nay, but you are a people behaving foolishly.” (56) The reply of his people was but to say, “Turn Lot’s family out from your town! Truly they are people who keep themselves pure.” (57) So We delivered him and his family, save his wife; We decreed that she would be from those who stay behind. (58) And We brought down upon them a rain (of stones); Evil was the rain of those who had been warned!
Synopsis: Like the passages in Sūrat al-Aʿrāf, Lot here scolds his people for “coming with desire unto men instead of women.” He expresses indignation that they would engage in such an act with their “eyes wide open” (wa antum tubṣirūn). Al-Zamakhsharī understands the verb tubṣirūn in this verse as a reference to the sight of the heart (baṣar al-qalb) which serves as a kind of moral compass. Accordingly, the people of Sodom are described as knowing that male-male sexual acts are immoral, for God created women for men and vice versa. Al-Rāzī also mentions this as a possible interpretation, adding to it the possibility that the people of Lot partook in homosexual intercourse publicly with no attempt to conceal their misconduct. Committing debauchery in full view of others, they are described as committing this “iniquity” with their “eyes wide open.” In response, the people resolve to turn Lot and his followers out from the town, describing them as “people who keep themselves pure” (see passage from Sūrat al-Aʿrāf and accompanying commentary). God saves Lot and his family with the exception of his wife, who remains behind to suffer the punishment of Sodom.
g) Sūrat al-ʿAnkabūt, 29:28-35
(28) And (mention) Lot, when he said to his people, “You commit iniquity (fāḥisha) such as none in creation have committed before you. (29) Do you indeed come unto men, and cut off the road, and practice evil deeds in your assemblies?” The reply of his people was but to say, “Bring upon us God’s punishment, if you are among the truthful.” (30) He said, “My Lord, support me against the people who work corruption.” (31) And when Our messengers came unto Abraham with glad tidings, they said, “We shall surely destroy the people of this town; truly its people are wrongdoers.” (32) He said, “Verily, Lot is in it.” They said, “We know better who is in it. We shall surely deliver him and his household, except for his wife: she is of those who stay behind.” (33) And when Our messengers came to Lot, he was anguished on their account and constrained from helping them. They said, “Fear not, nor grieve. Verily we shall deliver you and your family, save your wife; she is of those who stay behind. (34) Verily we shall bring down upon the people of this town a punishment from Heaven for their having acted iniquitously.” (35) And We (God) have left of it a clear sign for a people possessed of reason.
Synopsis: Here the people of Lot are reproached not only for “coming unto men” as in other passages, but additionally for “cutting off the road” and “practicing evil deeds in [their] assemblies.” Cutting off the road here refers to highway robbery, whereby the people of Lot would ambush travelers, kill them, and apprehend their goods (this interpretation is reported by al-Zamakhsharī and Ibn Kathīr). As for the “evil deeds” they would practice in their gatherings, exegetes have differed regarding what this refers to. Some have interpreted it as meaning that they committed homosexual acts in view of others (a view attributed to Mujāhid), whereas others understood it as referring to them saying and doing vulgar things such as telling obscene jokes, passing gas and laughing (an opinion Ibn Kathīr attributes to ʿĀʾisha), and other such indiscreet and unbefitting conduct. Hereupon, the people of Lot invite the punishment of God, after which Lot beseeches the help of his Lord. The angelic messengers first visit Abraham to inform him of Sodom’s destruction prior to arriving at the iniquitous town. Concerned, Abraham inquires after Lot. The messengers assure him of the safety of Lot and his family, save his wife who will be destroyed alongside the people of Sodom. The messengers arrive in Sodom and address themselves to Lot, revealing their mission and reassuring Lot of his and his family’s safety—with the exception of his wife.
h) Sūrat al-Ṣāffāt, 37:133-136
(133) Truly Lot was among the messengers. (134) We delivered him and his family altogether— (135) save an elderly woman (his wife) who stayed behind. (136) Then We destroyed the others.
Synopsis: Like the passage in Sūrat al-Shuʿarāʾ, Lot’s wife is described here as an “elderly woman who stayed behind.” Lot is confirmed as being a messenger of God, and his people (including his wife) are destroyed on account of their disobedience.
i) Sūrat al-Qamar, 54:33-40
(33) The people of Lot belied the warnings. (34) Verily We unleashed against them a stone-bearing wind, except the family of Lot; We delivered them ere the dawn— (35) as a favor from Us. Thus do We reward the thankful. (36) And indeed he had warned them of Our onslaught, but they disputed the warnings. (37) And they sought to lure him from his guests so We sealed their eyes (and said), “Taste My punishment and [the fulfilment of] My warnings!” (38) And there came upon them by morning an abiding penalty. (39) “Taste My punishment and [the fulfilment of] My warnings!” (40) And verily We have made the Qur’an easy for remembrance, so is there any who will remember?
Synopsis: In addition to the torrent of clay raining down upon the people of Sodom, the men who sought after Lot’s guest are described as having their eyes sealed (perhaps as recompense for committing iniquity with their “eyes wide open,” as per Sūrat al-Naml, 27:54 discussed above). Lot warned his people time and again of an impending punishment if they did not reform their ways in accordance with God’s command, but they ignored him and denied his prophetic mission. As a result, they found themselves subject to a terrible punishment that stands as a warning for those who carelessly and defiantly disobey the command of God.
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Jamal, Amreen. “The Story of Lut and the Qur’an’s Perception of the Morality of Same-Sex Sexuality.” Journal of Homosexuality 41, no. 1 (2001).
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———. “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics in the Agenda of Progressive Muslims.” In Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, edited by Omid Safi, 190-234. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003.
McGuire, Terry R. “Is Homosexuality Genetic? A Critical Review and Some Suggestions.” Journal of Homosexuality 28, no. 1-2 (1995): 115-145.
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Percy III, William A. Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece. Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1996.
“The Phenomenon of Spinsterhood.” IDEALMuslimah, http://idealmuslimah.com/family/beforemarriage/677-the-phenomenon-of-spinsterhood.html.
Pickett, Brent. “Homosexuality.” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2015 Edition), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2015/entries/homosexuality/.
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Rice, G., C. Anderson, N. Risch, and G. Ebers. “Male Homosexuality: Absence of Linkage to Microsatellite Markers at Xq28.” Science 284, no. 5414 (1999): 665-667.
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Seleh, Pardes. “Study: No, There’s No Evidence Of a ‘Gay Gene’.” The Daily Wire (October 15, 2015), http://www.dailywire.com/news/445/study-no-theres-no-evidence-gay-gene-pardes-seleh.
Stein, Terry S. “Social Constructionism and Essentialism.” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy 2, no. 4 (1998): 29-49.
Tolino, Serena. “Homosexual acts in Islamic Law: siḥāq and liwāṭ in the legal debate.” GAIR-Mitteilungen (Gesellschaft für Arabisches und Islamisches Recht e. V.) 6. Jahrgang (2014): 187-205.
———. “Homosexuality in the Middle East: An analysis of dominant and competitive discourses.” Deportate, Esuli, Profughe (DEP), no. 24 (2014).
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Yong, Ed. “No, Scientists Have Not Found the ‘Gay Gene’: The media is hyping a study that doesn’t do what it says it does.” The Atlantic (Oct. 10, 2015), http://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2015/10/no-scientists-have-not-found-the-gay-gene/410059/.
Zollner, Barbara. “Mithliyyun or Lutiyyun? Neo-orthodoxy and the Debate on the Unlawfulness of Same-Sex Relations in Islam.” In Homosexuality and Islam, edited by Samar Habib. Westwood: Praeger, 2011.
 The Sharīʿa does not, in fact, distinguish categorically between “same-sex” and “opposite-sex” acts, a late 19th-/20th-century taxonomy proper to the contemporary West. Rather, it simply distinguishes between licit (ḥalāl) sexual relations and illicit (ḥarām) ones. This latter category is further broken down into penetrative acts, which include illicit male-female intercourse (zinā) as well as male-male sodomy (liwāṭ), both of which are classified as major sins (kabāʾir), and non-penetrative acts, such as interfemoral intercourse (mufākhadha), various forms of female-female erotic contact (collectively referred to as siḥāq or musāḥaqa, Eng. “tribadism,” in reference to the “rubbing together” of the female genitalia), and other non-penetrative illicit acts.
 See Serena Tolino, “Homosexual acts in Islamic Law: siḥāq and liwāṭ in the legal debate,” GAIR-Mitteilungen (Gesellschaft für Arabisches und Islamisches Recht e. V.) 6. Jahrgang (2014) and Sara Omar, “From Semantics to Normative Law: Perceptions of Liwāṭ (Sodomy) and Siḥāq (Tribadism) in Islamic Jurisprudence (8th-15th Century CE),” Islamic Law and Society 19 (2012).
 See for example Khaled El-Rouayheb, “The Love of Boys in Arabic Poetry of the Early Ottoman Period, 1500 – 1800,” Middle Eastern Literatures 8, no. 1 (2005).
 See Barbara Zollner, “Mithliyyun or Lutiyyun? Neo-orthodoxy and the Debate on the Unlawfulness of Same-Sex Relations in Islam,” in Homosexuality and Islam, ed. Samar Habib (Westwood: Praeger, 2011), which explores the interpretations of various exegetes, arguing that later exegetical works have inherited the hermeneutic of al-Ṭabarī.
 I will be referring throughout the paper to the Prophet Lot (ʿalayhi ’l-salām) without mentioning an abbreviated statement of prayers after his name. May Allah’s peace be upon our Prophet Lot and all of His prophets. Ameen.
 See Scott Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics in the Agenda of Progressive Muslims,” in Progressive Muslims: On Justice, Gender, and Pluralism, ed. Omid Safi (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2003), 190.
 Ibid., 192.
 See ibid., 191, where he quotes from Momin Rahman, Sexuality and Democracy: Identities and Strategies in Lesbian and Gay Politics (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000).
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 199.
 In his 2010 book, however, Kugle dispenses with the label queer in order, he explains, to make the work more accessible, as he fears many readers may find the term queer “disorienting, overly intellectual, or polemical” [Scott Kugle, Homosexuality in Islam: Critical Reflection on Gay, Lesbian, and Transgender Muslims (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2010), 13 (e-book edition, 34)]. Accordingly, he sticks in the later work to the more common terms “gay,” “lesbian,” and “transgender” (specifically excluding “bisexual,” on which see note 17 below), continuously permutating the order in which these elements appear within any given listing throughout the book.
 See ibid., 44-46 (e-book, 83-86).
 See Brent Pickett, “Homosexuality,” The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2015 Edition), http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2015/entries/homosexuality/ and Janna L. Horowitz and Michael D. Newcomb, “A Multidimensional Approach to Homosexual Identity,” Journal of Homosexuality 42, no. 2 (2002). The Pickett article provincializes the essentialist account of sexual orientations, while the Horowitz and Newcomb piece also draws the essentialist account into serious question.
 Queer activist and historian Hanne Blank has argued against essentialism in sexuality. She states, “This new concept [of heterosexuality], gussied up in a mangled mix of impressive-sounding dead languages, gave old orthodoxies a new and vibrant lease on life by suggesting, in authoritative tones, that science had effectively pronounced them natural, inevitable, and innate.” See Hanne Blank, Straight: The Surprisingly Short History of Heterosexuality (Boston: Beacon Press, 2012), xv, as well as Michael Hannon, “Against Heterosexuality,” First Things (2014), http://www.firstthings.com/article/2014/03/against-heterosexuality. Also see Horowitz and Newcomb, “A Multidimensional Approach to Homosexual Identity,” as well as Terry S. Stein, “Social Constructionism and Essentialism,” Journal of Gay & Lesbian Psychotherapy 2, no. 4 (1998). Stein writes (p. 29): ““Homosexual” and “heterosexual” behavior may be universal; homosexual and heterosexual identity and consciousness are modern realities. These identities are not inherent in the individual … To “commit” a homosexual act is one thing; to be a homosexual is something entirely different (Padgug, 1979, 14).” See also Pickett, “Homosexuality,” where he states: “The third and final problem for the gay liberationist approach was that it often took this category of ‘identity’ itself as unproblematic and unhistorical. Such a view, however, largely because of arguments developed within poststructuralism, seemed increasingly untenable. The key figure in the attack upon identity as ahistorical is Michel Foucault. In a series of works he set out to analyze the history of sexuality from ancient Greece to the modern era (1980, 1985, 1986). Although the project was tragically cut short by his death in 1984, from complications arising from AIDS, Foucault articulated how profoundly understandings of sexuality can vary across time and space, and his arguments have proven very influential in gay and lesbian theorizing in general, and queer theory in particular (Spargo, 1999; Stychin, 2005).” Pickett continues: “One of the reasons for the historical review above is that it helps to give some background for understanding the claim that sexuality is socially constructed, rather than given by nature. Moreover, in order to not prejudge the issue of social constructionism versus essentialism, I avoided applying the term ‘homosexual’ to the ancient or medieval eras. In ancient Greece the gender of one’s partner(s) was not important, but instead whether one took the active or passive role. In the medieval view, a ‘sodomite’ was a person who succumbed to temptation and engaged in certain non-procreative sex acts. Although the gender of the partner was more important than in the ancient view, the broader theological framework placed the emphasis upon a sin versus refraining-from-sin dichotomy. With the rise of the notion of ‘homosexuality’ in the modern era, a person is placed into a specific category even if one does not act upon those inclinations. What is the common, natural sexuality expressed across these three very different cultures? The social constructionist answer is that there is no ‘natural’ sexuality; all sexual understandings are constructed within and mediated by cultural understandings. The examples can be pushed much further by incorporating anthropological data outside of the Western tradition (Halperin, 1990; Greenberg, 1988).”
 Though Kugle and others treat the category of “homosexuality” as axiomatic even in an Islamic context, scholars such as Khaled El-Rouayheb (2005, 2005), Bruce Dunne in “Homosexuality in the Middle East: An Agenda for Historical Research,” Arab Studies Quarterly 12, no. 3/4 (1990), and others have argued the merits of a more constructivist approach to sexual categories. For more details, see citations in preceding note, as well as Serena Tolino, “Homosexuality in the Middle East: An analysis of dominant and competitive discourses,” Deportate, Esuli, Profughe (DEP), no. 24 (2014).
 Michel Foucault’s works have been central to this discourse, particularly his three-volume The History of Sexuality, trans. Robert Hurley, 3 vols. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1980, 1985, 1986).
 For a fuller treatment of this topic, see Daniel Haqiqatjou, “Tough Conversations: Explaining the Islamic Prohibition of Same-Sex Acts to a Western Audience,” Assembly of Muslim Jurists of America (AMJA) 13th Annual Imam Conference (2016), https://www.academia.edu/23387050/Tough_Conversations_Explaining_the_Islamic_Prohibition_of_Same-Sex_Acts_to_a_Western_Audience.
 It is of note that in the Introduction to Homosexuality in Islam, Kugle deliberately excludes bisexuality and the subjective experiences reported by self-identified bisexuals from his consideration (essentially removing the “B” from the common acronym “LGBT”). [See Kugle, Homosexuality in Islam, 10-13 (e-book, 28-34).] The reason Kugle gives for why, after asserting the objectivity of a fixed dispositional homosexuality, he does not “venture the next step to ask whether God intends some men and women to be dispositionally bisexual” is telling: “To address that question,” he concedes, “would call into question the definitiveness of sexual orientation [emphasis mine] and also the discreteness of gender difference which are assumed by gay men, lesbian women, and transgender people.” (ibid., 12 [e-book, 32]) Further on he states that “[i]n contrast [to gay, lesbian, and transgender persons], dispositional bisexuality challenges the idea that these categories are psychologically firm and socially forceful [emphasis mine].” (ibid.) He concludes his discussion of bisexuality with the frank admission that “[t]herefore, to focus on bisexuality in this study would be to dilute its focus and undermine the political and theological force of its argument [emphasis mine].” (ibid.)
 Ibid., 44 (e-book, 83).
 Ibid., 47-48 (e-book, 87-88). Kugle refers to “genetic inheritance” and states that through “contemporary science, we are discovering that genetic patterns in our biological material not only determine our outward but also greatly affect psychic disposition.” See also Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 194, where he avers that “[i]n the light of new biological knowledge about genetics and sociological knowledge about personality development, the traditional answers [regarding the moral and legal status of homosexual acts in Islam] may no longer be convincing.”
 See Ed Yong, “No, Scientists Have Not Found the ‘Gay Gene’: The media is hyping a study that doesn’t do what it says it does,” The Atlantic (Oct. 10, 2015), http://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2015/10/no-scientists-have-not-found-the-gay-gene/410059/ and Pardes Seleh, “Study: No, There’s No Evidence Of a ‘Gay Gene’,” The Daily Wire (October 15, 2015), http://www.dailywire.com/news/445/study-no-theres-no-evidence-gay-gene-pardes-seleh. Also Terry R. McGuire, “Is Homosexuality Genetic? A Critical Review and Some Suggestions,” Journal of Homosexuality 28, no. 1-2 (1995) and G. Rice et al., “Male Homosexuality: Absence of Linkage to Microsatellite Markers at Xq28,” Science 284, no. 5414 (1999).
 See Richard A. Friedman, “Infidelity Lurks in Your Genes,” The New York Times (May 22, 2015), http://www.nytimes.com/2015/05/24/opinion/sunday/infidelity-lurks-in-your-genes.html.
 See Daniel Haqiqatjou, “An Open Letter to the Muslim Community in Light of the Orlando Shooting,” Muslim Matters (June 16, 2016), http://muslimmatters.org/2016/06/16/an-open-letter-to-the-muslim-community-in-light-of-the-orlando-shooting/.
 Q. (al-Maʿārij) 70:19.
 Q. (al-Nisāʾ) 4:28.
 Q. (al-Anbiyāʾ) 21:37.
 See Muslim, al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ, ed. Abū Qutayba Naẓar b. Muḥammad al-Faryābī, 1 ed., 2 vols. (Riyadh: Dār Ṭayba li’l-Nashr wa’l-Tawzīʿ, 1427/2006), no. 2822. Can be accessed at: http://sunnah.com/muslim/53/1.
 See Aḥmad b. Shuʿayb al-Nasāʾī, Sunan al-Nasāʾī (maʿa aḥkām al-Albānī), ed. Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī, 1 ed. (Riyadh: Maktabat Maʿārif li’l-Nashr wa’l-Tawzīʿ, 1434/2013), no. 3763. Can be accessed at: http://sunnah.com/nasai/35/3.
 See Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 198. For an exhaustive and nuanced treatment of this phenomenon, see the excellent study of Khaled El-Rouayheb, Before Homosexuality in the Arab-Islamic World, 1500–1800 (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005).
 Some contemporary Muslims may be surprised to learn of pedophilic infatuation in many pre-modern (and some contemporary) Muslim cultures, but this phenomenon is well attested in the works of many scholars, recorded in historical literature, and described in poetic works. That said, it should be noted that the entire regime of pederastic love and attraction is a cultural pattern not tied to Islam as a religion or to Muslims per se. It is also attested, for instance, in ancient Greece, as well as in pre-Islamic Persia, Egypt, and other areas, including pre-modern China and Japan. See, for instance, T. Watanabe and J. Iwata, The Love of the Samurai. A Thousand Years of Japanese Homosexuality, trans. D.R. Roberts (London: Gay Men’s Press, 1989), 31-32. Watanabe and Iwata report that pederasty permeated all of Japanese society, in particular religious and samurai society. See also R. H. van Gulik, Sexual Life in Ancient China: A Preliminary Survey of Chinese Sex and Society from ca. 1500 B.C. till 1644 A.D. (Leiden: Brill, 2003), which details pre-modern Chinese pederasty, and William A. Percy III, Pederasty and Pedagogy in Archaic Greece (Urbana & Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1996).
 See Lois Anita Giffen, “Ibn Hazm and the Tawq al-Hamama,” in The Legacy of Muslim Spain, ed. Salma Jayyusi (Leiden: Brill, 1994), 425.
 This ḥadīth is narrated by al-Ḥākim and others. Though some have judged it acceptable, others such as Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 751/1350)—see Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Zād al-maʿād fī hady khayr al-ʿibād, ed. Shuʿayb al-Arnāʾūṭ, 3 ed., 6 vols. (Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1418/1998), 4/252-256 and Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya, Rawḍat al-muḥibbīn wa nuzhat al-mushtāqīn, ed. Muḥammad ʿUzayr Shams, 1 ed. (Jeddah: Majmaʿ al-Fiqh al-Islāmī, 1431/2010), 266-270—have held it as unreliable, while yet others have accepted it as authentically attributable to Ibn ʿAbbās but not to the Prophet (pbuh).
 See Muḥammad b. Dāwūd al-Iṣbahānī (al-Ẓāhirī), Kitāb al-Zahra, ed. Ibrāhīm al-Sāmarrāʾī, 2 ed. (al-Zarqāʾ, Jordan: Maktabat al-Manār, 1985), 8-9.
 See Camilla Adang, “Ibn Hazm on Homosexuality. A Case-Study of Ẓāhirī Legal Methodology,” Al-Qantara 24, no. 1 (2003).
 See Giffen, “Ibn Hazm and the Tawq al-Hamama,” 425.
 See Adang, “Ibn Hazm on Homosexuality,” 12.
 See Abū Ḥāmid al-Ghazālī, The Alchemy of Happiness, trans. Claud Field (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 195-?), 2. Can be accessed at: http://www.surrenderworks.com/library/downloads/alchemy_of_happiness.pdf.
 See Muḥammad b. Ismāʿīl al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, 1 ed. (Damascus: Dār Ibn Kathīr, 1423/2002), no. 6126, as well as Muslim, al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ, no. 128-131 and no. 2687.
 See Ibn Rajab al-Ḥanbalī, The Compendium of Knowledge and Wisdom, trans. Abdassamad Clarke, trans. of Jāmiʿ al-ʿulūm wa’l-ḥikam (London: Turath Publishing, 1428/2007), 609.
 Ibid., 610.
 Ibid., 611-614.
 Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā al-Tirmidhī, Sunan al-Tirmidhī, ed. Abū ʿUbayda b. Ḥasan Āl Salmān, 1 ed., 6 vols. (Riyadh: Maktabat Maʿārif li’l-Nashr wa’l-Tawzīʿ, n.d.), no. 3479.
 See Muslim, al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ, no. 2877.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 200.
 See Jalāl al-Dīn al-Suyūṭī, al-Ashbāh wa’l-naẓāʾir fī qawāʿid wa furūʿ fiqh al-Shāfiʿiyya (Cairo: Dār Iḥyāʾ al-Kutub al-ʿArabiyya, 1964?). Can be accessed at: http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?flag=1&bk_no=36&ID=38. This maxim runs counter to that which applies to human actions in general, namely, al-aṣl fī al-ashyāʾ al-ibāḥa, that is, actions are permissible by default unless specifically prohibited by Sacred Law.
 See the following articles related to the topic of spinsterhood: Fatima Adamou, “Single Childless Muslim Women,” Altmuslimah (May 11, 2015), http://www.altmuslimah.com/2015/05/single-childless-muslim-women/; “The Phenomenon of Spinsterhood,” IDEALMuslimah, http://idealmuslimah.com/family/beforemarriage/677-the-phenomenon-of-spinsterhood.html; and Habiba Hamid, “A Response to ‘Single Childless Muslim Women’: Embrace Spinsterhood,” Altmuslimah (May 14, 2015), http://www.altmuslimah.com/2015/05/a-response-to-single-childless-muslim-women-embrace-spinsterhood/.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 200.
 Aḥmad Ibn Ḥanbal, Musnad al-Imām Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal, ed. Shuʿayb al-Arnāʾūṭ, 50 vols. (Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, n.d.), no. 2915. Al-Arnāʾūṭ has classified it as sound (ḥasan) in his taḥqīq of Aḥmad’s Musnad (see ibid., 5/84). On the punishment for liwāṭ, see: https://islamqa.info/ar/38622.
 Muḥammad b. Mukarram Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, 6 vols. (Cairo: Dār al-Maʿārif, 1429/2008), 6/4099.
 Abū Dāwūd al-Sijistānī, Sunan Abī Dāwūd, ed. Muḥammad b. Ṣāliḥ al-Rājiḥī (Riyadh: Bayt al-Afkār al-Dawliyya, n.d.), no. 4463.
 See Muḥammad b. Yazīd Ibn Mājah, Sunan Ibn Mājah (maʿa aḥkām al-Albānī), ed. Muḥammad Nāṣir al-Dīn al-Albānī, 1 ed. (Riyadh: Maktabat Maʿārif li’l-Nashr wa’l-Tawzīʿ, 1434/2013), no. 2568.
 That is, either within the confines of a matrimonial relationship, or the relationship of master to concubine (i.e., “what your right hands possess” in the Qurʾānic idiom).
 Madelain Farah, Marriage and Sexuality in Islam: A Translation of al-Ghazali’s Book on the Etiquette of Marriage from The Revival of the Religious Sciences (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1984), 45. Can be accessed at: http://ghazali.org/works/marriage.htm.
 It should be noted that here and elsewhere Kugle explicitly eschews the conventional ‘He’ translation for the Arabic pronoun huwa in reference to God when translating the Qurʾān. As we will see later, although Kugle is keen to accuse past scholars of interposing their own biases into the way they interpret and transmit the meaning of the Qurʾān, translating huwa repeatedly as “God” in order to expunge the Word of God of its alleged “sexism” in referring to God in the masculine is a prime example of Kugle himself interpolating his own biases into his rendering of the Qurʾānic text, even at the expense of deliberately mistranslating, and therefore misrepresenting, the Divine Word.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 190.
 See W. M. Watt, Companion to the Qur’an based on the Arberry Translation (London: Routledge, 2013), 41. It is of note that even in modern German, for instance, the word for fetus is none other than Leibesfrucht, literally “fruit (Frucht) of the womb (Leib).”
 At a minimum, coitus interruptus (ʿazl) was practiced by the Companions of the Prophet and is generally agreed to be permissible. Scholars have differed concerning the use of artificial contraceptives, with some permitting them outright, others prohibiting them outright, and others permitting some while proscribing others.
 Although Islam is not as strict as, e.g., Catholicism in requiring that each and every sexual act constitute an opening to the possibility of conception, it does nevertheless restrict legitimate sexual behavior to the overall context of a relationship where this can paradigmatically occur. Solo sex (on the dominant opinion that masturbation is ḥarām) and same-sex behavior (agreed by consensus to be ḥarām) do not clear the bar. Sexual relations between, say, an elderly or sterile couple, on the other hand, would count as legitimate, since they fall within the bounds of the paradigmatically approved male-female sexual relationship—and they continue to honor both the inherently interactive nature of sex as conceived of in Islam (on the dominant view prohibiting masturbation), as well as the natural fit and teleology of the male and female bodies and the complementarity of the male and female principles as extolled in the Qurʾān [see, e.g., Q. (al-Rūm) 30:21, Q. (al-Baqara), 2:187].
 “Illegitimacy” rendering Arabic sifāḥ, which is used for extramarital intercourse and is an analog to the more common term zinā.
 See, e.g., Q. (al-Nisāʾ) 4:24, Q. (al-Māʾida) 5:5, Q. (al-Muʾminūn) 23:5, Q. (al-Aḥzāb) 33:35, Q. (al-Maʿārij) 70:29, and others.
 Al-Nawawī states that the term buḍʿ may refer to the specific act of intercourse (jimāʿ) or to the sexual organ (al-farj nafsuhu), and that in the context of this ḥadīth both are appropriate. See Yaḥyā b. Sharaf al-Nawawī, al-Minhāj fī sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim b. al-Ḥajjāj (Riyadh: Bayt al-Afkār al-Dawliyya, n.d.), 641. Can be accessed at: http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?flag=1&bk_no=53&ID=2828 (content maps to Bayt al-Afkār al-Dawliyya page citations).
 See Muslim, al-Jāmiʿ al-ṣaḥīḥ, no. 1674.
 See al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, no. 6474.
 See Q. (al-Muʾminūn) 23:5-10.
 Q. (al-Nūr) 24:30-31.
 Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Aḥmad Ibn Ḥazm, The Ring of the Dove (A Treatise on the Art and Practice of Arab Love), trans. A. J. Arberry (London: Luzac & Company, Ltd., 1953), 262-263. Can be accessed at: http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch29.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 197.
 See note 116 for more details.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 200.
 Ibid., 203.
 Ibid., 204.
 Muḥammad b. Jarīr al-Ṭabarī, Tafsīr al-Ṭabarī min kitābihi Jāmiʿ al-bayān ʿan taʾwīl āy al-Qurʾān, ed. Bashshār ʿAwwād Maʿrūf and ʿIṣām Fāris al-Ḥurristānī (Beirut: Muʾassasat al-Risāla, 1994), 3: 462-463.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 204.
 al-Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, 3: 464.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 205.
 Ibid., 206.
 Amreen Jamal, “The Story of Lut and the Qur’an’s Perception of the Morality of Same-Sex Sexuality,” Journal of Homosexuality 41, no. 1 (2001): 69.
 My use of “allegedly” here is not to entirely disagree with or dismiss Kugle’s assertion. Many contemporary traditionalist scholars have argued much the same, stating that pre-modern exegesis was atomistic in its approach and insufficiently synthetic and thematic. Toward this end, Mustansir Mir states, “If there is one feature that almost all types [of exegesis] have in common, it is probably atomism. By atomism here is meant a verse-by-verse approach to the Qur’an.” See Mustansir Mir, Coherence in the Qur’an (Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1986), 1. That said, one must nevertheless consider the distinction between the activity of exegesis, which often concerned itself with elucidating the bare meanings of particular verses, and the process of deriving law, which oversees a greater integration of proof-texts, various rational considerations, and relevant social/cultural circumstances in order to arrive at authoritative rulings (in other words, the distinction between tafsīr and fiqh). With respect to the Lot narrative and same-gender sexual acts, one experiences the diversity of the legal tradition when evaluating discussions related to the ḥadd punishment for liwāṭ, a topic we will explore in the coming section on Ibn Ḥazm.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 208.
 The usage of the form qaṣaṣ in “qaṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ” is rooted in the Qurʾān itself, in verses such as Q. (Yūsuf) 12:3: Naḥnu naquṣṣu ʿalayka aḥsan al-qaṣaṣi bi-mā awḥaynā ilayka hādhā ’l-Qurʾān (‘We recite unto thee the best of narrations (qaṣaṣ) in that We have revealed to thee this Qurʾān’), as well as Q. (Āl ʿImrān) 3:62, Q. (Yūsuf) 12:111, Q. (al-Kahf) 18:64, and Q. (al-Qaṣaṣ) 28:65. In addition to its use in the Qurʾān, qaṣaṣ is also the dominant form employed in the works of scholars to refer to the “stories of the prophets” (qaṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ). Morphologically, qaṣaṣ is a kind of superlative verbal noun (maṣdar) of the verb qaṣṣa, yaquṣṣu (‘to narrate, recount, tell’) and as such is distinguished from the term qiṣaṣ, which is merely the plural of the common word qiṣṣa (‘story,’ ‘tale’). [See al-Muʿjam al-wasīṭ, 4 ed., Majmaʿ al-Lugha al-ʿArabiyya (Cairo: Maktabat al-Shurūq al-Dawliyya, 1425/2004), 740.] Commenting on Q. (Yūsuf) 12:3, al-Zamakhsharī notes that the qaṣaṣ of the Qurʾān represent the best of stories, proffer the most excellent of lessons, and recount the most wondrous of matters (ʿajāʾib) (Abū al-Qāsim Maḥmūd b. ʿUmar al-Zamakhsharī, Tafsīr al-Kashshāf ʿan ḥaqāʾiq al-tanzīl, ed. Khalīl Maʾmūn Shīḥā (Beirut: Dār al-Maʿrifa, 2009), 503). Al-Rāzī considers qaṣaṣ to denote the piecemeal and consecutive telling of a story through a series of verses (āya baʿda āya) rather than as a complete and undivided whole. He also echoes al-Zamakhsharī’s stress on the rhetorical excellences implied by the term, remarking that “qaṣaṣ” connotes the superiority of the articulation (bayān) and rhetoric (balāgha) of the Qurʾān over the ordinary qiṣaṣ of men. (See Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, Mafātīḥ al-ghayb / al-Tafsīr al-kabīr (Beirut: Dār al-Fikr, 1981), 18:87.) Though Kugle cites works in this genre under the title of “Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ,” as is not uncommon in academic works written in Western languages, this usage represents a departure from the practice of Islamic scholarship, whose standard term has always been qaṣaṣ for the various reasons cited above.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 209.
 Khalil ‘Athamina, “Al-Qasas: Its Emergence, Religious Origin and Its Socio-Political Impact on Early Muslim Society,” Studia Islamica 76 (1992): 65.
 Ibid., 61.
 Ibid., 55.
 See Coeli Fitzpatrick and Adam Hani Walker, Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2014), 461.
 See the ḥadīth of Abū Hurayra to the effect that “[t]he people of the Scripture (Jews) used to recite the Torah in Hebrew and they used to explain it in Arabic to the Muslims. Thereupon, Allah’s Messenger said, ‘Do not believe the people of the Scripture nor disbelieve them, but say: “We believe in Allah and in what was revealed to us.” [Q. (al-Baqara) 2:136]’,” cited in al-Bukhārī, Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī, no. 4125.
 See Jonathan Berkey, Popular Preaching and Religious Authority in the Medieval Islamic Near East (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2011), 75-76.
 See Walid A. Saleh, The Formation of the Classical Tafsīr Tradition: The Qurʾān Commentary of al-Thaʿlabī (d. 427/1035) (Boston: Brill, 2004), 2.
 This claim, however, is pure speculation on the part of Kugle, as al-Kisāʾī himself includes no references to earlier works.
 See Kugle, Homosexuality in Islam, 74-75 (e-book, 133). Kugle describes as a “weakness in contemporary Islamic culture” an alleged lack of scrutiny applied to ḥadīth.
 Ibid., 75 (e-book, 135).
 Ibid., 75 (e-book, 134). The ẓannī/qaṭʿī dichotomy appears in works of jurisprudence as a form of epistemological classification. What is considered ẓannī, or non-definitive, can either refer to the actual transmitted tradition’s authenticity as not being mass-transmitted (mutawātir), or to the tradition’s meaning as being open to more than one interpretation. Conversely, a qaṭʿī tradition is definitive either due to its transmission via a multitude of sources, or due to its meaning being self-evident, unequivocal, and therefore not open to varying interpretations. This qaṭʿī-ẓannī distinction serves the interest of jurists as it pertains to the interpretive process involved in deriving legal rulings. In addition, the term ẓannī appears in theological works with regard to points of creed, specifically with respect to what constitutes disbelief: a believer, once fully cognizant that a ḥadīth has been attested via mass transmission (tawātur), has no epistemological basis upon which to contest the authenticity of the information contained in the report. To reject a ḥadīth conveyed by mass transmission would be theologically equivalent to rejecting a verse of the Qurʾān, both of which constitute an act of disbelief. Distinguishing between definitive (qaṭʿī) and non-definitive (ẓannī) ḥadīth reports serves various theological and legal purposes, but by no means renders non-definitive ḥadīth subject to casual dismissal. The Islamic tradition has collectively and unanimously made use of ẓannī ḥadīth for legal purposes, in conformity with conditions set out in detail by scholars of uṣūl al-fiqh. This subject is treated in depth in, e.g., ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Aḥmad al-Bukhārī, Kashf al-asrār ʿan Uṣūl Fakhr al-Islām al-Bazdawī, 3 ed. (Beirut: Dār al-Kitāb al-ʿArabī, 1997), as well as in the work of the 20th-century scholar ʿAbd Allāh Khallāf, ʿIlm uṣūl al-fiqh, 2 ed. (Cairo: Maṭbaʿat Nahḍat Miṣr, 1946). For related discussions in English, see Jonathan A. C. Brown, Hadith: Muhammad’s Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World, Foundations of Islam (Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2009), 100-106, as well as 150-172 and 173-183.
 Kugle, Homosexuality in Islam, 75 (e-book 133).
 Ibid., 73-127 (e-book, 131-215).
 Ibid., 84 (e-book, 148).
 In addition to a further obscure text (which we shall examine in our discussion of Quṭb al-Dīn al-Rāwandī’s qaṣaṣ work below) that appears in a tertiary ḥadīth collection and is in all likelihood spurious.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 213.
 Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Kisāʾī, Badʾ al-khalq wa qaṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, ed. al-Ṭāhir b. Salama (Tunis: Dār Nuqūsh ʿArabiyya, 1998).
 Ismāʿīl b. ʿUmar Ibn Kathīr, Qaṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥayy al-Farmāwī (Cairo: Dār al-Ṭabʿa wa’l-Nashr al-Islāmiyya, 1997), 243.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 213.
 Quṭb al-Dīn al-Rāwandī, Qaṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ, ed. Ghulām Riḍā ʿIrfānyān (Iran: Majmaʿ al-Buḥūth al-Islāmiyya, 1989), 119, no. 119.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 214.
 Kugle, Homosexuality in Islam, 56 (e-book, 102).
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 215.
 Kugle, Homosexuality in Islam, 56 (e-book, 102).
 Ibid., 55 (e-book, 100-101).
 See al-Rāzī, Mafātīḥ al-ghayb, 24:161 and al-Zamakhsharī, Kashshāf, 767 for two examples, though this interpretation is repeated in a number of tafsīr works.
 This position is reported in multiple works of tafsīr. Al-Ṭabarī maintains this interpretation when he states, “O my people, these are my daughters—meaning the women of his umma.” See al-Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, 4:297. Al-Rāzī reports this position as being one of two interpretations of “daughters,” preferring it on account of: (i) it being contrary to manly virtue (murūʾa) for a prophet to marry his daughters to transgressors; (ii) the daughters of Lot being only a handful in number and inadequate for marrying the multitude of men at Lot’s doorstep; and (iii) the fact that the soundest report concerning Lot’s daughters is that he had only two, in which case the term “two daughters” (bintayn) would have been used, in the dual form, instead of the plural “daughters” (banāt). Al-Rāzī reports this as the interpretation of Saʿīd b. Jubayr (d. 95/714) and Mujāhid (d. between 100/718 and 104/722) and states that prophets are “fathers” to their people as a normative matter, citing as evidence Q. (al-Aḥzāb) 33:6, “And his [the Prophet’s (pbuh)] wives are their [the believers’] mothers.” See al-Rāzī, Mafātīḥ al-ghayb, 18:33-34.
 al-Ṭabarī, Tafsīr, 4:298.
 al-Zamakhsharī, Kashshāf, 492.
 al-Rāzī, Mafātīḥ al-ghayb, 18:35.
 Kugle, Homosexuality in Islam, 52 (e-book, 95).
 Ibid., 52 (e-book, 96).
 Ibid., 27 (e-book 56).
 Ibid., 52 (e-book, 95).
 Ibid., 78 and 79 (e-book, 139 and 141).
 Abū Muḥammad ʿAlī b. Aḥmad Ibn Ḥazm, al-Muḥallā fī sharḥ al-Mujallā bi’l-ḥujaj wa’l-āthār, ed. Hassān ʿAbd al-Mannān (Riyadh: Bayt al-Afkār al-Dawliyya, 1431/2009), 2221. Can be accessed at: https://library.islamweb.net/hadith/display_hbook.php?bk_no=661&pid=328595&hid=1686.
 The term ʿawra refers, in one sense, to that part of the body that must be covered in front of marriageable members of the opposite sex. There is additionally an ʿawra that one must maintain with unmarriageable kin such as one’s father, mother, sister, or brother upon reaching maturity, as well as an ʿawra that must be maintained even before other members of the same sex.
 Both this ḥadīth and the one immediately preceding it offer a commentary with respect to the Companions of the Prophet, who ordinarily slept dressed down, meaning in clothes that did not fully cover their ʿawra. Clothing was difficult to come by and few had the wealth to afford multiple pairs of clothing. In addition, it was commonplace for two men or two women to share a blanket at night time. Depending on the size of the blanket, these men or women might inadvertently make contact during the night, and the ḥadīth reports cited here outline guidelines for what is permissible in such circumstances. Legal scholars have understood these ḥadīth to mean that should two men or two women happen to share the same sheet, they must have something separating them if they are not observing the minimum ʿawra that must be covered. Others, however, such as Shams al-Ḥaqq al-ʿAẓīmābādī, have regarded the sharing of a blanket between two men or two women as categorically impermissible, irrespective of whether such a separation exists or not. For details, see al-Nawawī, al-Minhāj, 315-316 (can be accessed at: http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?flag=1&bk_no=53&ID=935) and Muḥammad Shams al-Ḥaqq al-ʿAẓīmābādī, ʿAwn al-Maʿbūd, sharḥ Sunan Abī Dāwūd, 1 ed. (Riyadh: Maktabat al-Maʿārif li’l-Nashr wa’l-Tawzīʿ, 2009), 1723-1725 (can be accessed at: http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?flag=1&bk_no=55&ID=6973).
 Note that this ḥadīth refers to deliberate imitation of the opposite sex, particularly in dress (al-Bukhārī, for instance, places this ḥadīth in his chapter on clothing). It does not cover those aspects of a person that might resemble the other sex but that are inborn (khilqī) or not deliberately taken on by the person, and it certainly does not refer to popular notions of “manhood” which regard emotional detachment, aggression, and sexual prowess as fundamental markers of masculinity.
 Ibn Ḥazm, al-Muḥallā, 2225. Can be accessed at: http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=2401&idto=2401&bk_no=17&ID=2343.
 It should be recalled that this text appears in a chapter entitled “Of the Vileness of Sinning” and is cited as a deterrent against wrong action. As we have mentioned, Ibn Ḥazm in fact disagrees with these positions and regards the narrations as inauthentic, as detailed in his al-Muḥallā, but he quotes them here nonetheless to caution his reader about the enormity of the sin of male-male sexual acts.
 See Ibn Ḥazm, The Ring of the Dove, 258-259. Can be accessed at: http://www.muslimphilosophy.com/hazm/dove/ringdove.html#ch29. Earlier in the same section (ibid., 245-246), Ibn Ḥazm recounts his disapproval of two men eying each other conspicuously and repeatedly disappearing into privacy at a party. He states: “I remember that I was at a reception with some friends; the party was being given by one of our wealthiest burghers. I observed one of the guests, and a member of our host’s family who was also present, behaving in a manner of which I strongly disapproved; they were ogling each other quite disgustingly, and withdrawing into privacy time and time again.” Ibn Ḥazm reports that he tried, through verse and many not so subtle hints, to alert the host to such untoward behavior so that he might put an end to it, but to no avail. “So I held my peace,” he says, “not knowing whether he really did not grasp my meaning, or whether he was only pretending to be stupid. I do not remember ever going to his parties again. I composed the following little poem in his honour:
“I have no doubt, of all mankind
You have the least suspicious mind
Secure, as all good Muslims ought
To be, in faith, intention, thought”
“Wake from your daydreams! Don’t you know
This very evening So-and-so
A guest whom you invited in
Committed a most grievous sin?”
“I think you ought to be aware
Men bend for other things than prayer;
And you have certainly taught me
Not everyone with eyes can see!”
 Albeit an uncommon view, considering tribadism (siḥāq) subject to a ḥadd penalty is a position Ibn Ḥazm attributes to Ibn Shihāb al-Zuhrī (d. 124/741-2). For more details, see Ibn Ḥazm, al-Muḥallā, 2224-2225. Can be accessed at: http://library.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=2401&idto=2401&bk_no=17&ID=2343.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 201.
 Linguistically, the triliteral root f-s-q denotes disobedience and straying from the command of God. Inclining toward transgression, departing from the path of righteousness and truth, and breaking out of (as something breaks through a crease, or the morning emerges from the darkness during fajr) are all definitions included in classical lexical works. See, for example, Ibn Manẓūr, Lisān al-ʿArab, 6/3413-3414; Aḥmad Ibn Fāris, Muʿjam Maqāyīs al-lugha, ed. ʿAbd al-Salām Muḥammad Hārūn, 6 vols. (Beirut: Dār al-Fikr li’l-Ṭibāʿa wa’l-Tawzīʿ wa’l-Nashr, 1399/1979), 4/502; and, Ismāʿīl b. Ḥammād al-Jawharī, al-Ṣiḥāḥ, tāj al-lugha wa ṣiḥāḥ al-ʿArabiyya, ed. Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Ghafūr ʿAṭṭār, 4 ed., 7 vols. (Beirut: Dār al-ʿIlm li’l-Malāyīn, 1990), 1543.
 Kugle, “Sexuality, Diversity, and Ethics,” 193.
 Ibid., 217.
 Such as, e.g., the assertion that “jurists in the classical period did not reach consensus about the legal status of anal sex between men” (ibid., 216), which refers only to how liwāṭ (sodomy) should be categorized for purposes of determining punishment, not that there was no consensus about the “legal status” of it as being rigorously prohibited (ḥarām).
 See ibid., 204.
 Ibid., 200.
Reflections on Muslim Approaches to the Abortion Debate: The Problem of Narrow Conceptualization
American Muslims must go beyond simplistic and emotionally-charged approaches to the abortion question.
“Islam is the golden mean between all ethical extremes’ is what certain Muslims would assert… This moral assumption isn’t far from the truth.”
Shaykh Abdullah Hamid Ali in A Word on Muslim Attitudes Toward Abortion
“The golden mean is kind of a summit, and it is a struggle to get there. The ego does not want balance because you have to think and make sacrifices.”
Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad in Paradigms of Leadership (6)
A few months ago, Governor Kay Ivey signed into law House Bill 134, or the Human Life Protection Act, which prohibited all abortion in the state of Alabama except in cases where it was deemed necessary to prevent a serious health risk to the mother. The bill additionally criminalized abortion or any attempt to carry it out in situations deemed non-necessary. A motion to exempt rape and incest victims from this law was defeated in the Alabama state senate, which give the state the (dubious) distinction of possessing one of the most restrictive abortion laws in America. This move by Alabama to place extreme restrictions on abortion followed a spate of similar legislative moves by other states, such as Georgia, Kentucky, and Mississippi.
This escalation in anti-abortion legislation occasioned intense debate within the Muslim community. Muslims who self-identify as progressives chanted the familiar mantra of “my body, my choice” to affirm a notion of personal rights and bodily autonomy in defending a woman’s right to choose. The ideological underpinnings of this view are extremely problematic from a theological perspective, and the practical policies arising from it that sanction even late-term abortions contravene the near-consensus position of classical jurists and is rightly seen as an assault on inviolable human life. For this reason, this essay will not pay any particular attention to this view.
Several people pushed back against this permissive attitude by arguing that abortion is essentially prohibited in Islam in all but the direst of situations, such as when the life of the mother is at genuine risk. This opinion has a sound precedent in the legal tradition and is the mainstream view of some of the legal schools, but it has often been presented in a manner that fails to acknowledge the normative pluralism that exists on the matter in the shariah and rather perniciously presents these alternative opinions as ‘liberal’ or ‘progressive’. Similarly, those who favour the more lenient view found in other legal schools are often seen characterizing the stricter opinion as ‘right-wing’ or reflective of the Christianization of Islamic law. Despite having legal precedent on their side, both groups engaged the abortion question in a manner that was rather superficial and fundamentally problematic.
Did Jurists Only Permit Abortion in ‘Dire’ Circumstances?
I will begin this essay by offering a corrective to the mistaken notion that classical jurists only permitted abortions in cases of necessity, an assertion that has become very common in current Muslim discourse on abortion in America. One need not look much further than the Ḥanafī school to realize that this claim is incorrect. Though there are opinions within the school that only permit abortion before 120 days with the existence of a valid excuse, the view of several early leading authorities was that abortion was unconditionally permissible (mubāḥ) before this period and/or prior to the physical form and features of a fetus becoming clearly discernible. In his encyclopaedic work al-Muḥīṭ al-Burhānī, Burhān al-Dīn ibn Māza (d. 616/1219) presents two main opinions on abortion in the school:
(i) It is permitted “as long as some physical human features are not clearly discernible because if these features are not discernible, the fetus is not a child (walad)” as per Fatāwā Ahl al-Samarqand. Some scholars asserted that this occurs at 120 days, while others stated that this assertion, though incorrect, indicated that by discernibility jurists intended ensoulment.
(ii) It is disliked because once conception occurs, the natural prognostication is life and so the fetus is granted this ruling at the moment of conception itself. This was the view of ʿAlī ibn Mūsā al-Qummī (d. 305/917-18).
The first opinion of unconditional permissibility was not a solitary one in the school. It was forwarded by many of the foremost Ḥanafī authorities, such as Ḥussām al-Dīn ibn Māza (d. 536/1141), Raḍī al-Dīn al-Sarakhsī (d. 575/1175), Jamāl al-Dīn al-Ghaznawī (d. 593/1196), Zayn al-Dīn al-Rāzī (d. 666/1267), ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maḥmūd al-Mawṣilī (d. 683/1284), Fakhr al-Dīn al-Zaylaʿī (d. 743/1343), Qiwām al-Dīn al-Kākī (749/1348), Jalāl al-Dīn al-Khawārizmī (d. 767/1365), Kamāl ibn al-Humām (d. 861/1457), Muḥyī al-Dīn Jawīzāda (d. 954/1547), Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Ḥaṣkafī (d. 1088/1677), and several others. The reasoning underlying this view was that prior to a specific period (whether defined by days or by fetal development), a fetus is not a ‘child’ or ‘person’. Therefore, no ruling is attached to it at this stage.
Another opinion in the school, and one that has gained wide acceptance amongst contemporary Ḥanafī jurists, argued that abortion prior to 120 days was disliked and sinful unless carried out with a valid excuse. This view was most famously expressed by Fakhr al-Dīn Qāḍīkhān (d. 592/1196) in his Fatāwā and subsequently supported by the likes of Ibn Wahbān (d. 768/1367), Ibn Nujaym (d. 970/1563), and Ibn ʿĀbidīn (d. 1252/1836). These sources, however, do not define or fully flesh out what constitutes an excuse, sufficing mainly with a single example as illustrative of a case where abortion would be permitted, namely when a woman ceases to produce milk on account of pregnancy and her husband is unable to provide an alternative source of sustenance for their child and fears his or her perishing. Cases of rape, incest, adultery, and other possible excuses are not discussed by most of these authors, and it is not clear whether they would have deemed these valid excuses or not.
The Ḥanafī school, therefore, had three main opinions on the issue: unconditionally permissible prior to a specific time period; unconditionally disliked; and conditionally permissible prior to a specific time period. Of the three, the first view seems to have been the dominant one in the school and held by multiple authorities in virtually every century. The view of conditional permissibility was also a strong one and notably adopted by several later jurists. It is also the view that has gained currency among modern Ḥanafī scholars who are generally not seen forwarding the view of unconditional permissibility.
Some Contemporary Views on Abortion
A wide range of opinions is also found in the discourse of contemporary jurists. Shaykh Muṣṭafā Zarqā (d. 1999) presented a gradated scheme where abortion prior to 40 days was permitted without a “severe excuse”, which included “undertaking necessary travel where pregnancy and giving birth would prove a hindrance, such as for education or for work that requires a couple to move.” He also considered financial strain arising from a child as a valid excuse during this limited time period. According to him, the threshold for a valid excuse would become higher as the pregnancy proceeded beyond 40 days.
Muftī Maḥmūd Ḥasan Gangohī (d. 1996), one of the foremost scholars of the Deobandī school, permitted abortions when conception occurred out of wedlock (zinā).
Muftī Salmān Manṣurpūrī states emphatically that the basis is that abortion is impermissible unless there is a valid excuse before 120 days, such as the life of the mother being at risk, serious consequences to her general health, an actual inability to bear pregnancy, clear harm or danger to one’s current children, and adultery, but not fear of economic difficulty nor the decision not to have children.
In Fatāwā Dār al-ʿUlūm Zakariyya, Muftī Raḍā’ al-Ḥaqq states that a fetus diagnosed by medical professionals with an incurable and serious disorder that will prove to be an extreme burden on the child and its family is permitted to abort prior to 120 days as per the Islamic Fiqh Academy in Mecca. Elsewhere, he divides pregnancy into three stages. The first stage is when the general form and facial features of the fetus take shape but prior to the formation of its limbs. At this stage, it is permitted to carry out on abortion with a valid and established excuse, such as the fetus suffering from a “dangerous hereditary disease”, “physical abnormality/deformity”, the life of the mother being at risk, or reasonably-established fear of the mother’s “physical and mental health” being impacted. The second stage is when the limbs of the fetus are clearly formed and discernible, and the third stage is after 120 days. In both these stages, the respected Muftī rules that abortion is not permitted except in cases of necessity, such as saving the life of the mother. The permission to abort the fetus is also extended to cases of rape.
Mawlānā Zubayr Aḥmad Qāsmī (d. 2019), a founding member of the Islamic Fiqh Academy, India, argued that the permission to carry out an abortion before ensoulment (even after discernibility) is not simply restricted to cases of necessity (ḍarūra) but includes cases of need (ḥāja), which broadly includes “any situation that entails bodily or psychological harm for the parents or the child and is a cause for continual distress.” Examples of valid excuses include “danger to the general health, mental health, or life of the mother”, pregnancy resulting from rape or fornication (so long as it is not someone who has engaged in the latter habitually), the strong possibility that the child will be born with serious physical abnormalities or defects as determined by a medical professional, and the genuine inability of the parents to raise and maintain/sustain more than one child without it negatively impacting their current children.
Mawlānā Khālid Sayf Allāh Raḥmānī states, “Essentially, abortion is impermissible in Islam, and there is no time period in which it is acceptable to abort a fetus. However, this impermissibly has degrees. In the first scenario (i.e. post-ensoulment) it is a grievous sin and categorically prohibited; in the second scenario (i.e. pre-ensoulment but post-discernment of limbs) it is lesser than this; in the third scenario (i.e. before features/limbs become discernible) it is relatively less severe than the previous two.” He then goes on to rule that abortion is not permitted for the following reasons: not desiring more children; conception out of wedlock; or being physically or mentally unable to care for a child, since others may be able to do so. Excuses that permit abortion before ensoulment include a doctor concluding with reasonable-surety that the child will suffer from a dangerous hereditary disease, physical abnormalities, and deformities, and the life of the mother is at serious risk.
There are stricter views than some of those mentioned above, especially from non-Ḥanafī scholars. Shaykh Hamza Yusuf, taking the Mālikī school as his basis, has argued that abortion before 40 days is prohibited “with rare exception.” This view of impermissibility is also held by Shaykh Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī although he allows for a dispensation to be given to victims of rape.
Shaykh ʿAbd Allāh ibn Bayya also deems abortion at all stages of pregnancy to be sinful to varying degrees except in situations where the life of the mother is at risk.
Shaykh Wahba al-Zuhaylī (d. 2015) ruled that abortion was impermissible from the moment of conception “except in cases of necessity” such as being afflicted with cancer or an incurable disease.
Framing the Problem: Basic Levels of Engaging the Law
The discussion so far makes one point quite evident: there are an array of opinions on the issue of abortion ranging from the extremely restrictive to the more permissive. Though ‘difference of opinion’ (ikhtilāf) has generally been viewed as one of the outstanding and unique features of Islamic legal discourse, it is precisely the range of views that exist in the tradition on abortion that partly plays a role in the problematic approaches to the issue seen amongst certain Muslims. It is not so much the differences themselves that are the issue, but the manner in which particular opinions are selected by individuals who subsequently propagate them to the community as binding doctrine.
To better understand this, one can broadly identify four basic levels of engagement with religious law applicable to Muslim leaders and scholars in the West in the context of the abortion issue, which often overlap with one another: (a) personal, (b) academic, (c) fatwā, public preaching, and irshād, and (d) political.
(a) The Personal
The ‘personal’ level concerns an individual’s own practice where he or she can follow the legal school (or trusted scholar) of their choosing or decide on the rulings that govern their lives when possessing the ability to do so. This level does not directly concern anyone but the individual himself.
(b) The Academic
The ‘academic’ level in the current context refers primarily to a process of study, reflection and deduction, and research to arrive at a personal conclusion regarding some aspect of the law that is undertaken in conversation with a guild of peers and not the general population. Such academic activity is often theoretical, abstract, and conceptual, and even when it addresses more practical concerns, it constitutes a general articulation of an opinion, not an individualized responsa, that others engage with as members of a scholarly class. This scholarly class includes the ʿulamā’ and others whose input is relevant to a particular issue.
(c) Fatwā, Irshād, and Public Preaching
The realm of fatwā is exclusively for a qualified scholar. Here, the scholar enters most directly into the practical implementation of a legal ruling. Fatwā does involve an academic process, and it is often conveyed by a jurist as a universal ruling in accordance with his academic conclusions. However, the practice of fatwā is commonly understood as an answer directed by a qualified jurisconsult (muftī) to an individual (mustaftī) who requires guidance on a particular religious matter. The jurisconsult providing said individual with an answer is now tasked with translating the abstract, theoretical, and academic into a practical solution, which requires taking into account the circumstances of the questioner.
The delicateness of this matter has led some scholars to compare the relationship of a jurisconsult with the questioner to that of a doctor and his patient. Indeed, the answer that a scholar provides a questioner may not be fully in accordance with the theoretical and abstract conclusions the former has reached in an academic setting, it may disregard an opinion that the jurisconsult otherwise deems a valid legal interpretation because its application is not appropriate in the specific case at hand, it may be strict or lenient, in accordance with the legal school of the scholar or a dispensation from another, and it may be inapplicable to anyone but the questioner. Further, a fatwā is non-binding (unlike a judicial court ruling) and does not negate other valid opinions or peoples’ choice to follow them. This is important to note in contexts where a fatwā is issued to communicate a universal rule.
In many cases, the answer that is provided to a person is not presented as a fatwā but merely a form of religious advice or irshād. Though there is presumably a difference between these two concepts, they are sometimes indistinguishable in a Western context. Irshād has a seemingly less formal quality to it, and it can be offered by a non-scholar though the prerequisite of sound knowledge still remains. Like fatwā, the proffering of religious advice and guidance can assume a more public form and have an academic flavour to it. The articles written by non-scholars on the blogosphere, lectures and speeches delivered by speakers, and religious counsel extended to others falls within this general category of irshād. For those in leadership roles, the public nature of their work means that high standards are required even here when it comes to addressing and conveying religious issues of a complex or delicate nature.
(d) The Political
If the issuance of a fatwā and providing religious advice is a delicate matter, the process of forming, advocating for, and/or enacting laws on the political level is far greater in this regard. Such laws are made in the context of human societies and affect large swaths of people who objectively vary in their circumstances – individual, social, religious/ideological, and economic. Unlike a fatwā or irshād, once a law has been settled upon by the state, it becomes binding upon an entire population and any reasonable alternative ceases to hold validity in practice at least until the law is reviewed and amended. Exemptions are only tolerated when affirmed by the law itself. Further, law interacts with and influences society in complex ways. This is true for all forms of law, not just ones that are state-enacted.
A core question in legal philosophy is what the law ought to be or what makes a law good. The ‘good’ is a moral concept and might be described as one that is essentially contested in so far as people differ over its conception and the criteria for its application. Some emphasize the consequences of a rule (consequentialism), while others favour a deontological moral ethic or one that is virtue-centred. Each of these families of theories subsume within them further particular theories that differ with one another. There are also considerations of fairness, equity, distributive justice, enforceability, practicality, and/or efficiency that those evaluating the law might assign significant value to. These notions of morality and the good influence policy-making and legal systems.
How do Muslims approach this issue? Islam is viewed by Muslims as a comprehensive moral and philosophical system where the moral value of an act is determined by the divine will. It is the commands and prohibitions of God that render an action good or evil, and under this divine command theory, revelation is the primary source for moral knowledge. However, this legal notion of moral value is not as straightforward as it sounds since a significant number of legal rulings are probabilistic in nature and differed upon. Consequently, the moral value attached to these rulings lack a decisive character, which engenders a plurality of moral outlooks. This pluralism is an indelible feature of the tradition itself creating a paradox whereby Muslims can affirm that good and evil are known through revelation, while recognizing that differences concerning moral judgments are part of the moral vision of revelation itself.
This raises important questions regarding the political approach a minority Muslim population in the West might take regarding the abortion issue. Should Muslims seek to accommodate a pluralism justified by tradition and avoid commandeering the state to coercively impose laws that negate the right of people to follow an acceptable and mainstream Islamic legal opinion?
Should Muslims simply support restrictions on abortion practices that contravene the consensus position of Islam? Or should Muslims seek to promote an opinion, or some combination of opinions, among those found in the legal schools on the basis of a reasonably defined criteria that assesses the issue holistically from the perspective of the theological, legal, ethical, and the public good?
Indeed, there are many classical opinions whose validity scholars did not accept, others that were prima facie valid but not put into practice, and classical jurists themselves erected systems to keep a check on legal chaos resulting from people being allowed to arbitrarily follow any opinion with a basis in precedent. Yet, Muslim societies always tolerated differences of opinion, and for most of its history, people living in these societies had recourse to various scholars from multiple legal schools. Unlike the centralizing and homogenizing tendencies of the modern nation-state, Islamic law was centrifugal and operated on a grass-roots level to produce self-governing societies. In many periods, this diversity was even found in judicial settings where courts were established for each of the legal schools. This was extended to non-Muslim populations living under Islamic governments as well who were accorded a high degree of autonomy. While this might strike some as a thing of the past, a nostalgic yearning for a bygone era, there are many lessons the community can draw from the attitudes and approaches of past societies.
In a political context, the notion of the ‘public good’ (maṣlaha) is particularly relevant given the scope and consequences of legislative actions, but it is a notoriously complicated one to pin down and, like the ‘good’, might be described as essentially contested. Even the basic question “who will this law or opinion impact, and in what manner” takes one into a complex maze of considerations and perspectives that demand careful attention and thought. It is hard to imagine any informed answer to this question without the input of a variety of experts. While Muslims are not quite in a position to craft legislation, influential religious activists and scholars who advocate for specific legislation and/or discourse on it to the wider community should keep the above points in made for any advocacy that proceeds in the name of religion is one that must be approached with care and seriousness.
Identifying the Problem: Beyond Personal Preferences, Emotions, and Selective Madhhab Picking
With this framework in mind, it is now possible to identify a major problem in current American Muslim discourse on abortion, which is that it does not meaningfully engage any of the levels described above save the personal. The distinction between these various engagement contexts is hardly recognized. Most public discourse on abortion promotes one traditional opinion over another based not on a rigorous standard that is grounded in revelation, theology, legal theory, ethics, the public good, and a keen awareness of human nature, the individual, political, social, and ideological currents and factors, historical trends, and the challenges of the contemporary world, but seemingly on personal opinions based on little more than a reaction to a perceived ideological threat, individual proclivities, or pure taqlīd. The mainstream opinions of the legal school simply act as tools of legitimation for one’s personal view.
The Problem of Imposition
On a personal level, this is not a problem per se, and people have their reasons to select certain views as opposed to others and even vociferously promote them in some limited capacity to friends, colleagues, or family over a session of tea or a short-lived social media feud with random individuals. However, for those in positions of leadership and influence, this cannot be the basis for a fatwā, general communal irshād, or public advocacy impacting millions of people. The imposition of the personal onto these areas in this manner is both ill-advised and potentially harmful. Even the conclusions reached by a scholar on the basis of sound academic research may be put aside in these contexts, i.e. fatwā and political activism/legislation, when the scholar feels that competing considerations and interests demand so. Thus, a scholar may believe in a reading of revelation that is extremely restrictive on abortion but recognizing the probabilistic nature of his interpretation and the variety of individual circumstances, the ethical norms of ease and warding off hardship, profound societal and economic changes, complex and strained community and family structures, the advice of other experts, and the general public good chooses not to advocate for this view as a matter of policy to be implemented as law or provided to a specific individual as a legal edict.
The Sunna Imperative for Leniency, The Lack of Depth of the Lenient
It is often forgotten that a peculiar response by some classical jurists to the degenerated state of society was not in toughening up legal prescriptions but relaxing them: “Our time is not one of avoiding the doubtful (shubuhāt), meaning if a person only avoids the impermissible, it is sufficient.” This was an ethical consideration influencing the judgment of the jurist who saw it not as compromising religion nor a dereliction of his duty but part of the guidance of the sunna itself where facilitating the affairs of people was deemed important. As Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad states commenting on the instruction of al-Birgivī (d. 981/1573) not to give the laity the more difficult opinion on an issue validly differed upon:
This, of course, is a Prophetic counsel. The ego doesn’t always like giving people easy options because we assume it is because of our laziness or some kind of liberal Islam. For al-Birgivī it is taqwā to give the ordinary Muslims the easier interpretations… but nowadays, we tend to assume that the narrower you are, the less compromises you make, the more the West will be angry and, therefore, the better the Muslim you must be.
The Prophetic counsel that Shaykh Abdal Hakim refers to is known to many: “Make things easy and do not make them difficult.” This attitude of facilitating matters for people, granting them leniency, and not repulsing them with harshness and difficulty is a part of Islam. As Imām al-Shāṭibī stated, the removal of hardship (rafʿ al-ḥaraj) is a decisively established foundational principle in the shariah. From this foundational principle arises some of the most important legal and ethical principles in the Islamic tradition, such as hardship necessitates ease, there is no harm nor reciprocating harm, harm is lifted, the lesser of two evils, taking into account the consequences of an act, custom as a source of law, and more. In fact, some jurists opined that when the evidence for an issue was contradictory or conflicting, the more lenient opinion was to be given preference due to the generality of revelatory texts affirming ease in the shariah.
But there is a problem. Many of those who promote and relay the lenient Ḥanafī opinion of unconditional permissibility approach it in a manner that lacks substance. On the academic plane, even basic questions regarding this position are not addressed or understood, much less entertained. Take, for example, the difference between the statement of Ḥanafī jurists that abortion is impermissible after the physical features of the fetus become discernible and the statement of others in the school that this impermissibility comes into effect after a 120-day period. Are these the same? Who in the madhhab held these positions? Is there a clear preference for one or the other? How was discernibility understood? What features needed to be discernible? Did discernibility refer to what is normally observable by humans or to what is discernible by modern embryogenesis? How have contemporary jurists addressed this issue? Then there is the matter that one is hard-pressed to find a single contemporary Ḥanafī jurist who favours the view of unconditional permissibility. What does this reveal about this opinion and the possibility of critically evaluating past opinions that fall within the scope of differences of opinion?
These questions largely fall within the parameters of an intra-school discussion and do not even begin to address the broader social and political considerations mentioned earlier.
Here, the sheer fact that there were over six-hundred thousand abortions reported in America in 2015, the latest year for which statistics exist from the CDC, should be alarming to people and cannot be callously dismissed.
Though the overwhelming majority of these occurred well within a 120-day period (≤13 weeks’ gestation, which is measured from the first day of the woman’s last menstruation and not from the day of conception), most of those who obtained these abortions were unmarried women who did so in non-dire circumstances. The culture of sexual freedom out of which the abortion movement emerged and its ideological grounding in notions of bodily autonomy and personal choice cannot be ignored in this discussion. Nor can the devaluing of family and motherhood, the practice of female foeticide, the increasingly materialistic outlook of society, and its mechanistic view of human beings.
Additionally, some Muslims seem largely oblivious to the fact that abortion politics link to many other issues that have little do with abortion itself, such as assisted suicide or end-of-life care. In a famous district court case on assisted suicide, Compassion in Dying vs. Washington, it was Planned Parenthood vs. Casey that was cited as an important precedent to rule that a ban on physician-aided suicide was unconstitutional. Clearly, it is not sufficient to make simplistic appeals to leniency to justify promulgating an opinion that leads to such wider consequences. Abortion, in other words, cannot be treated as a ‘stand-alone’ issue with little or no relation to a broader philosophical outlook that downplays a sanctity of life ethic.
Thou Shalt Make No Exceptions, But Should We?
Many of the issues highlighted in the previous paragraph raise serious theological and ethical concerns for Muslims and should push them to reflect on the type of society they wish to create and sustain in America. Is the abortion movement today in line with the moral vision envisioned for society by God and His Prophet (blessings upon him)? Clearly not. But while the seriousness of this crisis cannot be understated, a core question, at least in the context of this debate, is often missed: if it is misplaced and dangerous to forward the most lenient opinion in this context, in what way does the strictest possible position on abortion where exemptions are not even extended to victims of rape and incest ameliorate the current situation? Or to put it differently, how do these social and ideological problems make the strictest possible opinion on abortion the most appropriate one to adopt for the individual and society?
The answer to this question is not usually satisfactorily provided. Generally, such a view returns to a genuine moral belief one holds regarding a fetus being an inviolable living person. This moral belief may be grounded in a preferred reading of revelation, simple adherence to a specific legal school, a reaction to a perceived ideological battle framed in the language of pro-life vs. pro-choice, personal inclinations, or, as is usually the case, some combination of these factors. But the no-exception view is at least initially a personal view one holds, which is then forwarded as a broad religious and political solution. One may wonder why this is an issue. After all, why shouldn’t a person forward what he or she personally believes to be the Islamic ruling on an issue?
Certainly, this is expected especially when it concerns human life, but as stated earlier, it is problematic when that personal view, which it should be noted in this case lacks a decisive legal/moral character from a religious perspective, moves into the realm of fatwā and public advocacy without taking into account the many considerations required to make an informed decision in these areas. This is in addition to the fact that those who hold this view feel perfectly within their rights to tell others to set aside their personal moral views permitting abortions precisely in view to a broader context.
Here, it is worth sharing the response given by Shaykh Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī when he was asked about abortions for Bosnian Muslim women who were raped during war. After mentioning that his basic view is that abortions are impermissible “from the moment of conception” and “this is what we give preference to”, he states:
However, in cases of need, there is no harm in taking one of the two alternative views (i.e. permissibility before 40 or 120 days), and whenever the excuse is more severe, the dispensation will be more established and manifest, and whenever it is before the first 40 days, it is closer to dispensation.
We know that there are jurists who are very strict on this matter and do not permit abortion even a day after conception… but what is most preferable is a middle path between those who are expansive in granting permission and those who are excessively strict in prohibition.
This is, of course, how knowledge and fiqh operate. They do not merely float around in the world of the abstract but address a complex world of real people, which in the context of fatwā, irshād, and politics often requires setting aside individual feelings and personal adherences to particular legal opinions: “Know that this ikhtilāf [between scholars] may be a reason to provide facilitation and ease, which is one of the higher aims of the shariah affirmed by the unequivocal text of the Qur’an and sunna.”
Too often, many of those who vociferously promote the strictest view on abortion address the issue on the level of the abstract and then transfer it to the practical realm with little further thought. Take, for example, the argument that Muslims should oppose the legalization of abortion because a majority of abortions are due to economic anxiety or a feeling of unreadiness, which in turn return to the increasingly materialistic outlook of society and crumbling family structures.
This materialistic outlook and erosion of the family must be remedied. However, no justification is ever furnished as to why a no-exception abortion stance is the best method to address this social problem, and there is almost no focus on the individual. It never crosses the mind of the proponents of this view that it is the very fact that society is materialistic to its core and the family lay in ruins that causes economic anxiety and feelings of unreadiness to be felt much more palpably and intensely by young, unmarried, pregnant women.
By largely confining their analysis and presentation of the issue to ‘materialism’, ‘decay of family’, ‘feminism’, etc., proponents of the restrictive view (inadvertently) divert attention away from the lived realities of people. This leads to neglecting the more concrete conditions and circumstances people are subject to, such as poverty, unemployment, drug abuse, poor health, psychological issues, sexual abuse, incarceration, social inequality and stratification, and the varying abilities of people to cope with life pressures and struggles. This focus away from the individual produces an unsympathetic, even antagonistic attitude, where the solution favoured is uncompromising and rigid. The ethical is erroneously conflated with strictness even though it might entail leniency in recognition of individual and social conditions.
To take one example where these broader considerations come into play, take the issue of pregnancy resulting from rape. Though statistics regarding rape are inconsistent because the crime is so underreported, it is safe to say that hundreds of thousands of women are victims of rape every year with tens of thousands of these rapes resulting in pregnancy (approximately five percent). A significantly high number of rape victims are under eighteen with many actually being under the age of twelve. Victims of rape spend many weeks simply recovering from physical injuries and managing mental health symptoms, which can remain with them for years. Beyond the physical and psychological symptoms common after rape, if a rape victim decides to carry her child to term, she is forced to go through a lengthy and exhausting process to prosecute her rapist in a criminal court and contest custody in a family or dependency court.
The political and legislative context makes matters even more difficult. Not every state has legislation in place allowing for parental rights to be terminated for a rapist. Most states that do have such legislation in place require a criminal conviction of rape beyond a reasonable doubt, which is the highest standard of evidence possible, with several also requiring a civil court conviction by clear and convincing evidence that conception resulted from rape.
Some states require the rape to be of the first-degree, which is varyingly defined. Generally, the chances of obtaining a conviction of first-degree rape are slim. Not only do rape crimes go unreported in a majority of cases, there are numerous hurdles in the criminal justice system that disadvantage rape victims at every stage of the process, such as ‘rape myths’ that influence police, investigative officers, jurors, and judges.
In most cases, a rapist will plead guilty to lesser crimes in order to avoid prolonged jail time, which would potentially allow him to gain parental rights in states requiring first or second-degree rape convictions for such rights to be terminated. In view of this, one can state that the suggestion by some Muslims that abortion should not be permitted even in such contexts because a woman can simply put her child up for adoption is seriously misinformed and potentially harmful. Is the correct solution in this context to support the most restrictive view on abortion?
Conclusion: Refining our Conceptualization & The Bigger Picture
American Muslims must go beyond simplistic and emotionally-charged approaches to the abortion question. This issue, like many others, cannot be properly addressed through a narrowly defined law, politics, or clash of ideologies narrative, especially at the level of individual fatwā, communal irshād, or political activism, advocacy, and legislation.
Nor can the wider community be shown direction on this issue, or have a course charted for them, merely on the basis of narrowly-informed personal opinions and proclivities neatly presented in the classical opinions of our choosing. Our approach must address the issue through real fiqh, namely deep understanding, where the question of abortion is tackled with an academic rigor that is cognizant of lived realities and is grounded in the ethics and guidance of revelation.
Today in America, a crisis we face is of an activism not based in, or guided by, real scholarship, and a scholarship that is wanting, uninspiring, and disconnected from those it seeks to guide. The first step scholars must take on this issue is to gain a proper and thorough conceptualization of the issue. No sound and effective conclusion can arise without such a conceptualization. This is true for any issue we find ourselves dealing with.
On the level of addressing the broader community, this is not an issue to be decided by an individual but a collectivity of minds coming together to exchange ideas and opinions. The laity should understand that American Muslims will not reach an agreement on this matter, and nor should we demand that they do. People will continue to forward different opinions and solutions. The progression of time will likely result in a plurality of acceptable views emerging within our context. This should not be met with confusion.
Muslims once lived in an age of ambiguity where opinions were confidently held but differences embraced. Today, we live in an age of anxiety, people with confused identities, threatened by modernity and various ideologies, so much so that “the only form of Islam [we] can regard as legitimate is a totalitarian, monolithic one” as Shaykh Abdal Hakim once remarked. Let us avoid this, allow for different perspectives, but demand higher standards from those who seek to guide us and speak on our behalf especially when the matter veers into a space that impacts people and communities in a very real way.
Finally, and most importantly, Muslims must break out of the mindset that social problems can simply be legislated away or solved through polemical battles waged on the internet against pernicious ideologies. The political and social are intimately intertwined, but it is all too common to see many Muslims neglecting the latter while imagining that the activities they are engaged in to address the political are actually meaningful and impactful. In fact, it is often detached from the real world, a mouthing of clichés and idle moralizing on social media platforms that elicits rage and fails to yield actual solutions on the ground. If television altered the meaning of being informed as Neil Postmann asserted, social media has undoubtedly taken things a step further by altering the meaning of ‘taking action’.
The erosion of family, the decay of morality, the rise of materialistic outlooks, the loss of higher purpose and meaning, and the devaluing of life must be addressed more directly through education, the creation of a real community, the nurturing and training of leaders who embody knowledge and wisdom, and the erection of structures that support peoples’ faith and anchor them in times of crisis. It should not be forgotten that these non-legal institutions play an important role in shaping behaviours and promoting social mores.
Muslims should learn from the many conservative Christian activists who, contrary to popular stereotypes, demonstrate an acute awareness of the struggles and anguish that many women contemplating abortion experience. As the prominent pro-life activist Frederica Mathewes-Green states:
This issue gets presented as if it’s a tug of war between the woman and the baby. We see them as mortal enemies, locked in a fight to the death. But that’s a strange idea, isn’t it? It must be the first time in history when mothers and their own children have been assumed to be at war. We’re supposed to picture the child attacking her, trying to destroy her hopes and plans, and picture the woman grateful for the abortion, since it rescued her from the clutches of her child.
If you were in charge of a nature preserve and you noticed that the pregnant female mammals were trying to miscarry their pregnancies, eating poisonous plants or injuring themselves, what would you do? Would you think of it as a battle between the pregnant female and her unborn and find ways to help those pregnant animals miscarry? No, of course not. You would immediately think, “Something must be really wrong in this environment.” Something is creating intolerable stress, so much so that animals would rather destroy their own offspring than bring them into the world. You would strive to identify and correct whatever factors were causing this stress in the animals.
It is this realization, which arises from a perspective that looks beyond abortion as simply an ideological battle between ‘the feminist’ or ‘the liberal’, that generates a sense of empathy within many conservative Christian activists who are then motivated to assist women in concrete ways.
Take the example of Embrace Grace, a Texas-based non-profit organization, which describes its purpose as “providing emotional, practical and spiritual support for single, young women and their families who find themselves in an unintended pregnancy” and to “empower churches across the nation to be a safe and non-judging place for the girls to run to when they find out they are pregnant, instead of the last place they are welcomed because of shame and guilt.” Christians have set up hundreds of pregnancy care centers across the United States, which, despite issues of concern, provide resources and services to pregnant women. Various churches have set up support groups for single mothers and mothers-to-be, while the Christian Community Development Association (CCDA) has set out to confront systemic injustices in society that lead women to seek out abortions, such as poverty.
Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad said reaching the golden mean requires that we think and make sacrifices. It is time for leaders, thinkers, and scholars in our community to begin thinking more deeply and contemplatively about the issue of abortion in its various contexts, and it is time for our community to sacrifice their time, wealth, and energies in providing concrete solutions and remedies that demonstrate a true concern for both the unborn and the women who carry them.
God alone is our sufficiency.
 References to Muslims in this article should be primarily understood as referring to people in positions of leadership and influence. In this article, I discuss some of the technical aspects surrounding the legal debate over abortion, but my intent is to simply provide a brief overview of this aspect of the debate in order for a general audience to appreciate some of the complexities of the topic.
 Though the term fetus technically refers to the unborn after 8 weeks of gestation, many use it to refer to the unborn throughout the period of pregnancy. I will be using the latter convention for the sake of simplicity.
 al-Ḥasan ibn Manṣūr al-Farghānī, Fatāwā Qāḍīkhān, on the margins of Fatāwā Hindiyya (Bulāq: al-Maṭbaʿa al-Amīriyya, 1310 A.H.), 3:410.
 Ibn Māza himself framed the ruling in terms of ensoulment. He stated that jurists differed on the permissibility of abortion pre-ensoulment with some permitting it. He then cited the text of Fatāwā Ahl al-Samarqand, which only speaks of discernibility. Qāḍīkhān mentioned how the discernibility of physical features and limbs was “determined” by some as occurring at 120 days. Kamāl ibn al-Humām and others correctly pointed out that observation proves otherwise but proceed to state that the connection made between discernibility and ensoulment shows that scholars intended the latter when expressing the former. Ibn ʿĀbidīn, however, questioned this. I agree for several reasons: firstly, many jurists make no reference to 120 days or ensoulment when presenting this ruling; secondly, discernibility and ensoulment are clearly different stages during the pregnancy, a fact that was known to classical scholars who sometimes applied different terms to these two stages, such as taṣwīr/ṣūra and takhlīq/khalq; and, thirdly, most Ḥanafī rulings premised on determining personhood rely on the discernibility criterion. Given this, there are two possible views in the Ḥanafī school regarding the period before which abortion is permissible: before some of the physical features of the fetus become discernible or prior to ensoulment at 120 days. Additionally, there was discussion in the Ḥanafī school on the features that were to be given consideration when assessing whether a fetus was a ‘person’. These discussions are highly significant in modern debates for if the criterion for personhood is discerning a particular physical form on the basis of observation, this potentially broadens the scope for modern Ḥanafī understandings of the concept of personhood and how/when it is established. I hope to address these issues in a separate paper. See Maḥmūd ibn Aḥmad ibn Māza, al-Muḥīṭ al-Burhānī fī al-fiqh al-Nuʿmānī, ed. Nuʿaym Ashraf Nūr Aḥmad (Karachi: Idārat al-Qur’ān wa’l-ʿUlūm al-Islāmiyya, 2004), 8:83-84; al-Farghānī, Fatāwā Qāḍīkhān, 3:410; Muḥammad Amīn ibn ʿĀbidīn, Radd al-Muḥtār (Būlāq: al-Maṭbaʿa al-Kubrā al-Amīriyya, 1323 A.H.), 1:201.
 Ibn Māza, al-Muḥīṭ al-Burhānī, 8:83-84. It is worth noting that al-Qummī did not say fetus is a life at conception but that it has begun a process that concludes with life.
 Ḥussām al-Dīn ʿUmar ibn Māza, al-Fatāwā al-Kubrā (Istanbul: Rāghib Bāshā #619), ff. 96b.
 Raḍī al-Dīn al-Sarakhsī, al-Wajīz (Istanbul: Koprulu #684), ff. 116a.
 Jamāl al-Dīn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad, al-Ḥāwī al-Qudsī, ed. Ṣāliḥ al-ʿAlī (Lebanon: Dār al-Nawādir, 2011), 2:326.
 Zayn al-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Abī Bakr al-Rāzī, Tuḥfat al-Mulūk, ed. Ṣalāḥ Abū al-Ḥajj (Amman: Dār al-Fārūq, 2006), 290.
 ʿAbd Allāh ibn Maḥmūd al-Mawṣilī, al-Ikthiyār, ed. Shuʿayb Arna’ūṭ (Damascus: Dār al-Risāla 2009), 4:153.
 ʿUthmān ibn ʿAlī al-Zaylaʿī, Tabyīn al-Ḥaqā’iq Sharḥ Kanz al-Daqā’iq (Multan: Maktaba Imdādiyya, n.d.), 2:166.
 Amīr Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad al-Kākī, Miʿrāj al-Dirāya (Istanbul: Koprulu #619), ff. 395b.
 Jalāl al-Dīn ibn Shams al-Dīn al-Khawārizmī, al-Kifāya Sharḥ al-Hidāya, on the margins of Fatḥ al-Qadīr (Cairo: Maṭbaʻat al-Maymaniyya, 1901; reprint Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, n.d.), 3:373.
 Kamāl ibn al-Humām, Fatḥ al-Qadīr (Cairo: Maṭbaʻat al-Maymaniyya, 1901; reprint Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, n.d.), 3:372-73.
 Muḥyī al-Dīn ibn Ilyās Jawīzāda, al-Īthār li-Ḥall al-Mukhtār, ed. Ilyās Qablān (Istanbul: Maktabat al-Irshād, 2016), 4:98.
 Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī al-Ḥaṣkafī, al-Durr al-Mukhtār (Lebanon: Dār al-Kutub al-ʿIlmiyya, 2002) 197.
 I am usually disinclined to list names of jurists in this manner when relating who held a specific legal opinion. One reason for this is that it creates the mistaken illusion that every one of these jurists came to this conclusion on the basis of their individual ijtihād when it may in fact simply be an exercise in taqlīd. Thus, one finds that most of these authors merely relate verbatim those who preceded them without any additional comments. However, it still indicates that these jurists accepted the ruling in question as the position of the school without qualms.
 When does a fetus qualify as a ‘person’ or a ‘human’? What are the necessary and sufficient features for personhood? Does personhood correspond to the beginning of life? If not, when does life begin? How is this connected to ensoulment? When does ensoulment occur? When does a fetus have moral standing? What is the nature of this moral standing over the course of a pregnancy? These are central questions in classical and modern debates on abortion. Sometimes, one finds that ‘person’, ‘human’, ‘life’, and related terms, are not properly defined, which is a problem given that conclusions regarding abortion are often premised on their proper conceptualization. Further, when attempts at proper definition are undertaken, people naturally come to different conclusions. For example, some modern pro-life philosophers argue that ‘persons’ are individuals of a rational nature and a fetus has no capacity for sentience, at least not until mid-gestation. Conception, therefore, cannot mark the beginning of a person. Yet even here, some scholars note that the fetus is a potential person. Therefore, it has some moral value and standing, but others counter with a “person-affecting restriction” that argues that merely potential people possess no moral claims. Some people work under material assumptions regarding the nature of the mind and opine that a moral person must be a ‘self’ and a necessary condition for something to be a self is some form of electrical brain activity. The bioethicist, Baruch Brody (d. 2018), also relied on this criterion of brain waves in his conception of personhood. Jane English presents a range of features or ‘factors’ that she views as being found in typical conceptions of a person: biological, psychological, rationality, social, and legal. There are religious conservative thinkers who define being human on the basis of genetics. John T. Noonan stated, “The positive argument for conception as the decisive moment of humanization is that at conception the new being receives the genetic code. It is this genetic information which determines his characteristics, which is the biological carrier of the possibility of human wisdom, which makes him a self-evolving being. A being with a human genetic code is man.” Many religious conservatives also maintain that there is no moment during pregnancy that can be identified as conferring moral significance on the unborn, i.e. it possesses moral standing before birth and after. Thus, brain waves, sentience, quickening, viability, physical human form, etc., are given no consideration as points at which moral standing is affirmed for the fetus and prior to which it is denied. For important early works on this topic see John T. Noonan, The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970); Jane English, “Abortion and the Concept of a Person,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 5, no. 2 (1975): 233-43; Baruch Brody, Abortion and the Sanctity of Life (Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1975); Stephen Buckle, “Arguing From Potential,” Bioethics 2, no. 3 (1988): 226–253; Mary Anne Warren, Moral Status: Obligations to Persons and Other Living Things (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000); Michael Tooley, Abortion and Infanticide (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1983); Richard Warner, “Abortion: The Ontological and Moral Status of the Unborn,” Social Theory and Practice 3 (1974). The literature on this is vast.
Classical jurists of Islam were guided fundamentally by revelation in their answers to these questions, but they still had substantial disagreements. Some identified a fetus as a person from the moment of conception, others as potentially so, yet others as a person only when its physical features became discernible, while some seemingly assigned no status to it at any fetal stage prior to ensoulment. When it came to ensoulment, the majority said this occurred at 120 days, while others said 40 days. Some equated ensoulment with personhood, while others distinguished between them. There were other conceptual frames utilized in discussions concerning the fetus as well, such as dhimma and ḥuqūq, being ‘animate’ or ‘inanimate’, a constituent part (juz’) of the mother or a separate self (nafs), and so forth. This occasioned a degree of ambiguity regarding the moral standing of the fetus at various stages of pregnancy. For example, Imām al-Ghazālī prohibited abortion at all stages of pregnancy but stated that the sin of doing so is less severe in earlier stages than later ones. Some jurists deemed it permissible to undergo an abortion due to a minor excuse in the first 40 days, requiring a more serious excuse from that point up until 120 days, and impermissible in all but the direst of situations following ensoulment. The fetus, therefore, seems to have a diminished moral standing at the beginning of the pregnancy and full moral standing post-ensoulment even in the eyes of jurists who affirmed personhood from conception. This is also reflected in rulings concerning financial compensation (ghurra) and expiation (kaffāra) owed by someone who causes a woman to miscarry. Meanwhile, many Ḥanafīs seemed to have assigned no moral status to the fetus before it had a discernible human form. The moral standing of the fetus was also influenced by the manner of conception with some jurists suggesting that a fetus conceived out of wedlock was not similar to a fetus that was conceived through a religiously sanctioned relationship. Besides revelation, observation played an important role in these determinations, as did the specific legal traditions jurists operated within. Today, science and embryology have guided the conclusions of many scholars, which has raised questions regarding the epistemological and interpretive value of the former. There is arguably a need to go beyond limited legal conceptions of personhood and life and engage in deeper theological and philosophical discussions on this matter.
 This ruling was consistent with several others in the school regarding whether a miscarried fetus is named, shrouded, and washed, whether a miscarriage concludes the waiting-period of a pregnant woman, and even whether a fetus is resurrected in the next-life. These rulings, among others, returned to whether the miscarried or stillborn fetus was actually considered a child/person, which in turn related to the formation and discernibility of its physical features. I believe this strengthens the view that discernibility of physical features was the main criterion for personhood in the Ḥanafī school. For some of these rulings see Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Shaybānī, al-Aṣl, ed. Mehmet Boynūkālin (Beirut: Dār Ibn Ḥazm, 2012), 1:296, 4:415, 481, 5:144. This interconnectedness of legal doctrine, or its organic unity, is expressed in a famous aphorism, “The law is a seamless web.” These discussions are also present in the other three legal schools.
 Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Wahhāb ibn Wahbān, ʿIqd al-Qalā’id wa-Qayd al-Sharā’id, ed. ʿAbd al-Jalīl al-ʿAṭā (Damascus: Maktabat al-Fajr, 2000), 195.
 Zayn al-Dīn ibn Nujaym, al-Baḥr al-Rā’iq (Cairo: al-Maṭbaʿa al-ʿIlmiyya, 1893; reprint by H.M. Saeed, n.d.), 3:215.
 Muḥammad Amīn ibn ʿĀbidīn, Radd al-Muḥtār (Būlāq: al-Maṭbaʿa al-Kubrā al-Amīriyya, 1323 A.H.), 2:388-89.
 The Hidāya mentions that a child conceived out of wedlock is still muḥtaram and so cannot be aborted. Imām ʿAbd al-Ḥayy al-Lakhnawī mentions that this only applies to a fetus that has reached the stage of post-discernibility. He then goes onto state that the fatwā position in his time is that it would be permissible pre-discernibility and post-discernibility. See Burhān al-Dīn al-Marghinānī, al-Hidāya Sharḥ Bidāyat al-Mubtadī maʿa Sharḥ al-ʿAllāma ʿAbd al-Ḥayy al-Lakhnawī, ed. Naʿīm Ashraf Nūr Aḥmad (Karachi: Idārat al-Qur’ān wa’l-ʿUlūm al-Islāmiyya, 1417 A.H.), 3:25.
 Muṣṭafā Zarqā, Fatāwā (Damascus: Dār al-Qalam, 2010), 285.
 Maḥmūd Ḥasan Gangohī, Fatāwā Maḥmūdiyya (Karachi: Idārat al-Fārūq, 2009), 18:321.
 Sayyid Muḥammad Salmān Manṣurpūrī, Kitāb al-Nawāzil (Muradabad: al-Markaz al-ʿIlmī lil-Nashr wa’l-Taḥqīq, 2016), 16:248-81.
 Muftī Raḍā’ al-Ḥaqq, Fatāwā Dār al-ʿUlūm Zakariyya (Karachi: Zam Zam Publishers, 2015), 6:756.
 Ibid., 6:755.
 Ibid., 6:763.
 Zubayr Aḥmad Qāsmī, “Khāndānī Manṣūbabandī,” in Jadīd Fiqhī Mabāḥith (Karachi: Idārat al-Qur’ān, 2009), 1:332.
 Ibid., 1:331-32.
 Khālid Sayf Allāh Raḥmānī, Kitāb al-Fatāwā (Karachi: Zam Zam Publishers, 2008), 6:218-226
 The relied-upon position in the Mālikī school prohibits abortions almost entirely even if done prior to ensoulment, which Mālikī jurists opine as occurring at 40 days.
 Yūsuf al-Qaraḍāwī, Fatāwa al-Muʿaṣara (Cairo: Dār al-Qalam, 2005), 2:541-50.
 ʿAbd Allāh ibn Bayya, Ṣināʿ at al-Fatwā wa-Fiqh al-Aqaliyyāt (UAE: Masār lil-Tibāʿa wa’l-Nashr, 2018), 577-78.
 Wahba al-Zuhaylī, al-Fiqh al-Islāmī wa-Adillatuhu (Damascus: Dār al-Fikr, 1985), 3:557.
 The delineation and explanation I have presented here should not be seen as a comprehensive exposition of the concepts being discussed. Rather, it should be seen as a basic explanatory framework to understand the problem I wish to highlight in the next section. I have intentionally left out many details surrounding fatwā, siyāsa, taqlīd, etc., for the sake of the average reader.
 Muḥammad Kamāl al-Dīn al-Rāshidī, al-Miṣbāḥ fī Rasm al-Muftī wa-Manāhij al-Iftā’ (Deoband: Ittiḥād Book Depot, n.d.), 61-62 in the Takmila; Ibn Bayya, Ṣināʿ at al-Fatwā, 28-29, 230.
 al-Rāshidī, al-Miṣbāḥ, 28.
 ʿ Abd al-Malik ibn Yūsuf al-Juwaynī, Kitāb al-Irshād ilā Qawāṭiʿ al-Adilla fī Uṣūl al-Iʿtiqād, ed. Aḥmad ʿAbd al-Raḥīm (Cairo: Maktabat al-Thaqāfa al-Dīniyya, 2009), 210-11. This is admittedly a simplification of a very complex debate on the role of reason, its meaning and limitations, its relationship to revelation, deontological vs teleological theories of Islamic normative ethics, and more. These were issues of fundamental debate between the great theological schools, namely the Ashʿarīs, Māturīdis, and the Muʿtazila.
 Ibrāhīm ibn Ḥusayn Bīrīzāda, ʿUmdat Dhawī al-Baṣā’ir li-Ḥall Muhimmāt al-Ashbāh wa’l-Naẓā’ir, ed. Ilyās Qablān & Ṣafwat Kawsa (Istanbul: Maktabat al-Rushd, 2016), 2:415.
 This is also seen in the tradition of rukhas, or dispensations, and ḥiyal, or legal stratagems/loopholes.
 From his Paradigms of Leadership (6) lecture series.
 Ibrāhīm ibn Mūsā al-Shāṭibī, al-Muwāfaqāt, ed. Mashhūr Ḥasan (Cairo: Dār Ibn ʿ Affān, 1997), 1:520.
 For reference to this see Ibn Bayya, Ṣināʿ at al-Fatwā, 273-75.
 One might state that these people are simply engaging in a form of taqlid. This is fair, but there is still a level of diligence and rigor expected from anyone who wishes to publicly opine on a matter of such nature.
 Take the following statements made by Judith Thomson in her well-known defence of abortion, which continues to be loudly echoed by the pro-choice movement: “My own view is that if a human being has any just, prior claim to anything at all, he has a just, prior claim to his own body” and “No doubt the mother has a right to decide what shall happen in and to her body.” The violinist analogy she forwards, among others, expresses this point quite clearly. See Judith Jarvis Thomson, “A Defense of Abortion,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 1, no. 1 (1971): 48, 54.
 The sociologist Kristen Luker noted over three decades ago that pro-life and pro-choice activists were mainly divided due to their differing views on the meaning of sexuality, motherhood, and the role of women. See Kristin Luker, Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood. Berkeley (California: University of California Press, 1984), especially Ch 7.
 Compassion in Dying v. Washington, 850 F. Supp. 1454 (WD Wash. 1994). This was unanimously overturned by the Supreme Court in 1997.
 The phrase ‘sanctity-of-life’ has featured prominently in theological, political, and biomedical ethical discussions related to abortion and end-of-life questions. Some members of congress, for example, have tried repeatedly to introduce a ‘Sanctity-of-Life Act’ to protect the unborn. However, the origins, meaning, and application of the phrase remain unclear and heavily debated. For a basic overview see the edited volume Sanctity of Life and Human Dignity (Boston: Springer Dordrecht, 1996).
 al-Qaraḍāwī, Fatāwa al-Muʿaṣara, 2:609-13.
 Ibn Bayya, Ṣināʿ at al-Fatwā, 273.
 The Federal House Bill 1257 that passed in 2015 as the Rape Survivor Child Custody Act cites between 25,000 and 32,000 pregnancies from rape annually but this is almost certainly an underestimate.
 For details on these and other related statistics see https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/2015data-brief508.pdf.
 For detailed information regarding state statutes and provisions on the termination of pregnancy in contexts of children born as a result of sexual assault see http://www.ncsl.org/research/human-services/parental-rights-and-sexual-assault.aspx
 For statistics on this see the Department of Justice Criminal Victimization analysis (revised, 2018) at https://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/cv16.pdf. There are several reasons why women choose not to report such crimes, which include fear of retaliation, shame and guilt, and a belief that police will not be able to help them.
 For a brief discussion on existing research around rape myths see Olivia Smith & Tina Skinner, “How Rape Myths Are Used and Challenged in Rape and Sexual Assault Trials,” Social & Legal Studies 26, no. 4 (2017): 442-45.
 Rachael Kessler, “Due Process and Legislation Designed to Restrict the Rights of Rapist Fathers,” Northwestern Journal of Law and Social Policy, no. 10, vol 1 (2015): 199-229.
 There is a sensitive discussion surrounding the definition of rape in Islamic law specifically as it relates to intimate married partners. I have ignored this issue because it would distract from the main purpose of this article.
 There have been initiatives in the Muslim community directed at addressing these pressing issues, such as the work of Dr. Aasim Padela of the University of Chicago and his Initiative on Islam and Medicine, Dr. Rafaqat Rashid and the work of al-Balagh Academy, Dr. Mansur Ali of Cardiff University and his research on bioethics, and several others. This is not to mention the many individuals who have tried to create practical spaces to assist people who may find themselves in difficult life circumstances. While there is much more to do, the efforts of these people should not go unnoticed.
14 Short Life Lessons From Studying Aqidah
Lessons I learned Studying Theology (Aqidah) with a Local Islamic Scholar in Jordan
I sit here in the Jordanian heat, with a kufi on and prayer beads in my hand. I watch as young kids play soccer with their kufis and kurtas on in the streets. They go on and on until the Adhan interrupts their game. I think of how different the kids back home in the United States are. Due to the rules for living in this quaint Jordanian neighborhood, the kids are not allowed to play video games, use social media, or watch television. This is the Kharabsheh neighborhood on the outskirts of Amman, Jordan.
I have spent the past two months living in this community. It is a community so similar to, yet so different from any community I have ever lived in. In many ways, it is just like any other community. People joke around with one another, invite people over for dinner, have jobs, go to the gym, and do other pervasive events of everyday life. But in many other respects, the community is different from most in the world today. Many of those living here are disciples (mureeds) in the Shadhili Sufi order. Sufism has faced a bad reputation in many parts of the world today. The stereotype is that Sufis are either not firm in their commitment to religious law (Sharia), or lax in their understanding of Islamic theology (aqidah). Far from the stereotype, I have never met any people in my life more committed to the Sharia. Nor have I ever met people so committed to staying true to Islamic orthodoxy. Just in seemingly mundanes conversations here in Kharabsheh, I find myself learning a plethora of life lessons, whether that be in regard to Islamic jurisprudence, the ontology of God, or the process of purifying one’s heart.
I have compiled a list of a few lessons I learned in studying an elementary aqidah (theology) text with a disciple of Shaykh Nuh, who is a scholar of theology and jurisprudence in himself. Without further adieu, here are some of the lessons I learned.
1) If you want to know the character of a man, ask his wife. People may think someone is great, but his wife will tell you how he actually is. One of the greatest proofs of the prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad is that he had 11 wives over his lifespan and they all died upon Imaan (faith).
2) Humans are never static. We are always incrementally changing. No one changes in anything overnight. People are either gradually getting better, or gradually getting worse. Every day, you should sure that you are always improving. Do not get worse. If you only pray your Fard(mandatory) prayers, start to pray Sunnah(recommended prayers). If you are already praying your Sunnah prayers, improve the quality of your prayer or pray nafl (optional prayers).
3) Hope in the Mercy of God, and fear of His Justice, are two wings that we need to balance. If one has too much hope, they will become complacent and think they can refuse to follow God’s rules, and do whatever they want, because God is Merciful. If one has too much fear, they will give up. They will inevitably sin (as all humans do), and lose all motivation to better themselves.
4) The believer has great hope in the Mercy of God, while also great fear in His Justice. It is an understanding of “If everyone were to enter Heaven except for one person, I would think that person is me. And if everyone were to enter Hell except for one person, I would think that person is me.”
5) Whether we do something good or bad, we turn to God. If we do something good, we thank God (i.e. say Alhamdulillah). If we do something wrong, we turn back to God(i.e. say Astagfirullah and/or make tawbah).
6) Everyone should have a healthy skepticism of their sincerity. Aisha (May God be pleased with her) said: “Only a hypocrite does not believe that they are a hypocrite.”
7) You are fighting a constant war of attrition with your carnal desires. Your soul (ruh) and lower self (nafs) battle it out until one party stops fighting. Either your soul gives up and lets your carnal desires overtake you, or your carnal desires cease to exist (i.e. when your physical body dies). Wage war on your carnal desires for as long as you live.
8) The sign of guidance is being self-aware, constantly reflecting and taking oneself to task. The evidence of this is repenting, and thinking well of others. If we find ourselves making excuses for our actions, refusing to repent for sins, or thinking badly of others, we need to change that.
9) The issue with religious people is that they are often tribalistic and exclusivist. The issue with secular people is that they often have no clear meaning in life, and are ignorant of what lies beyond our inevitable death. One should be able to cultivate this meaning without being tribalistic or arrogant towards others, who have not yet been given guidance.
10) There are philosophical questions regarding free will and determinism. But it is ultimately something that is best understood spiritually. An easy first step is to understand the actions of others as predetermined while understanding your response as acts of free will. This prevents one from getting too angry at what others do to them.
11) Always think the best of the beliefs of other Muslims. Do not be in a rush to condemn people as heretics or kuffar. Make excuses for people, and appreciate the wisdom and experiences behind those who may be seemingly strange in their understanding of things.
12) Oftentimes, people get obsessed with the problems of society and ignore the need to change themselves. We are not political quietists. But we recognize that if you want to turn society around, the first step is to turn yourself around.
13) Do not slam other individuals’ religious beliefs. It leads to arrogance and just makes them more defensive. If you are discussing theology with non-Muslims, be kind to them, even if pointing out flaws in their beliefs. People are more attracted to Islam through people of exemplary character than they are through charismatic debaters or academics that can tear them apart. As my teacher put it rather bluntly, “Don’t slam Christians on the Trinity. No one can actually explain it anyways.”
14) In the early period of Islam, worshipping God with perfection was the default. Then people strayed away and there was a need to coin this term called “Sufism.” All it means is to have Ihsan (perfection or beauty) in the way you worship God, and in the way you conduct each and every part of your life.
Every Muslim knows the Kaaba, but did you know the Kaaba has been reconstructed several times? The Kaaba that we see today is not exactly the same structure that was constructed by Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail, may the peace and blessings of Allāh be upon them. From time to time, it has needed rebuilding after natural and man-made disasters.
Watch to learn ten things that most people may not know about the Ka’aba, based on the full article Ten Things You Didn’t Know About the Ka’aba.
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