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Of Tombs, Discord, and Manufactured Journalism-The Reality Behind the Independent Article on the Prophet’s Grave

By Hasib Noor

Yet another article about the destruction of the Prophet’s grave is published and I catch the story early as it’s released.

Wincing at the title of the article in the Independent, the UK national daily newspaper”…Muslim divisionproposalMohamed’s tomb,” I think to myself as I’m reading, “oh no, not again.”

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Social media is absolutely livid. I’m getting tags, messages, and posts directed at me as everyone is inquiring about what is going on.

Why me? Living and studying in the City of the Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) is a mix of having a guilty conscience wrapped in a blessing.

We constantly question ourselves.

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We constantly say it’s not something we ever deserved.

But it’s a blessing we have to constantly be thankful for and live up to the legacy of this city.

There is a tradition that’s been passed down among the students to remind us of living up to that legacy, something age old. It’s been narrated by each generation of Madinah students to the next. The saying goes:

“don’t ever think you were so special to deserve to come here, but know that you needed this the most.”

Everything about being here reminds us of the responsibility. We are studying the faith that two billion people hold dear, in a tradition of over 1400 years, in the same location that the most beloved person to these two billion taught it in… the city of Madinah, one of the holiest cities in all of Islam.

The Prophet’s Masjid— Al-Masjid Al-Nabawi —the world’s oldest Islamic institution is the legacy of all of Islamic civilizations, scholarship, and history. All of it traces back to what every single Muslim shares and holds dear about this city. Not only because the masjid serves as the world’s oldest Islamic learning institution, but because Muslims know the exact location where the beloved Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) is buried.

Madinah is where I read the article published by the Independent.

I feel sick. The language itself is loaded, divisive, intended to make an impact. And the reaction is the same. All of us feel it, think it, say it. “This CAN’T be true.”

I immediately send messages to my friends and contacts that are researchers at the Center for Historical Studies and Research of Madinah – to verify the news. My friend and long time researcher Abdullah Kabir Al-Shanqiti responds right away. He had already heard about the article. Many of the researchers, as well as the British-educated director of the center whom I know well, speak English. We have a conversation to discuss the details of the article and it is conclusive.

Standards of Journalism

Divisively worded to bring about an intended response, almost all of the facts in the article are not only out of context, but embellished or completely untrue. The article is laced with references to sectarian differences, and even manages to fit in a mention of ISIS for effect.

The source mentioned in the article, Dr. Irfan Al-Alawi,  of the Islamic Heritage Research Foundation, represents a polarizing organization called the Center of Islamic Pluralism based out of Washington D.C. The background, connection, and history of the organization and Dr. Irfan Al-Alawi is deserving of an entire separate article.

The timing of this article is something that came to light as research is done by close friends that showed that the Independent regularly posts articles every year that seemingly recycled the same story regarding the destruction of Masjid Nabwi, Makkah and/or the Prophet’s ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) tomb. These articles date as far back as least to 2011. Dr. Alawi is consistently used as a source annually on this topic in 2011, 2012, 2013 and now with the most recent one in 2014. One can recognize a clear trend or what some might call agenda.

Focusing on the facts of the latest Independent article, the article is pure tabloid—not journalism and certainly not news. Written not with intent to share an event, but a planned disposition for an intended effect.

Worse, it seems entirely premeditated.

Who is Dr Al-Shabal?

The entire story plays off the words “proposal” and “plans.” Emphasizing the veneration of this site by all Muslims, Shia and Sunni, of all backgrounds to create a crisis —a strategic divisive effect.

The reality is, there was no such proposal, and there were no plans.

The article discusses a 61-page document by a “leading Islamic academic Dr Ali ibn AbdulAziz al-Shabal.” The reality is he is not a leading academic, unheard of by the Center of Historical Studies, and someone unknown until the Independent coins him as a “leading Islamic academic” figure.

The document he wrote is a paper that post-doctoral candidates in Saudi Arabian universities write in order to reach the level of adjunct professor. Al-Shabal teaches at Imam University. He submitted this paper to the Committee of the Presidency of the Two Masjids in order to establish credibility and at the end of his paper he makes suggestions. He did not submit a proposal to the government; that was never intended—let alone accepted. It is an entry submitted to an academic journal that was taken completely out of context in the Independent article—no, not out of context, seemingly used for an intended purpose.

The writer of the Independent article makes the claim that Dr. Al-Shabal “calls for the destruction of chambers around the Prophet’s grave ” and “the removal of Mohamed’s remains to the nearby al-Baqi cemetery, where they would be interred anonymously.” A prominent and well known scholar and professor in Umm al Qurra University in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, from the lineage of the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him), Dr. Hatim Al-Awni Al-Sharif calls this a lie and the article a fabrication.

He says that Dr. Al-Shabal in fact called for the “separation” of the grave from the masjid structure and not destruction of the tomb or removal and relocation of the grave.

While correcting this fact, he scathingly critiques Dr.Al-Shabal’s academic journal submission and calls it “against the tradition of scholarship from the time of the companions and scholars of this ummah.”He further says while the Independent article stands corrected, “this does not change the fact that [Al-Shabal] went beyond all bounds… and the problem that exists with some is that they believe that they are more knowledgeable and stand more for (the defense of) monotheism than the entire Muslim nation, otherwise they would never have the audacity to put forth such a preposterous opinion!”

Dr Al-Sharif concludes that the academic paper went against the tradition and understanding of orthodoxy entirely and that even though the Independent is completely wrong, lied, and falsified what Dr. Al-Shabal wrote, it still is something that’s rejected.

Furthermore, Dr. Al-Shabal is painted as a “leading islamic academic figure,” yet he does not represent any kind of scholarly decision-making body, such as the Council of Senior Scholars whom the government directly seeks approval from. Nor does he represent the Organization of the Islamic Council, a 500-member body comprised of scholars from all over the world that’s based in Jeddah. Nor does he sit in the Fiqh Council (alMajma’ al Fiqhi) another international council that has members such as renowned scholar Sh Abdullah ibn Bayyah, and holds its meetings in Makkah.

This single fact shows how little the Independent even knows about how scholarly bodies are petitioned when it comes to matters dealing with Islam’s holiest sites.

Flashback to last year—the Council of Scholars in Saudi Arabia oversaw the decision to expand the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him)‘s Masjid. An official government proposal and plan was given to them for approval. The expansion of the masjid in this proposal required changing the place of where the Imam leads prayers in the original masjid.

For over 1000 years Imams have led prayer here. This proposal suggested—for the first time in Muslim history—that the Imam would deliver sermons on a minbar other than the pulpit of the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him).

New Prophet's Masjid 2 masjid-Nabawi-expansion-Madinah1-400x265

 

The Council unanimously rejected the proposal with the exception of only two members who gave secondary suggestions. The King called for a readjustment of the expansion to demolish all of the 5 star hotels in the back of the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) Masjid and expand in a direction that preserves the original building, pulpit, and prayer cove.

I had to ask. How could the Council of Scholars, made up of at least one Madinan scholar, my own teacher, Sh. Muhammad Al-Mukhtar Al-Shanqiti, reject a plan and proposal to not have the pulpit of the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) moved, yet they listened to a plan for his tomb to be moved? It was something impossible.

A Divisive Strategy to Sow Seeds of Discord

The problem of manufactured journalism is something we’ve seen more rampant today. A former CNN reporter, Amber Lyon, exposed that some news outlets even get paid by governments.

Regardless, seeds of discord spread among Muslims throughout social media because of the pervasive and almost subliminal impact such media plays. Many are in deep hate mode and have lunged full on attacks… without checking the facts.

When the facts are pointed out to many that the article contains false information, most seem to not care, “the reality is we can’t forget that Saudi did…” or “but in Saudi…” type rhetoric is spreading. Even academics that lay claim to scholastic standard, even journalists, even educators… many are falling prey to the exact intention of the article —the sowing of discord.

For many equating Saudi to not just a government but to an ideology that pigeonhole others is becoming comfortable, again. The “they” and “us” is something that spread through the discussions on social media, no matter which “spectrum” the person belonged to. The standing and representing movements rather than Islam again reared its ugly head.

Many are letting their feelings dictate their rationale—it doesn’t matter if the assertions in the article are false, there is injustice that needs to be spoken against, and criticism that needs to be made.

Destruction and Preservation in the Haramain

We must admit. We must be truthful. The realities of history, the truth of demolishing many archaeological sites, historical locations, and other damages to the two holiest sites in Islam is something that is concrete, recorded, and undeniable. There is no doubt, a time, a place, and a discourse that must be had on the destruction of historical sites (I plan on writing a critical analysis of the destruction and preservation of historical sites in the Haramain). However, many do not know about the existence and the work of the organizations to preserve historical sites. In fact, the Center for Historical Studies and Research of Madinah has an entire division that oversees preservation of archaeological sites in Madinah, makes recommendations to the government body overseeing expansion, and I have personally witnessed the director signing 18 sites to be preserved in the future expansion of the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him)‘s masjid.

Another organization that does the same in Makkah is called the Al-Furqan Islamic Heritage Foundation, and many other organizations exist both in Makkah and Madinah that work to preserve historical and archaeological sites as best as they can.

But what must be realized, what must resonate, is that there is no doubt that this strategy of manufactured journalism to sow discord is prevalent and strategically placed.

Muslims cannot afford to fall prey to this. Muslims cannot accept to give up the ethos of our faith in verifying news, not spreading everything we hear, and lose sight of the brotherhood that unifies us to collectively speak out against injustice, oppression, and transgression in our faith.

Muslims cannot fall into emboldening sentiments of partisanship and hatred that these type of articles wish for. Right now a correction of false information that’s spreading, an understanding of our history, our heritage, our tradition, and our knowledge must be sought. It is in these turbulent times that we clearly see the work of strategy in play, and it is in these times that we beseech our teachers, our scholars, our academics, our journalists, our educators, all Muslims to hold fast and not let distraction seep in. Not let the seeds of discord blur our vision. Not let the disagreements distance ourselves from the objective of reaching a mutual understanding. Holding tight to the same rope, the unity of Muslims, a mutual understanding, a strength must be kept.

prophettomb3

Holding on to the Legacy of Madinah

After my preliminary responses on Twitter, I have the opportunity to have an exchange with prominent British journalist Mehdi Hasan. The disagreement over the facts isn’t there. It is a deeper sentiment that the article targets and wishes to sow.

We have a calm exchange, where we lay out our points. I point out the factual inaccuracy and emphasize that. And the exchange ends cheerfully with me offering him a cup of tea on his next visit to the holy city of Madinah and a discussion we can have—person to person.

Screen shot 2014-09-03 at 12.33.44 PM
He happily obligeds and says he was looking forward to it.

And I respond; I assure him the Legacy of Madinah is alive and well and will continue to be. This legacy will always defeat those who wish the seeds of discord. The legacy of the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) that is ingrained in our faith to overcome and realize the bigger picture, know and understand not just the time to discuss disagreements but the place and environment as well, and to see through the elements that wish to sow that discord in our ranks.

This is the type of discourse we should encourage to have with one another, this is the type of legacy that we should preserve.

In trying times where there are major events occurring in the world, our priorities should be directed by that legacy. A legacy that informs us, that the honor, blood, and sanctity of a Muslim is holier than the Ka’aba itself (1). A legacy that tells us, “It is enough of a lie to relate to others everything you hear (2).” A legacy that guides us, “O you who have believed, if there comes to you an immoral person with information, investigate, lest you harm a people out of ignorance and become, over what you have done, regretful (3).”

Let’s uphold to that legacy, and not allow our discourse to be set by divisive elements and let discord sow in our hearts and ranks. These are from the hadiths of the beloved, our Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) and guidance from the Quran. That is the legacy we must carry.

That legacy lives on… and will continue to live on.

Hasib Noor, completing his final year in Bachelors at the College of Islamic Law in the University of Madinah, following undergraduate study in the US majoring Pre-Med & minor in Psychology.

FOOTNOTES:

1. A hadith narrated in Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, & Ibn Hibban- by Abdullah ibn Amr raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) who said “I saw the Messenger of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) circumambulating the Ka’bah and saying: ‘How beautiful are you and how good your fragrance; how great are you and how great your sanctity. By the One in Whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad, the sanctity of the believer is greater before Allah than your sanctity, his blood and his wealth, and to think anything but good of him.’”

2. A hadith narrated in Sahih Muslim by Abu Hurayrah raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him)

3. Quran 49:6

 

 

 

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Hasib Noor is an instructor and researcher that specializes in History, Islamic Heritage & Law, alongside other Islamic disciplines. Founder of Prophetic Legacy & Foundation dedicated to researching and teaching Islamic history, heritage, and archaeological sites. He resides in Madinah.

35 Comments

35 Comments

  1. Avatar

    Aasia

    September 3, 2014 at 7:07 PM

    May Allah reward you, but I’m bothered by Shakyh al-Awni’s criticism on the point of separating the blessed grave from the masjid. He could have said there is difference of opinion on this point but to criticize it as he did seems a bit much. ibn Baz, for example, held the same opinion as al-Shabal. See fatwa #65944 on Islam-QA.

    • Avatar

      javed

      September 4, 2014 at 5:36 AM

      I hope you should have read the fatwa properly, shaykh bin baaz didn’t say to separate the blessed masjid and blessed grave. He mentioned that what happened was incorrect and others should not take it as proof to build masjid on grave and vice versa.

    • Avatar

      Mohammed

      September 4, 2014 at 6:53 PM

      Sister As-Salaamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuhu.
      I would tend to agree with shaikh al-awni on this point.
      I do like ahl al-hadeeth, but we should not take every word said by ibn-baaz rahimahullaah as nothing but truth.

      If this audacious plan of separating the mosque from Prophet’s grave is given an an audience, then it paves way for the obvious next step, relocation of grave. Obviously if the mosque is separated from grave, there will be a huge chunk of muslim population that will visit the grave as well and that in fact will lead to shirk in a bigger and more manifest way. See what people do on ghaare hira and jabale rahmat.

      Hence few muslims should not think that they stand for Islamic Monotheism more than the entire ummah including the pious salaf.

      Wa-Allahu alam.

      • Avatar

        Dewan G Ahmed (@truthfuloneone)

        September 9, 2014 at 6:45 AM

        It is documented a fact that all historical relics including shrines of family members of Rasulullah Sallalahu Alaihi Wa Sallam including those of his close companions were destroyed after one thousand three hundred of their existence by Muhammad Bin Abdul Wahhab whose interpretation of Islam is followed by Saudi Government. Did Abdul Wahhab think he was wiser that Khulafa E Rashedun or than all those Sahabah who never spoke against visiting graves. Not only that Saudi Government with advise from Baz, Abdul Aziz, Al Bany demolished all those sites and places which were associated with life of Holy Prophet, Peace Be Upon Him. 5-Star high rise sky scrappers have been constructed which have ridiculed Holy Qaba.. This gentleman Mr. Shabal, even if he has presented this sacrilegious paper should have been tried & punished. May I ask a simple question : Is it permissible by Islamic Sharia to rule a Muslim country under monarchy (Kingship)? To me it is shirk.

    • Avatar

      Aasia

      September 4, 2014 at 8:43 PM

      You’re correct that ibn Baz didn’t say it explicitly. But, he did say it was wrong, which is not what Shaykh al-Awni is suggesting. What I’m saying is that a person such as Shaykh al-Awni shouldn’t be so blunt on this issue. Because, as the fatwa said ibn Baz considered what happened as incorrect and at the time Saeed ibn alMussayyab also opposed it. I referred to the fatwa for people to compare what Shaykh al-Awni said and what ibn Baz said. @Mohammed, I’m not advocating for people to take everything ibn Baz had to say or any other scholar for that matter.

  2. Avatar

    Muhammed Afzal

    September 4, 2014 at 12:14 AM

    The wahabi university in Madina is not the oldest in the muslim world you are a liar, it was founded in 1961.This is
    an example of how wahabites attempt to push off their modern concoctions as being rooted in the first generations when nothing could be further from the truth.
    This case, of the desecration of the blessed Maqam, has demonstrated what we all already know, that this propaganda institution churns out robots whose sole purpose it is to defend the policies of the monarchy.
    The Independent have every right to report on the vandalism and savagery that is being meted out against Islamic heritage. Infact the only people that have a problem with this exposure are the robot propaganda merchants of the aforementioned propaganda institution. The Independent have been correct and everyone can see that they are correct that there has been a systematic policy to destroy Islamic heritage.
    Alas the student robots of the propaganda institute wish their totalitarian state had the power repress free speech across the world.
    This article is actually an admission that infact the academic did suggest separating the blessed Maqam from the rest of the mosque.
    Why is it that wahabis, and only wahabis are focused on defiling everything associated with the praise and veneration of the Prophet of Islam (saw) even to the point that his own personage is being targeted?
    This article ONLY demonstrates that the wahabite students are ONLY upset that the world’s attention is being drawn to their acts of treacherous vandalism
    We thank the Independent, Andrew Johnson and Dr Irfan for recording the crimes of these quislings.
    The more muslims wake up to the true nature of wahabism the sooner it will return to the hole where it emerged from in the Najd.
    I suspect the moderators of this website will censor this post in the true spirit of totalitarianism that they uphold.

    • Avatar

      Imran K

      September 4, 2014 at 1:13 AM

      only a devli would think to separate the Prophet(saw) from his mosque and only a devil would try to defend him

    • Avatar

      Dilshan Waheed

      September 4, 2014 at 1:20 AM

      And you are?
      What evidence do you have to refute this.
      Talk with evidence brother not with irrational barbaric sufi language which talks of everything but unauthentic. ..so bring facts not words
      Jazakallah khair….

    • Avatar

      Abu Milk Sheikh (@AbuMilkSheikh)

      September 4, 2014 at 4:27 AM

      You said “the wahabi university in Madina is not the oldest in the muslim world you are a liar, it was founded in 1961.This is an example of how wahabites attempt to push off their modern concoctions as being rooted in the first generations when nothing could be further from the truth.” (sic)

      Abdul Hasib said “the Prophet’s masjid— Al-masjid Al-Nabawi —the world’s oldest Islamic institution is the legacy of all of Islamic civilizations, scholarship, and history.”

      Please read the latter again. He’s talking about the Prophet’s masjid, not the Islamic University of Medina, being the World’s oldest Islamic Institution. He’s right.

    • Avatar

      Muhammed Afzal

      September 6, 2014 at 2:42 AM

      As a point of clarification, it is my view that the author is deliberately conflating the Masjid An Nabawih with the Wahabi university in the city, and using this to suggest that the place where he is studying, i.e. the university is part of an unbroken tradition going back to the early generations and the Prophet (saw). This implied or express assertion is a lie because the Wahabi university was established in 1961. It is part of the wahabi narrative to obscure facts to mislead the Muslim masses and this is just another example.
      Wahabism does not have its roots in the city of Madinah let alone the masjid of the Prophet (saw) it arose from the place the Prophet (saw) prophecised it would emerge from the Nejd.

      • Avatar

        AbdulBari

        September 6, 2014 at 11:14 PM

        Br. Afzal, it looks like you already have a perception and it does not matter what the writer says,

        So should both sides pick up guns and settle the matter using force, without trying to understand each other?

        Its very easy to accuse others, I probably do this more than you every day.

  3. Avatar

    Dilshan Waheed

    September 4, 2014 at 1:22 AM

    Expect anti Wahabi comments to pour in akhi…but a v well written piece.May Allah reward you.

  4. Avatar

    RH

    September 4, 2014 at 2:37 AM

    Jzk for shedding light on the now very obvious manufactured journalism….I was tired of asking my FB friends to research on history of negative articles by this self proclaimed expert on Islamic Architecture and history…..in fact just three days ago I even commented to punish him for causing fitna year after year right around Hajj or Ramadan time! I was upset to see educated Muslims spewing hatred toward KSA while sharing this Independent article. I was in Medina earlier this year on 1st of Rabi AlAwwal and saw how welcoming the people were toward the visitors from Iran and they arrive in Rabi Alawwal in Medina and honor the Prophet PBUH and also visit the Masjid of Bibi Fatima (which is intact around the Saba Masajid area thought few have been fenced and not vitiable due to age and insecurity. I saw no discrimination towards the Iranians nor their guides and scholars. I even submitted a request to the women at the Haram admin to let me come and be the English/Arabic/Urdu/Hindi speaking ziyara guide during Hajj as I have a visa to come anytime and they really need a guide for women who speakes multiple languages. They directed me to the right office without any sign of arrogance or ego. Overall, the expansion was happening but I saw no destruction of any historically significant sites……lets not forget the architecture around has been renovated several times in the 19th & 20th century but now that we have internet and media…..haters are hating everyyear. I am sure most Muslims are above the fitna inshaAllah.

    • Avatar

      Shoaib malik

      September 4, 2014 at 1:48 PM

      Maybe you have not seen how people of beliefs other than Wahhabi are treated. In particular Sufis and Shia.?
      Why have they not refuted the article in its entirety officially ? Do we forget history, of what they are capable of ?
      Do we forget that their scholars preach that the dome and chamber is a biddah and shirk, & should not be placed inside the mosque. What about uthmayeen, and his views?
      Did they not plan to destroy the Bayt al Mawlid earlier this year, as reported in ye Saudi gazette , then refuted ?
      Let us not forget that the article initially appeared in the Makkah newspaper. Which accused the independent of ‘theft’ not fabrication.
      Anti Wahhabi posts are justified ‘Akhi’

    • Avatar

      Ahamed

      September 5, 2014 at 12:26 AM

      People of Madina are very soft and kind because of our beloved Prophet’s Dua. Is it not true that the present govt not allowing the muslims to raise their hand towards Nabi Mustafa Sallahu Allaihe wa Sallam. Who are they to come between us and our Prophet ? If they think it is shrik and bida and it their part of faith and they have no authority or right to impose on other Muslims. Is it not true that they have demolished Prophet’s living place in Mecca ?

    • Avatar

      jav

      September 5, 2014 at 3:12 AM

      Forget to mentioned that these salafi mafia spread around Prophet PBUH mosque and spread their narrow interpretation. I was chased and harssened even.For salafi brother,unity do not come when you start to harasen and saying bad about fellow muslims just becoz they donot buy your interpretation of islam by Saudi scholars

  5. Avatar

    Mohammed Azeem

    September 4, 2014 at 4:52 AM

    If the Center for Historical Studies and Research of Madinah and other organisations are aware of this article by Independent being not true than why didn’t they issued a statement (or a joint statement) against the article at the very moment they read it. It would have had a great impact on global media instead of a student coming out with an article.
    I’m not criticising anyone but in my view that would have been more appropriate.

    • Avatar

      hasibn

      November 18, 2014 at 3:33 AM

      They’re not a news agency nor put out press releases.

      It’s our job to verify news not cause sensationalism and expect people to tell us what’s true.

  6. Pingback: Dr Irfan Alawi and Holy Sites under threat??

    • Avatar

      abdul salafi

      September 4, 2014 at 11:01 PM

      people do not seem tom know that the muslim faith does not allow kings.
      the present king and his family are descendants of a crooked cunning jew .
      the king had destroyed all historical and cultural sites in this country systematically.
      look how they desecrated al baqui.
      the present king is put in place in 1932 by colonial powers.
      they oppress the masses and serve the orders of Israel and usa.
      all those experts who support the current imposter king is on the payroll of the king. they do it for money.
      it is sad.

  7. Pingback: Allegations on risks to Rawdhah Mubarak: The verdict is still out — Jamiatul Ulama KZN

  8. Avatar

    H

    September 4, 2014 at 6:03 AM

    To those writng anti-wahabi comments (and equally to the responses to those comments):
    Please reflect on the message of unity that this message is conveying. If the Independent were to read some of these comments, they would be celebrating! Understandably differences of opinion exist, but remember the beautiful aklaaq of the Prophet (pbuh) when stating your opinion!

    Please make dua that this Ummah unifies!

    • Avatar

      Jav

      September 5, 2014 at 2:54 AM

      Salafi brothers all the time talks about unity ..unity….and when it come to treat fellow brothers..it takes a second for them to issue fitwa that oh that brother is on way of hell !!!! I never seen any narrow minded muslims sect then salafis unfortunately and above rumors is nothing more then their extremist views

  9. Avatar

    υмαιя ¢αяєѕ (@omindsin)

    September 4, 2014 at 7:52 AM

    Beautifully done Sheikh !! In this world where people blindly follow the influences of Media and big names like Mr Mehdi or even Justin Beiber … you went ahead and defended what you believed in and the knowledge which ALLAH has granted you !!! May ALLAH bless you !! :)

  10. Avatar

    ml

    September 4, 2014 at 8:05 AM

    I think Muslims must learn to challenge any untrue article published by the media and take legal action against the perpetrators rather than blaming readers for naively believe in the reports and what they contain.

  11. Avatar

    Jamal Ud Deen

    September 4, 2014 at 8:55 AM

  12. Avatar

    Ismail

    September 5, 2014 at 1:05 AM

    From my experience with Muslims, “Wahhabi” is a term used to refer to Muslims who practice an aspect of Islam that you do not necessarily want to practice.

    All jokes aside though, thank you for clarifying this matter with the readers. A lot of people, and I must admit myself as well, jumped on the fake outrage bandwagon after falling victim to the Independent’s article. Just ignore those who are determined to remain stubbornly resistant even after reading this article.

  13. Avatar

    Abu Umaamah

    September 5, 2014 at 4:01 AM

    “We must admit. We must be truthful. The realities of history, the truth of demolishing many archaeological sites, historical locations, and other damages to the two holiest sites in Islam is something that is concrete, recorded, and undeniable”. Very sad! I recalled visiting the blessed city and seeing that some historical sites like “the trench” have given way to “modernity and expansions”.

  14. Avatar

    ZUBAIR

    September 5, 2014 at 12:29 PM

    Aslaam aley kum brothers there’s no point arguing with each other about wahabi’s and sufi’s remember end of the day we are all muslim and we are trying to get to the bottom of the matter of what’s going on rather than argue who’s right who’s wrong. The best possible solution to this matter is to get a law put in place for this problem not to occur in the first place and every other problem where having against our blessed religion. Allahu alam

  15. Avatar

    ZUBAIR

    September 5, 2014 at 12:56 PM

    Howdy!!!
    To you if you think this means something to me then you must not be a muslim or your being judge mental. The best possible greeting would be salaam hello or hi not howdy!!! Thank you really for nothing. I thought when I was speaking to someone that it would be a muslim but now I have found out that you are not a muslim. And no offence to the non muslims. Thank you

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  17. Avatar

    Akram

    September 7, 2014 at 4:41 AM

    براءة الشيخ/د.على الشبل من إخراج قبر النبي
    http://youtu.be/P1DJAU2Rzbc

    • Avatar

      Akram

      September 8, 2014 at 12:32 PM

      Brief excerpt from above video…

      He added that he was “not qualified to say so, and in fact, no one is.”

      “The Prophet … was buried where he died and this is where the Prophet should be buried,” he explained.

      “The Sahabah [the Prophet’s companions] did not find difficulties in choosing where to bury the Prophet when he died. Some of the companions might have suggested that the Prophet should be buried in Baqi and others that he should be buried alone. However, Abu Bakr … said: ‘I heard the Prophet say that the Prophet should be buried where he dies.’”

      “No one shall change this. This is our religion and the teachings of our Prophet. What was attributed to me is a lie that aims to confuse the people of the Ummah. This is the plan of the people of sedition who aim to confuse people in order to achieve their plans,” he added.

      http://english.alarabiya.net/en/News/middle-east/2014/09/06/Saudi-academic-slams-UK-media-lies-over-Prophet-s-tomb.html

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#Current Affairs

This Eid And Beyond Boycott Goods Made With Enslaved Labor Of Uyghurs Even If It Is Your Favorite Brand

Bidding farewell to Ramadan, celebrating Eid?

Well, the Muslims of East Turkestan under Chinese occupation had neither Ramadan nor will they have Eid…

Not only that, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) run government has transferred Uyghurs and other ethnic minority citizens from East Turkestan to factories across the country. Under conditions that strongly suggest forced labour, Uyghurs are working in factories that are in the supply chains of at least 83 well-known global brands in the technology, clothing and automotive sectors, including Nike, Gap, Adidas, Ralph Lauren, Carters and others. Read Uyghurs for Sale for more information

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CCP is also pressuring governments across the world to extradite Uyghurs back to occupied East Turkestan.

Here is what you can do to help them:

Action Items

  1. Keep making dua for the oppressed of East Turkistan and the world.
  2. Boycott Chinese products! Do not be complicit in slave labour. Start with focusing on the companies in the graphic. Share it with #SewnWithtTears, #StopChina, #BoycottChina. Write to them and demand that they do better.
  3. Raise awareness on the plight of Uyghurs and the East Turkistani cause. Learn more at SaveUighur.org
  4. Work towards reducing your country’s economic dependence on China.
  5. Build alliances with all people of conscience to demand a cessation of China’s oppression of all faith groups, be it Muslim Uyghur, Hui; Chinese Christian; or Tibetan Buddhist.
  6. Encourage and promote fairer trade and commerce with Muslims and others rather than China.
  7. Inquire about Uyghur diaspora members in your area. Organize to help out orphans, widows, and students.
  8. Pressure governments to provide legal protection to Uyghur refugees-exiles by granting either citizenship or refugee/asylee status. Stop the “extradition/repatriation” of Uyghurs to China!
  9. Get your universities/endowments to divest from China. Raise awareness about Chinese espionage and hired guns in academia. Demand academic and financial support for Uyghur scholars and students. Request more academic attention and funds for Central Asian, Uyghur, Turkistani studies. 

Read a greater discussion of action items in A Response to Habib Ali Al-Jifri’s Comments on the Uyghurs, which also contains a greater discussion on East Turkistan’s history and its current situation. A condensed Arabic version of the article can be found here

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Coronavirus

Alternative Eid Celebrations In The Midst Of A Pandemic

“Eid-al-Quarantine” is what my sister has so fondly dubbed our upcoming Eid al Fitr this year. I find myself asking, “How are we going to make Eid a fun and special celebration this year in the midst of a dangerous pandemic?” With a little bit of creativity and resourcefulness, this Eid can be fun–no matter the current circumstances. This post will provide you with some inspiration to get your alternative Eid preparations underway! 

Special note: Shelter-in-place restrictions are lessening in many places in the United States, but this does not give us the green light to go back to life as normal and celebrate Eid in the ways we usually would have in the past. I am no health expert, but my sincerest wish for all Muslims throughout the world is that we all err on the side of caution and maintain rigorous precautions.

In-person gatherings are going to be much riskier in light of public health safety concerns. I do not recommend that people get together this Eid. Keep in mind, as well, that this is a big weekend for all Americans, as it is Memorial Day Weekend and crowds may be expected in places like parks and beaches. 

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Eid Day Must’s

Just because you are staying in, doesn’t mean that all of the Eid traditions have to go. Some may be exactly the same, some may be slightly adjusted this year. 

  • Get dressed up, even if it’s just for an hour or two. This might be a good chance to do hair and make up for sisters who normally don’t on Eid because of hijab or other modesty concerns. 
  • Take your family pictures, as usual. 
  • Decorate your house, even if it’s just with some fresh flowers in a vase or hanging up some string lights. (This time, I think sharing pictures of your setup may  have some more wiggle room.)
  • Find a way to pray Eid salah at home, if your local imam mentions a way to adapt for the current situation or check out this MM article
  • Eat some good food, and make sure to feast. 
  • Take that infamous Eid nap. 
  • Greet loved ones (phone calls, video calls, text messages, voice/video messages, make and send Eid cards).
  • Give and receive gifts. (Electronic ways to transfer money/checks in the mail, dropping off gifts to homes/sending gifts in the mail/having an online order pick-up in-store. You may also choose to do a gift exchange, if not this weekend, next). 

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Virtual Parties

Virtual celebrations are a great, safe, option. The best thing about virtual hangouts is that people from all over the world can “come together” to celebrate Eid. This can be as simple as talking and catching up, or can be as orchestrated as a full-out party including games. Keep in mind, the games and virtual parties aren’t only for the kids–everyone should have fun this Eid! We recently threw a virtual birthday party for our one-year-old and it was quite the experience. 

  • Split guests into different calls (kids’ call, adults’ call; men’s call, women’s call)
  • Party agenda for a rigorously planned party so everyone knows what to expect
  • Party games, either with certain items that everyone has (or can easily and quickly purchase) or games that do not require much else besides an internet connection 
    • Games requiring physical items (think of items that everyone is likely to have and think of carnival-type games):
      • Soccer ball juggling or basketball shooting competition
      • Water balloon toss
      • Timed races (three-legged, holding an egg in a spoon, etc.)
    • Games with little to no special equipment
      • Online Pictionary https://skribbl.io/
      • Online Scrabble
      • Video games
      • Charades
      • Taboo (we do this for our cousin game nights with pictures of cards that one person sends to people from the opposite team)
      • Scattergories
      • Bingo
      • Mad libs
      • Speaking games that take turns going around a circle (going through the alphabet saying names of animals or colors or foods, rhyming words [we played the last two lines of “Down by the Bay” for our son’s birthday party])
      • Movement game (Simon says, dancing if you’re into that [“Cha Cha Slide,” dance-off, passing along dance moves as was a TikTok trend I heard of, simply dancing…])
      • Games like in Whose Line is it Anyway? or like the “Olympics” (specifically the “middle games”) that I wrote about way back
  • Performances
    • Skits prepared by one family or even across households
    • Reciting a poem or surah or singing
    • Other showcases of talent, by individuals or not
  • Gift Exchanges (I’ve been doing this virtually since 2013 with friends/distant family members.)

Alternative Virtual/Group Celebrations

Being “together” isn’t always gathering for a party, and that’s what I think most people miss during the forced isolation caused by the pandemic. There are many things you can do to get ready for or celebrate Eid with loved ones even if you’re not together. 

  • Share special recipes with each other or plan to serve the same meals.
  • Coordinate Eid outfits or attempt to do matching henna designs.
  • Send Eid pictures to family and friends.
  • Prepare and cook meals or clean or decorate while on a video call (you don’t have to be talking the entire time).
  • Watch the same movie or show (whether that’s something everyone does as separate households or you do concurrently/even with a video or phone call running. This might be a good time to watch Hasan Minhaj’s “Homecoming King” and do the 10 things it invites us to do.)
  • Go through family pictures or old videos together. Maybe even create a short slideshow/video of your favorites. 
  • Story time full of family legends and epic moments (the best Eid, a difficult time of sickness, immigration or moving story, new baby in the family, etc.). Someone build the fire and get the s’mores going.

Alternative “Outings”

In the same breath, it’s so refreshing to go out and do something fun, not just stay cooped up in your house, right? Seriously. 

  • Check out a virtual museum tour
  • Go on a nice drive to some place you love or miss going to, like drive by the masjid or school or a beautiful area (but stay in your car if there are other people around)
  • Watch an Eid Khutbah (or a regular one) on Eid day (make it special by listening outside in your yard or as a family where you pray).
  • Create a movie theater experience inside the home (that might just mean some popcorn and homemade slushies).
  • Get carry out from a favorite restaurant (if it’s open), and finally have the motivation to take a longer drive if needed
  • Make fruit or gift baskets for friends and family and drop them off at their homes
  • A “paint night,” or some other craft, that everyone in the family participates in
  • Decorate your car and drive around to show it off to friends (I’ve heard there’s an actual Eid car parade at various masaajid in Chicago

Interesting Alternative Community Celebrations I’ve Heard About

Some communities are getting super creative. As I mentioned above, a handful of masaajid in Chicago (Orland Park Prayer Center, Mosque Foundation, and Islamic Center of Wheaton as well as Dar Al Taqwa in Maryland) are putting together Eid drive-thru car parades. I’ve heard of different communities, whether officially sponsored by the masjid or just put together by groups of individuals, having a drive-in Eid salah, in which families pray in their cars in a rented drive-in theater or parking lot (Champaign, Illinois and a community in Maryland). I’m  definitely impressed with that last option, and I’m waiting to hear about more creative ways to get together and worship and celebrate.

So, what am I doing for Eid (weekend) this year? All the must’s, inshaAllah, including getting extra dolled up and making donuts from biscuit dough. A “game night” (virtual party) with alumni from my MSA. A gift exchange party with my cousins as well as another gift exchange party with classmates from my Arabic program (we’ll send unboxing videos out instead of meeting at the same time.) Check out a local college campus we’ve been dying to drive around. Binge a few episodes of Avatar: The Last Airbender newly released on Netflix and do some online Memorial Day sale shopping. Le’s put a tentative on all of those, haha.

At the end of the day, Eid al Fitr is about acknowledging the month of worship we engaged in during Ramadan and spending quality time with loved ones. It doesn’t really matter what that quality time looks like–as long as it is intentional, this Eid will be special no matter what, inshaAllah. Who knows, this might be one of the best, most memorable holidays ever!

Eid Mubarak!

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#Islam

Eid Prayer During the Pandemic

Introduction

We have observed a Ramadan that was unlike anything we have experienced before. The community and individuals everywhere have shown dedication, commitment, and creativity. We learned to pray tarāwīḥ on our own in our homes. We read the Qur’an everyday consistently. We attended daily lectures and reminders delivered by our imams, teachers, and scholars online. We gathered virtually to hold iftars and check in on each other. We donated to our organizations to gain the blessings of charity in Ramadan. All of this and more is only possible through the guidance of Allah and resilience of our faith.

We now find ourselves approaching Eid al-Fitr. Eid is an occasion of celebration, joy, gathering, and gratitude to Allah for his countless blessings. We all have cherished memories of past days of Eid. However, we face the prospect of an Eid that is difficult and challenging. Similar to our mindset in Ramadan, we can and should find a way to have a joyous and meaningful Eid. Shāh Walīullah al-Dihlawi writes in his Hujjatullah al-Bālighah, “Allah provided us with two days of celebration that commemorate the markers of the Islamic tradition. He associated celebration with the remembrance of Allah and acts of devotion on the day of Eid, ensuring that the congregation of believers would not be for mere vanity. Rather, the gathering of Muslims would revolve around exalting the Word of Allah.”

The Obligation of Eid

The scholars of the four major schools of thought have differed regarding the obligation of the Eid prayer. Their differences stem from their methodologies in interpreting the verses of the Qur’an and the Prophetic tradition ﷺ. The Shāfiʿī and Mālikī schools agree that the Eid prayer is an established Sunnah of the Prophet ﷺ, and the prayer is highly recommended for every individual to attend.[1] However, the Ḥanafī school has deemed the prayer as wājib, necessary, for every believing man of age.[2] The Ḥanbalī school has ruled the Eid prayer as farḍ al-kifāyah[3].[4] 

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The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ prayed the Eid prayer in congregation with the Companions from the time it was prescribed until he passed. The Ḥanafī school has considered this consistency demonstrated by the Prophet ﷺ as an indication that the Eid prayer cannot be merely a recommendation. Additionally, the Prophet ﷺ did not go out of his way to inform his Companions of the lack of obligation as he did with ṣalāh al-tarāwīḥ.[5] The scholars of the Ḥanbalī school referenced the command in the Qur’an, “Pray to your Lord and sacrifice,”[6] and concluded the Eid prayer is farḍ al-kifāyah.

The Shāfiʿī and Mālikī schools quote a well-known Hadith of the Prophet ﷺ in which he informs an inquisitive Bedouin regarding the Islamic mandates. The Prophet ﷺ tells the man about the five obligatory daily prayers. The man asks the Messenger ﷺ if there are any additional prayers that are required and he responds, “All other prayers are optional.”[7] Therefore, they regard the Eid prayer as voluntary.[8] 

The Khutbah of Eid

On the day of Eid, it is recommended, according to the majority of scholars, to have a khutbah given by the Imam. The Imam advises the people in the congregation and reminds them of Allah and His Messenger ﷺ. Unlike the Friday khutbah, the Eid khutbah is given immediately after the congregational prayer is completed. The Friday khutbah is considered an essential pillar of the Jumu’ah obligation. However, the scholars of the four major schools have all come to the conclusion that the khutbah on the day of Eid is not required for the validity of the Eid prayer.[9]

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Congregations

The following question has emerged in light of our current situation: Are we excused from the obligation to gather together and worship Allah for Friday, Eid, and congregational prayers? Is the concern regarding the spread of COVID-19 a legitimate reason for individuals to not attend religious services in person?

The scholars of the Ḥanafī school list reasons that excuse individuals from attending congregational prayers. The list includes inclement weather, sickness, paralysis, old age, and notably, fear of harm. It is reported in an authentic Hadith that the Prophet ﷺ once excused the Companions from attending congregational prayers by instructing the Mu’adhdhin to call the adhān and announce, “Pray in your homes.”[10] The Ḥanafī scholar al-Ṭahṭāwī uses this Hadith as proof that those exposed to immediate danger should be excused from congregational prayer, including Friday and Eid prayers.[11]

Al-Shurunbulālī[12] reminds us that the reward is still obtained by individuals who are not able to attend due to challenging circumstances. If an individual is prevented from fulfilling an obligation due to an acceptable and valid excuse, that person will still be rewarded (if Allah wills) according to his or her intention.[13] The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ taught us, “Actions are rewarded based on their intentions. Every person will be rewarded according to his or her intention.”[14]

Recommended Eid Rituals

While our ability to congregate for Eid may be limited, this should not prevent us from observing the rituals recommended in our tradition.[15] 

  1. Supplicate to Allah ﷻ the night before Eid and ask Him for forgiveness for any shortcomings.
  2. On the morning of Eid, recite the Takbīrāt of Eid[16], glorifying Allah and rejoicing in the occasion.[17]
  3. Take a shower and celebrate by donning your best garments. It is also customary to apply perfume.
  4. Demonstrate the end of the month of fasting by eating something after Fajr on the morning of Eid. The Prophet Muhammad ﷺ would not leave his house on the day of Eid without eating some dates.[18]
  5. Be kind and generous.
  6. Congratulate others.
  7. Fulfill your obligation of contributing zakat al-fir before the morning of Eid. The majority of scholars are in agreement that zakat al-fir is mandatory for every believer male or female, young or old.[19] This serves the purpose of uniting Muslims on the day of Eid so they may celebrate regardless of financial circumstances.

Requirements to Conduct Eid Prayer

When performing the Eid prayer, one should, first and foremost, observe the requirements of ritual prayer (ṣalāh) such as being in a state of purification and facing the qiblah. The scholars have agreed that the prescribed time of the Eid prayer begins shortly after sunrise and ends before Ẓuhr time starts.[20] 

For the validity of the Eid prayer, the scholars among the Shāfiʿī, Mālikī, Ḥanbalī,  and Ḥanafī schools have stipulated: the prayer should be conducted during the prescribed time of Eid prayer.[21] The Ḥanafīs and some Ḥanbalīs[22] have additionally stated that the Eid prayer must be conducted in a group.[23] The Ḥanafīs specified that this requirement is fulfilled with 2 or 3 adult males other than the imam.[24] Moreover, the Ḥanafī scholars have stated that an Eid prayer should be accessible by the general public and not be in a restricted or an exclusive space.

Conducting the Eid Prayer

The Eid prayer itself is conducted very similarly to any other congregational prayer. The four major schools agree that the Eid prayer should be performed out loud with 2 rak’āt, units of prayer, just like the Fajr congregation. However, there is a difference of opinion in regards to the number of extra takbīrāt that are said in the Eid prayer. The format of the prayer has been detailed below based on the different opinions.

Mālikīs[25]

  • Make wuḍū’, face the qiblah and begin the prayer with Allāhu akbar
  • Perform 6 additional takbīrāt[26], say Allāhu akbar for each takbīrah
  • Recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah out loud
  • Finish the first rak’ah
  • After standing for the second rak’ah, perform 5 additional takbīrāt, say Allāhu akbar for each takbīrah
  • Recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah out loud
  • Complete the prayer as usual

Ḥanbalīs[27]

  • Make wuḍū’, face the qiblah and begin the prayer with Allāhu akbar
  • Perform 6 additional takbīrāt, raise your hands and say Allāhu akbar for each takbīrah
  • Recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah out loud
  • Finish the first rak’ah
  • After standing for the second rak’ah, perform 5 additional takbīrāt, raise your hands and say Allāhu akbar for each takbīrah
  • Recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah out loud
  • Complete the prayer as usual

Shāfiʿīs[28]

  • Make wuḍū’, face the qiblah and begin the prayer with Allāhu akbar
  • Perform 7 additional takbīrāt, raise your hands and say Allāhu akbar for each takbīrah
  • Recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah out loud
  • Finish the first rak’ah
  • After standing for the second rak’ah, perform 5 additional takbīrāt, raise your hands and say Allāhu akbar for each takbīrah
  • Recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah out loud
  • Complete the prayer as usual

Ḥanafīs[29]

  • Make wuḍū’, face the qiblah and begin the prayer with Allāhu akbar
  • Perform 3 additional takbīrāt, raise your hands and say Allāhu akbar for each takbīrah
  • Recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah out loud
  • Finish the first rak’ah
  • After standing for the second rak’ah, recite Surah al-Fatihah and an additional surah out loud
  • Perform 3 additional Takbīrāt, raise your hands and say Allāhu akbar for each takbīrah
  • Say Allāhu akbar and bow into rukū’
  • Complete the prayer as usual

Conclusion

Eid is an occasion of glorifying Allah, praying for the acceptance of our deeds, and enjoying the blessings of Allah. It is a day to spend time with family and loved ones. The regulations of social distancing have limited our ability to congregate and spend time together as a community. However, these restrictions do not prevent us from fulfilling the rituals and traditions of Eid.

We recommend that every Muslim observes the Eid rituals as mentioned above. It has been authentically reported that the Companion of the Prophet ﷺ Anas ibn Mālik did not make it to the Eid prayer, so he gathered his family and offered the Eid prayer at home in the same manner the imam would with the congregation.[30] Furthermore, the Mālikī, Shāfiʿī, and Ḥanbalī schools allow people to perform the Eid prayer individually or with family at home. While the Ḥanafī school traditionally does not allow this, many senior Ḥanafī scholars have eased the condition of performing the Jumu’ah prayer in a public place during the current pandemic. Therefore, we recommend that individuals and families who are not able to attend an Eid congregation pray the Eid ṣalāh as detailed above at home.

May Allah accept our deeds. May Allah provide us with a joyous Eid. May Allah alleviate the current crisis. May Allah protect us all.

Allah knows best.

AbdulNasir Jangda

Sohaib Sheikh

26 Ramadan 1441 AH/19 May 2020 CE

Qalam Institute’s  mission is to educate humanity about Allah, His message, and His Messenger ﷺ. This article is written by the instructors at Qalam. Please consider supporting them as they create beneficial content for people to study their religion. 


[1] al-Majmu’ 5:2, al-Jumal ala sharh al-Manhaj 2:92

[2] Bada’I al-Sana’I 1:274

[3] farḍ al-kifāyah: An obligation that is mandated at a communal level. If a community fulfills the obligation, any other people that did not participate are excused from the obligation.

[4] al-Mughni 2:304

[5] Bada’I al-Sana’I 1:274, al-Hidayah 1:60, Tuhfah al-Fuqaha 1:283

[6] Qur’an 108:2

[7] Sahih al-Bukhari 2678

[8] Jawahir al-Iklil 1:101, al-Majmoo’ 5:3

[9] al-Lubab 1:118-119, Maraqi al-Falah 91, Tabyin al-Haqaiq 1:226, Fatawa al-Hindiyyah 1:141, Fath al-Qadir 1:428, al-Durr al-Mukhtar 1:782-784, al-Sharh al-Saghir 1:530, al-Sharh al-Kabir 1:400, al-Qawanin al-Fiqhiyyah 86, Mughni al-Muhtaj 1:311, al-Muhadhab 1:120, al-Majmoo’ 5:36, al-Mughni 2:384-387, Kashaf al-Qina’ 2:61-62

[10] Sahih al-Bukhari 10:29, Sahih Muslim 6:32-33, Sunan Abi Dawud 2:672-673, Sunan Ibn Majah 5:989-991, Sunan al-Nasa’I 7:660, Sunan al-Nasa’I 10:78

[11] Hashiyah al-Tahtawi ala Maraqi al-Falah 297

[12] Hanafi scholar who authored the famous work Nur al-Idah

[13] Nur al-Idah 65, Hashiyah al-Tahtawi ala Maraqi al-Falah 299

[14] Sahih al-Bukhari 1:1, Sahih Muslim 33:222

[15] al-Fiqh al-Islami Wa Adillatuhu 1412-1416

[16] Takbirat of Eid: Saying Allahu Akbar and La Ilaha Illa Allah

[17] al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah 13:213-214

[18] Sahih al-Bukhari 13:5

[19] al-Zayla’I 1:307, Ibn Abidin 2:110, Fath al-Qadir 2:30, Bulghat al-Salik 1:200, Sharh al-Minhaj 1:628, Kashaf al-Qina’ 1:471

[20] Fath al-Qadir 1:424, al-Lubab 1:117, Maraqi al-Falah 90, al-Dur al-Mukhtar 1:779, al-Bada’I 1:276, al-Sharh al-Saghir 1:524, al-Qawanin al-Fiqhiyyah 85, Mughni al-Muhtaj 1:310, al-Muhadhab 1:118, Kashaf al-Qina’ 2:56

[21] al-Dasuqi 1:396, Asna al-Matalib 1:279

[22] Imam Ibn al-Qudama stated both opinions in the Hanbali school regarding the requirement of a congregation to conduct Eid prayer. Some Hanbali scholars require a group of people for the validity of the Eid prayer while others said that an individual can pray Eid by him or herself. al-Mughni 2:291

[23] Kashaf al-Qina’ 1:455, 2:50, Bada’I al-Sana’I 1:275

[24] Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Muhammad stated that 2 congregants other than the Imam are the minimum required to be considered a congregation. Imam Abu Yusuf was of the opinion that 3 congregants other than the Imam are required.

[25] al-Sharh al-Saghir 1:525, al-Sharh al-Kabir 1:397, al-Qawanin al-Fiqhiyyah 86, Bidayah al-Mujtahid 1:209

[26] Takbirat of Eid: These are extra Takbirs unique to the Eid ṣalāh. According to the majority of scholars, these Takbirs are conducted by the Imam raising his hands as he does when he starts the prayer and saying Allahu Akbar. The stronger opinion according to the Malikis is that when performing the extra Takbirs, the Imam does not raise his hands but says Allahu Akbar.

al-Sharh al-Saghir 1:525, al-Sharh al-Kabir 1:398

[27] Bidayah al-Mujtahid 1:209, al-Mughni 2:376-384, Kashaf al-Qina’ 2:59-65

[28] Mughni al-Muhtaj 1:310, al-Muhadhab 1:120, al-Majmoo’ 5:18

[29] The famous Companion, Ibn Masood, said in regard to the ritual of Eid prayer, “The Imam of the prayer should say Takbir to initiate the prayer. Afterwards, he should perform 3 additional Takbirat followed by the recitation of Surah al-Fatihah and another Surah following it. Then the Imam should continue his prayer, go into Ruku’, Sujood until he stands up (for his second Rak’ah). He should read Surah al-Fatihah and another Surah and proceed to perform 3 Takbirat followed by the Takbir to go into Ruku’” – Sharh Ma’ani al-Athar 4:347

al-Lubab 1:117, Maraqi al-Falah 90, Fath al-Qadir 1:425-427, Tabyin al-Haqaiq 1:225, al-Dur al-Mukhtar 1:779-782, al-Bada’I 1:277, al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah 1:141

[30] al-Sunan al-Kabir 3:503, al-Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaybah 2:183, Sahih al-Bukhari includes this Hadith in his Tarjamtul Baab 2:23

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