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Mental Illness and Ramadan

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“Yahya, I can see the angels.”

Hearing that, on the fifth night of Taraweeh, by a prominent member of my community, was astonishing. The brother was a gentle soul, always helpful, studious and had taught himself to read with Tajweed and always volunteered around the Masjid. He had a wife and a couple of beautiful children, whom he loved and adored. His voice, however, that night, was a bit louder, laughter more intense and moments of quietude unsettling. By the tenth night, the brother was no longer attending the Tarweeh. It then dawned on me that something preventable, not spiritually supernatural, had occurred.

Although mental health care has improved significantly over the last decades, many Muslims still choose not to seek treatment or quit prematurely. Stigma is perhaps the most significant cause of this. Simply, a person is made to feel that they are disqualified from full social acceptance.

Public stigma, in particular within ones’ community, is the prejudice and discrimination that blocks individuals’ access to spiritual fulfillment, avenues to employment, enriching educational opportunities, health care, and secure housing. Public stigma occurs when members of the public endorse stereotypes about mental illness and act on the basis of these stereotypes.

Anas ibn Malik narrates that: A woman, who had a defect in her brain, said: Allah’s Messenger ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him), I want to talk to you. He ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said: Mother of so and so, choose on which side of the road you would like to stand and talk, so that I may fulfill your need. He stood with her on the sidewalk until she spoke to her heart’s content. Muslim 1081

To me, one of the greatest injustice is that a person living with manageable mental illness begins to have a self-induced stigma. Self-stigma occurs when individuals belonging to a stigmatized group internalize public prejudice and direct it toward themselves. Suffering in silence, many of those needing our support, isolate themselves and find little to no help from the broader community. This self-stigma occurs when they think that everyone around them knows of their condition and will not treat them, as “normal” people should.

The Challenge of Ramadan

With the arrival of Ramadan a sharp increase of public cases of imbalance within our community begin to emerge, whereby, previously manageable psychiatric symptoms become exacerbation.

During Ramadan, even persons without mental disorders have reported irritability, decreased sleep, difficulty concentrating, and anxiety.[1] In patients with bipolar disorder, one study described a high rate (45%) of breakthrough manic or depressive episodes during Ramadan, despite stable lithium levels.[2] Fasting-related changes in circadian rhythms and insomnia are thought to contribute to psychiatric symptom exacerbation.

For many, Ramadan poses the challenge of the inability to take medications during the day, dehydration and other somatic changes that necessitate dosing modification changes. Doctors must be consulted and informed of the commencement date of Ramadan and they are best placed in deciding whether one is capable of the fast or not. This is particularly important in localities where the fast will exceed twelve hours.

Making a unilateral decision to fast, without doctor approval is irresponsible and religiously unacceptable. Medicine and healing are Islamic functions. There is no shame or sin in not fasting due to medical prohibition. Allah, the Al-Mighty, Knows His creation best and it is He who said:

“Ramadan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur’an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.” Al-Baqarah 2:185

Commentators explain that Allah simply refers to illness in its broadest sense. It

Many Ahadith (traditions of Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him)) encourage the Muslims to seek medical treatment and as a prevention of ailment.

Abu Hurayrah narrates that the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said:

“There is no disease that Allah has created, except that He also has created its remedy.”

Bukhari 7.582

Usamah ibn Shuraik narrated:

“… ‘O Allah’s Messenger! Should we seek medical treatment for our illnesses?’ He replied: ‘Yes, you should seek medical treatment, because Allah, the Exalted, has let no disease exist without providing for its cure, except for one ailment, namely, old age.’” Tirmidhi, Accepted

In fact, taking proper care of one’s health is considered by the Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) to be the right of the body. Bukhari as-Sawm 55, an-Nikah 89, Muslim as-siyyam 183, 193, Nisai

The Prophet not only instructed sick people to take medicine, but he himself invited expert physicians for this purpose, as Imam As-Suyuti and Ibnul Qayyim both relay in their, Medicine of the Prophet.

Should I fast Ramadan, or Not?

Illness, of course, is a relative term. In the Shari’ah there are two scenarios:

(i)               The illness or the circumstances it causes, is one from which there is hope of recovery from. The fast should be suspended until a different period in time, when the illness has subside or the essential medical treatment has been altered. The individual is required to make up the missed days, or entire month, if need be when they are cleared medically to do so.

(ii)             The illness is one from which there is no prognosis of gainful recovery wherein fasting could be sustained without harm. In this case, one is not obliged to make up the fast; rather they should feed one poor person for each day of Ramadan.

The decision as to which one of the two scenarios one finds themselves in is to be made with the direct advice of the treating medical doctor and a frank discussion with a trusted Imam familiar with the patient.

I pray that Allah gives strength to all who are suffering and that their ailment is cause for their admission to Allah’s Mercy and Eternal Jannah.

I pray for those supporting those suffering with illness. I ask the Al-Mighty to strengthen them, honor them and grant them patience and wisdom.

 

 

 

[1] Toda M, Morimoto K. Ramadan fasting—effect on healthy Muslims. Soc Beh Pers 2004;32:13-18.

[2] Kadri N, Mouchtaq N, Hakkou F, Moussaoui D. Relapses in bipolar patients: changes in social rhythm? Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 2000;3:45-9.

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Ustadh Yahya Ibrahim is Canadian by birth & education, Egyptian through a rich ancestry, Turkish via the blessing of marriage to Songul and Australian by Choice of residence and migration.Since his early teens, in the 90's, Ustadh Yahya has been talking about Islam to Muslims and non-Muslims. He was blessed with numerous opportunities to meet, translate, study and teach alongside some of the Islamic worlds top scholars.Ustadh Yahya is blessed now to be living in Perth, Western Australia with his wife and three wonderful children – Shireen, Omar and Adam. He is a regular lecturer to Muslim and non-Muslim audiences their and around the world. Recently, Ustadh Yahya was awarded by the West Australian State Government the "Individual Excellence in Community Service Award."Ustadh Yahya is a passionate educator with a decades experience in school leadership as an Asst. Principal & registered Teacher.He, also, serves the Muslim community at Curtin University and the University of Western Australia as the Islamic Chaplain and teaches Islamic Ethics & Theology,internationally, with al-Kauthar Institute www.alkauthar.org .

34 Comments

34 Comments

  1. Avatar

    OJ

    July 3, 2015 at 4:06 PM

    Where is that hadith in Sahih Muslim? I looked up 1081, but it’s not there. Could you clarify which book it is in? Just curious, I have never seen it before and would like to read the arabic

  2. Pingback: MENTAL ILLNESS AND RAMADAN

  3. Avatar

    R

    July 3, 2015 at 8:42 PM

    Assalamu alaikum,

    Jazakallahu khair. Thank you for mentioning this. I am trying to help someone to overcome this stigma about mental health so they seek medical treatment. The family has lived in the Middle East their entire lives, and the stigma is a very strong one. Sadly, i just don’t know if he will ever see a doctor. The symptoms have only increased over time and his family is extremely unsupportive. Please make du’a for him and all of our brothers and sisters facing this.
    May Allah reward you for your article.

  4. Avatar

    Maya Salam

    July 3, 2015 at 10:37 PM

    I like to thank you for raising this issue for the Muslim community. I work with mental health patients and witnessed Muslims suffering in silence without recognition by the family or community. Some even say there are no such thing as mental illness if you a true Muslim. This kind of ignorance very unhelpful to the patients and their family. There needs to be more awareness within our community to be able to support those who are in need of support. JazackAllahu khairan.
    Psychotherapy with Islamic values.

  5. Avatar

    Salmaan

    July 3, 2015 at 10:44 PM

    Fantastic article. Stigma is alive and well. Not just the mental health stigma but also the religious stigma aka not being pious enough. Thank you for writing this article.

    Salmaan Toor
    clincial psychologist

  6. Avatar

    Sabrina Begum

    July 3, 2015 at 11:59 PM

    Aswrwb, Jzkk for writing about this Ustadh. Sadly the stigma and self stigma is a huge problem within our communities. More needs to be done at a grassroots level to educate our mothers and fathers, brothers and sisters, uni and school students about mental illness and how it can be easily prevented. This article is an excellent starting point. Jzkk
    Sabrina Begum
    Mental Health First Aid Instructor

  7. Avatar

    Yasser al-Hajjam

    July 4, 2015 at 12:15 AM

    As salaamu alaikum
    Jazakallah Khair akhi Yahya for shedding light on this topic.

    Wr are conducting research in our Toronto-based Hijamah clinic, to see if hijamah can assist the body in reaching homeostasis of the neurochemicals and hormones that contribute to mental illnesses.

    We alhumdulillah have seen improvements in patients who experience social anxiety, attention deficit, and mild depression.

    Dear reader: If you are in or know someone in the Toronto area suffering bipolar or related challenges, we would be humbled if you could provide our reference and assist in gatgering case studies in this area. JazakumAllah khair – info hijamahworks.com

  8. Avatar

    Shamsun

    July 5, 2015 at 6:25 AM

    Wonderful article

  9. Avatar

    Kulsoom

    July 5, 2015 at 9:35 AM

    Really good article. There is a definite need to raise awareness in the Muslim community about mental illness. Espcially appreciate the link with Ramadan. It’s something so obvious I haven’t considered.

  10. Avatar

    Sr Jenni

    July 5, 2015 at 10:12 PM

    As salaam alaikom. The link I want to share is a point in a lecture about layat’l qadr (forgive me for misspellings, I am a new muslima), when it mentions about the number of angels coming down is almost unimaginable. Yes, there is such a thing as mental illness – but also we mustn’t rule out someone else’s reality might just be a blessing we don’t understand. See link: https://youtu.be/38dgobJ_IhE?t=37m45s

    • Yahya Ibrahim

      Yahya Ibrahim

      July 5, 2015 at 10:20 PM

      Thank you for your comment Sr Jenni.

      The angels are from the world of the unseen. They do not appear to us in their angelic form.

      The Quran mentions in Chapter 19 the visit of Jibreel to Mary in the form of a man. Also to Abraham & Lot they appeared,but were NOT known to be angels by those pious souls until informed.
      So it is not correct to accept someone claiming that they see or hear angels.
      That claim is either delusion or dishonesty.

  11. Avatar

    Sister

    July 5, 2015 at 11:32 PM

    Asalamu Alaykum,

    I suffer from chronic anxiety issues, OCD, and depression, and I sincerely appreciate that you took the time to write this article in order to shed light on such a pertinent issue which impacts all humans, be they Muslim or non-Muslim. It took me years and years of suffering, denial, and failed experiences before I became open to taking medication to help treat my symptoms.

    Many Muslims attribute a lack of piety, black magic, evil eye, or jinn as the causes of our mental maladies. However, the truth is that mental ailments are just as real as physical ones, and they too, have viable treatment options like their physical counterparts.

    Articles like these and people like yourself are doing a great service to our community by shedding light on the importance of seeking medicinal treatment for our mental illnesses.

    May Allah reward you with a place in Jannah for taking the time to write this, and I pray that it reaches those who are in dire need of a proper Islamic view.

    Barak Allahu Feekum.

    • Avatar

      M

      June 9, 2018 at 6:27 PM

      I started having extreme anxiety and panic attacks fromstarting from the third day of my fasting this ramadan. Therefore, I stopped fasting afterwards. I still do gace anxiety but I control ot with diet. If I eat after ever 2 3 hours it stays controlled. However, I feel really guilty fpr not fasting. Also people say you can fast later. I fear what If im not able to fast? Please tell me what other ways can I makeup for my missed fasts?
      This is really bugging me. Please suggest me some possible solutions and remember me in your prayers.

  12. Avatar

    Nur

    July 6, 2015 at 4:22 AM

    Assalamualaikum,
    This article is timely.. i am on my 2nd week of antidepressant for my depression, obsessive disorder and anxiety disorder. It has been very trying time for me and my husband as we struggle with my illness and other issues..
    However, even when I had to take medication, I see this as Allah’s way of testing me, especially in Ramadhan.. I am much more aware of myself in terms of getting close to Him.. alhamdulillah… tho I am still afraid what my family would think of me.. I find comfort in my prayer to Him..
    I know I am not broken…

  13. Avatar

    nimra

    July 6, 2015 at 10:01 AM

    Thank you very much, there was a dire need to discuss such a thing. JazakaAllah!

  14. Avatar

    Brother

    July 9, 2015 at 11:41 AM

    Salaam, thank you for sharing and writing this. My experience is that there are many Muslims suffering from common and treatable mental illnesses like depression, anxiety, OCD, etc. There is no need to suffer in silence; there are plenty of therapists and treatment options out there, including both cognitive therapy as well as medication. Please, if you think you may be suffering from mental illness, do not hesitate to visit a trusted psychologist or psychiatrist in your area (but do your research before deciding on one to work with – finding the right therapist is a big part of the recovery process, as this person will work with you and get to know you very intimately). You want to find someone you are comfortable with.

  15. Avatar

    aneesa

    July 13, 2015 at 3:58 PM

    I cannot express how grateful i am for this article!

  16. Avatar

    Nora

    July 17, 2015 at 2:54 AM

    As someone who’s mother had a mental illness, I find this article informative and helpful in letting others no that these people are not alone. My family comes from a culture that frowns upon mental illness and tries to keep it a secret from the world because ‘what will people say?’ It was very difficult and scary for a young child to see a mother go through such ordeals and at the same time having to keep a secret because it was shameful. I wish there was an accepting community of such illnesses and cases just like any other disease. I hated dealing with these circumstances and I always would wonder why can’t I have a normal mom? Anyhow, coming from first hand experience, it’s painful for the loved ones of the ill, I can only wonder how the ill persons themselves feel

  17. Avatar

    Sister

    July 20, 2015 at 5:25 PM

    Jazakumullahu khairun sheikh for bringing light to this very important topic that is often neglected in islamic circles. Another point that I wanted to add was that Ramadan in and of itself can also often serve as a trigger for many Muslims that have mental health issues (even in those individuals that may not be fasting). This is a commonly known occurrence for nonMuslims during nonMuslims holidays, example Christmas etc.

  18. Avatar

    umair

    August 1, 2015 at 6:50 AM

    I did not fast as i am recovering from anoerxia.
    not only is it a mental challenge, my body cannot, NOT eat for long
    may Allah forgive me

  19. Avatar

    Mujahidah

    May 14, 2016 at 11:48 PM

    Assalamualaikum wrh. Very helpful article for me. I just had panic attacks last two months but alhamdulillah I took no time to seek a psychiatrist for help. These attacks lead to anxiety disorder and agarophobia. Although my doctor told me it’s just a mild one, I still find it distracting especially when I am in public. I am still on medication and will only stop after 6 months. Ramadan is coming soon, please make dua that I can survive during fasting and have strong patience with this sickness. I pray that Allah will cure this sickness and I’ll pray the same duas for everyone. Stay strong and I know we will gain a lot of benefits from this test at the end of the day. Smile always and stay positive insyaAllah.

    P/s: if anyone knows any remedies for this kind of sickness, please drop a comment, I’d love to try. My Allah reward you. Jzk.

    • Avatar

      Fatimah

      December 5, 2016 at 4:12 AM

      Sister I have schizophrenia, and I am being treated with hijama. I used to hear voices both inside of my head and outside my body. I had anxiety attacks, depression, visual and auditory hallucinations. But alhamdulilah, I feel so much better now. I take my medicines and I do hijama (cupping therapy). Give hijama a chance. The prophet Muhammad peace be upon him instructed us to eat honey and to get treated with hijama. The virtues of hijama are so many, google it. May Allah heal us all and may He reward us for our patience.

      • Avatar

        Fatimah

        December 5, 2016 at 4:21 AM

        Chiquita is right. Pharmaceutical drugs have awful side effects. I started shaking, and half of my face got paralyzed. Hijama on the other hand does not have side effects. In sha Allah soon I will just use hijama and quit psychiatric drugs completely!

  20. Avatar

    Chiquita

    May 15, 2016 at 9:21 AM

    Bismillah…as someone who spent 11 years wading through the mental health industry and who has successfully made a full recovery by the grace of Allah SWT, I can tell you that mental health professionals are not equipped or trained to work with Muslims who have mental illness. Not even the Muslim therapists. They not only re-victimize and further stigmatize Muslim patients but they coerce them into taking expensive pharmaceutical products that are very harsh on the body. These products do little to reduce symptoms and are not even tested for long-term use before being approved by the FDA. I suffered reproductive and neurological damage from psychotropic drugs. I spent three years running hospital based support groups for the mentally ill and can say with confidence that the current system does not work. There is a dire need for culturally competent, community-driven solutions. Imams need to be trained to appropriately intervene in the lives of mentally ill Muslims. Every masjid should have a support group for members with mental health challenges. Families and friends need greater assistance in dealing with their loved ones and navigating complex health systems. Community members need to pool their resources to give charity to those struggling to pay for mental health treatment. And consumers need to be empowered. Contrary to popular belief, a person doesn’t have to experience a mental illness for forever. With patience, perseverance and reliance on Allah, one can recover just like I did alhamdullilah.

    • Avatar

      Repenting Muslima

      July 1, 2016 at 1:48 PM

      I agree with you Chiquita so much. I am a sufferer who has jumped from one psychiatrist to another. They either make me feel like I should be ashamed and never mention my illnesses to anyone or they give me such heavy medication for years that I forget myself sometimes and all these chemicals alter behavior and motor skills. It is very scary. I was diagnosed at 17 and now 20 years later, due to poorly educated doctors I have become worse. I even travele overseas for treatment where I did gain some insight into my illnesses but I hit a plateau and stopped improving. I can’t stay in the same job for long because I fall so sick from being stressed out at work that most jobs land me in the ER. Every day I fear God’s wrath to an obsessive extent because I take so many pills throughout the day hence I cannot fast. The medications have rendered me diabetic. And severe panic attacks leave me paralyzed for days where I miss my prayers. And to top this off, I have sinned through words as well as action and the remorse I feel directly afterwards is almost too awful to bear. All I do is feel guilty and pray for God’s forgiveness day and night. Thank you for your time in reading my comment. Salam.

      • Avatar

        Fatimah

        December 5, 2016 at 4:26 AM

        May Allah forgive us all and heal us. May Allah bless us, protect us and guide us all. May Allah provide for us and help us every second of our lives. Oh Allah, have mercy upon us. Ameen!

        • Avatar

          Ahmed

          June 18, 2017 at 10:08 AM

          Dearest Sisters Fatimah and Muslima – I pray for you both to find peace and comfort in the knowledge and belief that Allah, Ta’alah, is Oft Returning, Oft Forgiving – that He is truly most compassionate, most merciful and truly full of love for His servants. May Allah, Ta’alah, bless you both with ever stronger iman in His strength, His patience, His great love for His servants and His abundant mercy. May you – and all Muslims suffering through any and all afflictions – be blessed with shifah – complete cure and goodness from our Creator. Know that He watches over you at every moment and, please, dear Sisters, trust Him to guide and help you through all your difficulties. Our holy Prophet, sa’allahu alehei wa salaam, tells us that Allah will never turn away from those who turn to Him. Blessings and warmest wishes to you both — and the entire ummah — of Ramadhan Mubarak. Ameen!

  21. Avatar

    Muhammad Siddique

    August 5, 2016 at 4:28 PM

    JazakAllah Khair for this article. I pray it reaches many and may Allah (swt) help them and guide them. I was most eagerly looking for something written on this topic that made sense and this article sure does.

  22. Avatar

    Hoda

    May 30, 2017 at 11:46 AM

    ASA, Thank you so much for posting this. As a muslim all my life I have struggled with Anxiety and PTSD for the last 5 years to a horrible degree. I have taken many meds and have found some help but the harm outweighed the good. I have stopped my meds and have found an older and natural form of medicine. I am talking about medical marijuana. I am a muslim mother of 2, married to a wonderful muslim man who supports me 100% after seeing me suffer for years and being my rock. I was very hesitant to try this of course with all stigma surrounding it but I felt it was truly my last and only option. You know the saying “Allah will find for you a solution in the most unexpected ways” well I truly believe he led me to this. This is a plant that he created for us, and I truly believe it’s a cure that is being hidden and held back from us. Regardless of that, the point of this is not to say I don’t fast and smoke all day. In fact I don’t smoke at all, I eat it! The effects are longer and much healthier for my body. The point of this is that I wanted to say every year I try fasting, every year I make it through a couple days then my anxiety gets so bad, and the guilt comes in and I just feel like an awful muslim. But enough! I can’t do that anymore, Allah has given us so much ease in religion. Only he knows the degree of ones pain though it may not be visible to the rest of the world. Only Allah knows what are are going through and what’s in our heart. I truly hope my reward will be as great as that who has fasted. I wanted to say badly fast but it really does hurt me more then anything. I hope someone reads and finds help in it! Allah loves us all, and wants only ease for us. May Allah bless us all and May you find easy in your suffering and inshallah we reunite together in a place where no pain no harm can ever affect us. Ameen.

  23. Avatar

    Muneeb

    May 7, 2018 at 8:12 AM

    As salam u alikum everyone. Ramdan is upon us. I have found a tiny app to help me keep track of Namaz timings and to listen to recitation of Holy Quran whenever I want to. I want to share it with everyone. I hope you all shall find it useful.
    https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.teespire.islam

  24. Avatar

    Celia

    June 1, 2018 at 2:26 PM

    BarakAllahufik thank you for that.

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Podcast: Get Over It: 21 Ways to Say Goodbye to that Haram Relationship and Move on With Your Life | Ehab Hassan

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So you finally came to your senses. That girl or guy you’ve been talking to is not the best thing that’s ever happened to you, and definitely not helping you advance or get closer to Allah. You know it’s wrong, you want to get over it, you want to move on, but it’s just so hard and no one understands you! InshaAllah, it’s all going to be alright.

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#Society

No-Nuptial Agreements: Maybe Next Time, Don’t Get Married

marriage
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 “Nikah is part of my sunnah, and whoever does not follow my sunnah has nothing to do with me.”

–Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him), Narrated by Aisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her)

Many Muslims have experienced marriage, then suffered a subsequent divorce as a financial, emotional, and social meat grinder. Some critics have noted the divorce system seemingly exists primarily to benefit itself; the lawyers: mental health experts, investigators, forensic accountants.

They form an entire industry dedicated to extracting the wealth of a disintegrating family, often forcing the middle class or working class into poverty and bankruptcy. All of this happens without any noticeable benefit to society. It’s a self-licking ice cream cone.

For many, divorce happens multiple times. A divorced person who gets remarried is more likely to get divorced again.

While men often complain about how the “family court” system is against them, the reality is that women often bear the financial brunt of divorce. Divorce is more likely to drive women to bankruptcy than men.

After one or two divorces and a few lost years of retirement savings or a decade or more of home equity, another “marriage” starts to look downright irrational. My advice to such people: stop getting married, at least under state law. Get a nikah and a “no-nuptial agreement” instead. Allow me to explain.

Fun with Words

It is impossible to have a meaningful conversation about virtually anything unless we have a common understanding of the meaning of words we are using.

In law, even ordinary words have definitions that defy conventional understanding or even common sense. Basic familial terms like “son,” “daughter,” “father,” and “mother” have state law definitions that are different from what those words mean in Islam or our understanding. Under state law, “parents” can adopt adult “children” a similar age to them or even older, and have the same status as a biological child. In Islam, an adopted child is not the same as a biological child and does not have rights to inheritance in Islam.

In law, even words like “life” and “death” don’t always mean what you think they mean. A living person can go to court to dispute his death, demonstrate he is living, breathing, speaking, and everyone agrees he is the “dead person” in question, yet, he is ruled legally dead. Famously, corporations are legally people and are immortal.

Law is not the same thing as truth.

Similarly, it is folly to conflate nikah, the thing that exists in Islam, with marriage under state law. In different states, rules for who and under what circumstances people can get married can vary. One thing that all the state law definitions have in common is that they are not marriage in Islam.

What is Marriage?

For marriage, there is a state law definition, there is an Islamic definition, and there is the definition that the individual married couple has. Under state law, two men can be married to each other, but three men cannot be. In Islam, marriage (let’s call it nikah to be more precise) is a halal social and sexual relationship, and there are rules in the fiqh that are different from state law.

Under some state laws, “secret marriages” with no witnesses or publicly available registration are part of the law and commonly used. In Islam, there is a witness requirement for nikah. None of the rules in Islam require the state’s approval for nikah.

The third definition is how each couple sees their marriage. It is a flexible institution. To the extent it is an economic, social or familial partnership can vary widely. Couples may live together or apart. They may have one income or two.  They may share the same social circles or share none of them. The variations are endless.

Domestic Partnerships

For most of the history of legal marriage in the United States, marriage can only be between one man and one woman. States started allowing for “domestic partnerships” to give some “benefits” of marriage to same-sex couples, like employer health benefits and hospital visitation.

In many instances, these were available almost exclusively to same-sex couples, even after same-sex marriage became part of the law in all states. However, as of January 2020, California opened up domestic partnerships to everyone, including different-sex couples.

As a practical matter, domestic partnerships are simply state-sanctioned marriage by another name. It is notable though some jurisdictions may have limited domestic partnerships that are something less than marriage. In most states that have it, the same family law system, for good or ill, that comes with marriage under state law is also true of domestic partnerships.

While domestic partnership combined with a nikah is available to Muslims in states where it exists, there is no real advantage to using it.

No-Nuptial Agreements

For decades now, in the United States, there has been no taboo against men and women openly having sexual relationships with each other, living and raising families together outside marriage. Courts have long recognized these people should have contractual rights with each other.

When a man and women live together, those involved may be gaining something and giving something up. So if a man promises a woman something, and the agreement is not founded merely on sexual services, the state should enforce those promises, not in family court but civil court.

Marvin started it all

The principle case that established this is the California case of Marvin v. Marvin in 1976. A couple broke up, but the woman wanted to enforce promises made to her by the man. The man felt such a commitment should not be enforceable because, among other reasons, he was legally married to a completely different woman when this non-marital relationship started. Under California law, at the time (abolished by the time the case got to the court), this was criminal adultery.

No-nuptial agreements (sometimes called cohabitation agreements or Marvin agreements) can be used by couples when they want to have enforceable contracts but do not want to subject themselves to the family court system or the family code. They can include provisions of mahar, sharing expenses, equity as well as dispute resolution processes like arbitration and mediation.

The couple can also document limits on what they agreed to to what is in writing. For example, during a breakup, one party may be able to claim an oral promise the other party never made and potentially have it enforced in court. A written agreement protects both parties and the understanding they had when they entered into the relationship.

These agreements have a broad utility for many different kinds of couples. However, for some couples, the main benefit would be documentation that nobody is under the illusion that this is a marriage under state law. It is a private contract between two individuals.

Example of a No-Nuptial Agreement

Salma, 58, does a nikah with Sheher Ali, 62. They also create a no-nuptial agreement. Sheher Ali is a widower, and Salma is a divorcee. They both have their separate assets, including their own homes. Each has adult children and young grandchildren. Both want to put their adult children at ease that this relationship does not exist for predatory financial reasons – a common fear when parents marry later in life.

Salma, 58, does a nikah with Sheher Ali, 62. They also create a no-nuptial agreement. Sheher Ali is a widower, and Salma is a divorcee. They both have their separate assets, including their own homes. Each has adult children and young grandchildren.Click To Tweet

Salma and Sheher Ali do not plan to live together, which is common for couples their age. They mostly pay for their expenses themselves. They may spend the night at each other’s homes whenever they want but will split time with their separate children, grandchildren and social circles. Sheher Ali pays for joint vacations and outings. He agreed to a mahar. Both agree in writing they did not marry under state law.

Sheher Ali and Salma can still call each other husband and wife, since that is true for them and everyone they know. Both keep all of their finances separate, and each does their independent estate planning where they name each other as partial beneficiaries of their estates as required in Islam. The two also complete HIPAA forms allowing each to see the other’s private medical information and name each other in Advance Healthcare Directives so they can make healthcare decisions for each other.

Legal Strangers

Unmarried couples are “legal strangers.” Doctors won’t share healthcare information. Islamic spouses don’t get an inheritance from a no-nuptial agreement spouse by default. They don’t get things like tenancy by the entirety, community property, or elective shares in places where such things exist. As I described above, though, this can be remedied. However, as I described in the example above, the “legal stranger” aspect of the relationship may be more of a benefit than a downside in some cases.

Some “benefits” of marriage under state law are against Islamic principles.  For example, some state laws that provide for “elective shares” are diametrically opposed to the Quran’s share of inheritance.  Muslims must follow Islamic rules of inheritance anyway, which are different from default state rules, so being under state law is no special advantage. Even with proper planning, the downsides of the “legal stranger” problem still may come up in extraordinary contexts, however, such as lawsuits.

Immigration and Taxes

Another concern is that employee benefits to spouses and dependents don’t generally extend to those with no-nuptial agreements. Immigration law does not allow a path to the United States through the “family unification ” process for those with a no-nuptial contract. Marriage under state law (or the law of a foreign country recognized in the United States) may be the most practical solution in such cases.

In some cases, state-sanctioned marriage may lead to lower taxes. Other legally married couples may experience the so-called “marriage penalty” and pay higher taxes than couples with a no-nuptial agreement. Couples may often find they will pay less in taxes with a no-nuptial agreement than they would if they were married under state law.

Prenuptial and Postnuptial Agreements

One may wonder, to avoid the “meat grinder” of the family court system, why not just get a prenuptial or postnuptial agreement? It’s accurate that in general, having such arrangements are superior to not having them. These agreements offer greater certainty, though by no means total confidence, on how a divorce would end. There are disadvantages to such an agreement over no-nuptial agreements, however. A big one is that divorce is still in the family court system.

Many Muslim men, especially immigrants, may perceive cultural biases cause a stacked deck against them in family court. The nature of these agreements may make this perception worse. Sometimes, courts treat prenuptial and postnuptial agreements with a presumption of coercion. It is different from an ordinary contract. The family court system is often free to be more paternalistic and make a husband prove he did not force his wife to sign a document.

The Uniform Premarital Agreement Act, which will be worded differently in the different states that adopted it, provides for a process to make these marital agreements harder to defeat. However, the process is perhaps arguably more expensive, cumbersome, and awkward for a couple than a no-nuptial contract. Talking about a prenuptial agreement with a fiancé may be more uncomfortable than bringing up a no-nuptial arrangement and nikah. Without a state-sanctioned marriage, a written agreement is essential. Many people perceive the pre-nuptial and post-nuptial agreements as both optional and, perhaps unfairly, as a sign of mistrust.

Custody and Child Support

Unfortunately, there is no agreement you can come up with that will pre-settle child support and custody. A judge will decide those things.

It does not matter if you have a “plain vanilla” marriage governed entirely by your state’s family code, a prenuptial agreement, or a no-nuptial agreement. Children are not parties to such a contract. No court anywhere will subject a child’s care and welfare to such things.

For custody and child support, courts in family court will use the sometimes hard to define standard of “best interests of the child.” One Massachusetts family law attorney in a popular divorce documentary cryptically joked that she called children in the system  “little bags of money.” They are often a significant reason family law cases are so profitable for lawyers, mental health professionals, investigators, and everyone else.

No Protection for Poor Life Choices

A good rule to follow is never to do nikah with a person capable of having children unless you are sure she or he can be trusted to raise your future children, and you have made peace with making child support payments to this individual if your relationship ends. If you have a child, you may be suck with a child support order. There is no getting out of this one.

As an Islamic estate planning lawyer, the most important advice I can ever give anyone is not to get a proper estate plan. It is not to get a good lawyer. Of course those things are good, indeed no-brainers, but they have limits. The most important advice is to choose a spouse wisely. If you fail here, there is no law, no lawyer or document in existence that can turn back the clock. A no-nuptial agreement may make a future breakup easier than a family court divorce. There is still no guarantee it won’t be a complete mess anyway. Good documents are never a substitute for poor life choices.

“The Law of the Land”

Islamic institutions like masajid are conservative don’t like taking needless risks, as they should be. Many will not officiate a nikah unless there is a marriage license. They usually will not officiate bigamous marriages, on account of it being illegal.  Of course bigamy, like marriage, has a specific legal definition under state law. One almost universal refrain is that as Muslims we need to follow “the law of the land.”

No-nuptial agreements are in full conformity with the 'law of the land.' It is not a marriage under state law. Nobody is claiming that it is. Limiting nikah to marriage under state law not based on Islam.Click To Tweet

But what if that term did not mean what you think it means? No-nuptial agreements are in full conformity with the “law of the land.” It is not a marriage under state law. Nobody is claiming that it is.  Limiting nikah to marriage under state law not based on Islam. Recently, the Islamic Institute of Orange County, a large masjid in the Los Angeles area, changed its nikah officiating policy. Instead of always requiring marriage certificates, they will also recognize no-nuptial agreements.

Masajid Should Welcome No-Nuptial Agreements

Masajid should have standardized policies and procedures in place. Every masjid should have carefully considered policies to protect the vulnerable and the institution. No masjid wants to open themselves up to a “drive-by nikah” or other nonsense. One policy may well include mandating a no-nuptial agreement when there is no marriage certificate. There is no reason to believe one protects people and institutions better than the other.

Nikah is a vital sunnah for us. It is not something that should be in the shadows, secret, or something shameful. It is fundamental to how we organize our families and communities. When it’s done right, it helps us strengthen our iman, bring us closer to our communities and our loved ones. State definitions of words should not always be your guide to right and wrong.

It is appropriate that Muslims want to do the sunnah of nikah at the masjid, publicly and with friends and family watching.  We should recognize and celebrate every new couple that has done a nikah in our communities. Never mind the state has not sanctioned it.

The state statute book has its definition, we have ours.

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#Current Affairs

When Racism Goes Viral: The Coronavirus And Modern Muslim Orientalism

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Lumping an entire people together for collective punishment, reveling in their suffering, and sniggering at their food choices isn’t an exercise in science, Sunnah, or compassion. It’s good, old-fashioned orientalism.

In the eight weeks since it was identified, the 2019 novel coronavirus has infected nearly 12,000 people in China alone, 200 of whom did not survive. Symptoms are flu-like in nature, and global side effects include acute, apparently contagious… racism.

Online, in Muslim as well as non-Muslim spaces, social media feeds are sniggering “Eww, you eat gross things! Of course you’ll get gross diseases!” In the midst of this human tragedy, orientalist tropes about the Chinese are being sloppily repackaged as health concerns over the coronavirus, and served with a side of bat soup.

Yes, bat soup.

The coronavirus in question is found in bats, and thanks to the scientific expertise of social media, videos of Chinese people consuming anything from bat soup to baby mice and rats are popping up as “proof” of the disease’s cause.

However the coronavirus made the jump from bats to humans, the initial source of the outbreak seems to have originated from the Wuhan Seafood market, where a number of employees and a few shoppers were the first casualties to the infection. The 2019-nCoV is moving from person to person the same way the flu does, and what a person eats – or doesn’t eat – has no bearing on whether they contract the virus or not.

In an article titled, No, Coronavirus Was Not Caused by ‘Bat Soup’–But Here’s What Researchers Think May Be to Blame, Health.com writes:

“Coronaviruses in general are large family of viruses that can affect many different species of animals, including camels, cattle, cats, and bats, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In rare cases, those viruses are also zoonotic, which means they can pass between humans and animals—as was the case with Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory system (SARS), two severe coronaviruses in people.

Initially, this novel coronavirus was believed to have started in a large seafood or wet market, suggesting animal-to-person spread, according to the CDC. But a large number of people diagnosed with the virus reportedly didn’t have exposure to the wet markets, indicating that person-to-person spread of the virus is also occurring. However, it’s still possible that the novel coronavirus began with an infected animal at the market—and then went on to person-to-person transmission once people were infected.”

Being uncomfortable with things you’ve never considered edible before isn’t necessarily a racist reaction. When my husband told me he ate a chocolate-covered cricket once, I hid my toothbrush for a week, but that’s not what’s happening right now. There is a deadly virus threatening a group of people, and the internet sees fit to make fun of them. Why? Because orientalism.

Orientalism is the “intellectual” framework through which Western societies create a clear and permanent line between Western superiority and “Oriental” inferiority. If orientalism were an Instagram filter, it would take any picture of any person, event, or thing, and distort its appearance to be “other,” and in some way inferior.

Orientalism is the “intellectual” framework through which Western societies create a clear and permanent line between Western superiority and “Oriental” inferiority. If orientalism were an Instagram filter, it would take any picture of any person, event, or thing, and distort its appearance to be “other,” and in some way inferior.Click To Tweet

The inferiorizing feature is step one, because in order to position yourself as a winner, the other guy has to be a loser in some way.

The otherizing is the step 2, and both steps are important because if you say that your little brother is a loser, in the end you’re still family and you’ve got his back. This would be inferiorizing, but not otherizing.

But if you say that other kind of guy is a loser, then you have no common ground. And when the other kind of guy is in trouble, you need only gloat and make nasty comments on Twitter. That’s inferiorizing with otherizing. Orientalism can be loosely translated as US vs THEM, normal versus weird, and local versus invasive foreign, or exotic.

The otherizing of orientalism is so subconsciously embedded in people that it even creates auditory illusions to maintain the “otherization” of the subject being viewed. As crazy as that sounds, everyone has their own experience. Mine for just last month played out as follows. A homeless man approached my window and said “Ma’am, do you have two dollars?”

I smiled and responded to him, “I have exactly two dollars!”

As I dug around for my wallet, he cocked his head and said, “Your accent. There’s something different about it. Something… foreign, exotic?”

“It’s Chicago,” I said, handing him two dollars.

He blinked a few times. “What’s Chicago?”

“My accent. It’s Chicagoan. English is my first language. My accent is from Chicago.”

He narrowed his eyes at me suspiciously, this gatekeeper of Chicagoness. “What part of Chicago?”

“North side, Lincolnwood area,” I said. “I grew up on Devon Ave.”

“Pulaski Park!” he beamed, pointing to himself. “I’m from Chicago too!”

We smiled at each other, basking for a moment in our mutual Chicagoness. Then I waved and drove away, adding his insistence of my  exotic“otherness” to the dozens of other peoples’ who have heard my perfectly flat, perfectly blandly midwestern accent and perceived something foreign. I call that one “hearing with your eyes.”

I have lost track of people who have tried to insist that I have an accent. One woman even went so far as to imply that I was lying about being a native English speaker, that I must have some other first language, because there’s “Something else in there, I can hear something foreign! But you’re very articulate though.”

(To form your own opinion on my exotic accent or the lack thereof, visit the MuslimMatters podcast here!)

Compliments like “You’re so articulate!” or “You’re so different!” give you partial credit for your exceptionality, while still discrediting every other member of your general race, religion, region, or hemisphere. The left-handed compliment has a long history, and follows a predictable pattern. Take, for example, this excerpt from The Talisman, a crusade-genre fiction published in 1825.

In this scene, our gallant, invading knight finds himself unable to defeat the enemy “Saracen,” aka – Muslim defender of the Holy Land. In grudging admiration, the knight concedes:

“I well thought…that your blinded race had their descent from the foul fiend, without whose aid you would never have been able to maintain this blessed land of Palestine against so many valiant soldiers of God. I speak not thus of thee in particular, Saracen, but generally of thy people and religion. Strange it is to me, however, not that you should have the descent from the Evil One, but that you should boast of it.”

Translation: “Your people and your religion are the spawn of satan, but not you. I speak not thus of thee in particular. You’re so cool for Muslim!” Spoiler alert: turns out it’s Salahuddin.

From the crusades to colonialism to America’s chronic invasion of Muslim lands, the misrepresentation of people from Over There is both a cause and effect of policy decisions. Orientalism creates the “bad guys” necessary to justify the “good guy” response by “proving” the bad guys to be so weird, inferior, and intrinsically bad that it becomes necessary to call for the good guy cavalry. That gives the good guys permission to take over the resources that the bad guys are too incompetent to manage anyway, and overthrow the governments they’re too stupid to run, and free the women that they’re too barbaric to appreciate.

One excellent reference on this is Dr. Jack Shaheen’s brilliant documentary Reel Bad Arabs, which summarizes a hundred years of Hollywood’s orientalist portrayal of “Arab Land,” a mythical, exotic, treacherous, incompetent, and seductive place, whose capital city is apparently Agrabah which, in 2015, a public policy poll found that 30% of GOP voters were in favor of bombing.

Another side effect of orientalism is the refusal to allow for individual accountability and the insistence on collective blame. “Western” men who harm and oppress women are rightly labeled as jerks and abusers who don’t represent Western morals, ethics, or ideals through their individual actions. Same for white racists, extremists, and criminals in general.

However, Muslims jerks who do the same are awarded representative status of the entire Muslim population (1.9 billion) and Islamic tradition (1441 years). The perception as all Muslim men based on only the worst of them seems ludicrous on paper, and such generalizations are no longer acceptable to make about race, but are still perfectly popular to make about minority religious groups.

Orientalism enables the belief that Muslims are terrible terrorists who are terrible to their women. If they say otherwise, it’s because their religion is terrible and lying about it is part of the religion too. They don’t deserve their own lands or resources, they’ll just use them for more terribleness. We should go in there and save them from themselves! And also, make lots of predictable, idiotic romance novels and movies in which a poor, beautiful Oriental Female is rescued through the power of Love and Freedom. Because just as violence is the natural state of the Muslim man, oppression is the natural state of the Muslim woman. Miskeena. Habibti.

Human beings can be horrible to each other. No ethnic, religious, or racial group is any exception. The problem arises when individual horribleness is elevated to collective attribution, and that collective attribution is used to justify collective punishment, as well as collective suffering.

When millions of Americans get sick from the flu, and tens of thousands die every year, why aren’t we making fun of the weird things that white people eat? Like Rocky Mountain Oysters (which are bull testicles) and sweetbreads (which are bits of an animal’s pancreas and thymus glands)?Click To Tweet

When millions of Americans get sick from the flu, and tens of thousands die every year, why aren’t we making fun of the weird things that white people eat? Like Rocky Mountain Oysters (which are bull testicles) and sweetbreads (which are bits of an animal’s pancreas and thymus glands)? What about snails, frog legs, crawfish, chocolate covered ants, and those tequila-inspired lollipops with an actual worm candied in the center?

The filtering effect of orientalism means that our weird foods – be it maghz masala and katakat– are quirky and fun, but their weird foods are disgusting and totally cause to celebrate infectious disease.

If the tables were turned and a deadly coronavirus originated from say, Saudi Arabia, would it be alright to ridicule Muslims for what they ate, or how they lived? What if that specific coronavirus actually originated in camels.

Yes, camels. The Islamophobic internet would have a field day with that one. Yes, we ride camels and prize camels and even eat camels – and they’re delicious I might add – but if a deadly virus originated from camels, found its way into humans in the Middle East, and from there caused death and destruction in other countries- would it be our fault? Would we deserve scorn? Would the suffering and death of our people be justified by how “gross” it is that we eat camels, even if only a few us actually do, and the rest of us prefer shawarma?

Pause for dramatic emphasis. Open the Lancet. Read.

“Human coronavirus is one of the main pathogens of respiratory infection. The two highly pathogenic viruses, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, cause severe respiratory syndrome in humans and four other human coronaviruses induce mild upper respiratory disease. The major SARS-CoV outbreak involving 8422 patients occurred during 2002–03 and spread to 29 countries globally.

MERS-CoV emerged in Middle Eastern countries in 2012 but was imported into China.

The sequence of 2019-nCoV is relatively different from the six other coronavirus subtypes but can be classified as betacoronavirus. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV can be transmitted directly to humans from civets and dromedary camels, respectively, and both viruses originate in bats, but the origin of 2019-nCoV needs further investigation.

The mortality of SARS-CoV has been reported as more than 10% and MERS-CoV at more than 35%.”

MERS-CoV, or Middle East Respiratory Syndrome –Coronavirus emerged in 2012, traveling from bats to camels to humans, killing 35% of the people who contracted it. It originated in Saudi Arabia and found its way across the continent all the way to China. So could the Chinese internet have been justified in ridiculing our deaths because we ate camels?

Could they legitimize posting “gross” videos of whole, pit-roasted camels? Could they say it was science, not racism, as they moved on to our other “gross” foods, like locusts and the dhab lizard?

Read more about the Sunnah of the Dhab Lizard.

Locusts and lizards have as much to do with MERS-CoV as mice and rats have to do with 2019 novel coronavirus, but doesn’t our grossness in general mean we deserve our fate?

No, it doesn’t. Making fun of what people eat isn’t science, epidemiology, or the sunnah. It’s racism, and it is hugely disappointing to see Muslims hurt others with to the same tropes that are used to hurt us.

No, it doesn’t. Making fun of what people eat isn’t science, epidemiology, or the sunnah. It’s racism, and it is hugely disappointing to see Muslims hurt others with to the same tropes that are used to hurt us.Click To Tweet

Orientalism is alive and kicking both of our communities in the teeth — Chinese and Muslim – but to further complicate the matter, there’s the ongoing genocide of the Uighur Muslims in China, and that’s rooted in orientalism too.

The Chinese government has imprisoned 3 million Muslims in concentration camps, a number equal to the entire Muslim population in America. It is not unexpected that some people wishfully assume the 2019 novel coronavirus epidemic to be the comeuppance that the Chinese government deserves for its cruelty, but that’s sad and wrong on many, many levels.

People cheering the coronavirus on fail to understand a few very big, very important things about the situation. I will list them, because the internet is no place for subtlety and these points have to stand out for those who would sail over the entire article so they can trash it in the comments. They are as follows:


  1. The entire population of China is no more responsible for the actions of its government than you are for yours. If you hate Donald Trump, his border wall, the separation of families, the Muslim Ban, cuts to medical benefits, and corruption in general but STILL live in America, then you understand that a great, frustrated, and powerless mass of citizens can have little to no effect on its government’s choices. Such is politics. Such is life. Such is China too.

    This guy is all our fault specifically. So I hope we all die of the flu.

  2. The coronavirus’s lethality is exponentially higher in people with poor health and weak immune systems. Like the flu, the coronavirus is overwhelmingly most lethal to children and elderly. The coronavirus is not targeted at, nor limited to the Chinese leadership for its crimes against humanity. Unfortunately, that is not how epidemics work.
  3.  The spread of Coronavirus – like all respiratory infections – is greatly accelerated through close living quarters as well as poor sanitation and hygiene. The 3 million Uighur Muslims interred by the Chinese government are imprisoned in distressingly cruel, cramped, and unhygienic conditions. Their close proximity as well as population density mean that if the virus makes it into the captive population, hundreds of thousands – if not millions of Muslims – would die. Don’t root for the coronavirus. It does not discriminate based on religion or race, even if you do.

And now we come full circle. When Muslims ridicule the Chinese for “being gross,” they are simply echoing the same racist, Orientalist talking points that labeled the Chinese – and later the Japanese – as the “Yellow Peril,” a filthy, faceless, monolithic mass deserving all of our scorn and none of the individual considerations that we insist on for ourselves.

Given the abuse that Muslims have been subject to by orientalist tropes, it should make us all the more aware of its dangerous cultural impact. We know what it’s like to be looked down on, laughed at, and blamed for our own suffering. We know what it feels like to have our foods gagged at, our accents mocked, and our cultural clothing turned into Halloween costumes.

Worse still, we know, very painfully and very currently, what it looks like for an entire people to be treated as a disease in and of themselves. China has declared Islam to be a contagious disease, an “ideological illness,” and on this very basis is it holding 3 million Muslims hostage. In an official statement loaded with situational irony, the Chinese Community Party officially stated,

“Members of the public who have been chosen for reeducation have been infected by an ideological illness. They have been infected with religious extremism and violent terrorist ideology, and therefore they must seek treatment from a hospital as an inpatient.

… There is always a risk that the illness will manifest itself at any moment, which would cause serious harm to the public. That is why they must be admitted to a reeducation hospital in time to treat and cleanse the virus from their brain and restore their normal mind … Being infected by religious extremism and violent terrorist ideology and not seeking treatment is like being infected by a disease that has not been treated in time, or like taking toxic drugs … There is no guarantee that it will not trigger and affect you in the future.” – source

The dangers of racism and orientalism are real, and the victims number the millions. Knowing how much damage orientalism causes in our community, we must commit to never, ever stooping to the same ideologies that are used to justify our own oppression. No matter how many bats people eat, or how evil their government can be, people are individual people. We stand on equal footing, equally deserving of respect, compassion, and acknowledgement of our humanity.



The Orientalist mindset that diminishes and distances us from each other strips us of our dignity, whether we are its victim, or its the perpetrator. Such racism is antithetical to the Prophetic compassion and mercy that Islam demands from us as Muslims. When Muslims celebrate the suffering of innocent people as some sort of epidemiological revenge for the suffering of innocent people, that’s not Islam.

That’s prejudice.

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