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Aqeedah and Fiqh

Zakaah: Worth Its Weight In Gold

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It is that time of the year again. Ramadan has begun to signal it’s imminent arrival. For most, that might imply a dread of fasting longer, hotter days. For others, it might mean saving more to stock up their freezers. For some lucky people, it might indicate the time to start making travel arrangements for performing umrah or itikaaf in Islam’s holy sites in Saudi Arabia. For most, however, including me, it implies preparing for project “Yearly Zakaah: Calculation and Discharge.

The basic reasons why most Muslims discharge their yearly Zakaah during Ramadan are:

  • It gains more rewards – multiplied by 70 times, at the very least. That is why it can be given in advance, during Ramadan. It is imperative, on the other hand, that if it has become due before Ramadan, it should be given at once, and not delayed in the hope for more reward.
  • It is easier to keep track of Zakaah if one has the habit of discharging it in a prominent Muslim month, i.e. the latter’s arrival provides a convenient reminder to start planning how much and where, to pay off one’s Zakaah.
  • It is the sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad [صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم] to become extra generous during this month, akin to a wind that brings much gain i.e. fruit/agricultural produce: Narrated Ibn Abbas [may Allah be pleased with him] who said: “The Prophet [صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم] was the most generous of people, and he was even more generous during Ramadan when Jibreel met him. Jibreel used to meet him every night in Ramadan until it was over and the Prophet would go through the Qur’an with him. The Messenger of Allah was more generous with good things than the blowing wind (which brings rain and welfare).” [Sahih Al-Bukhari]
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In the current scenario, when the economic crisis and global “credit crunch” has left many Muslims struggling financially, and like other people all over the world, striving to hold on to their jobs, save and scrimp any extra money they possibly can, look for alternative modes of earning and sources of income, and to spend very cautiously, generating enough liquidity to pay off one’s Zakaah becomes an added concern. All extravagant expenditures have started to be curtailed, or so we like to think, in such a scenario.

So the problem with giving Zakaah this coming Ramadan is, to a great extent, the challenge of generating enough extra cash to be able to pay off the due on our assets. People who nowadays own lavish homes, individual cars for members of the household, electricity-bill-thumping appliances such as washers, driers, air conditioners, microwave ovens, dishwashers, hair-irons, kettles, coffee-makers and heaters, and have their children enrolled in expensive private schools are, to put it mildly, in a fix. They can no longer afford their lavish lifestyle yet find it difficult to step down a few rungs on their social ladder in order to curtail their extravagant expenditure.

The simple solution to this problem lies as much with the Muslim women of the family as much as the men. Please let me explain: I have been teaching a short subject, “The Book of Zakaah“, based on the book “Kitab Al-Zakah” by Iqbal Kaylani, to adult women at Al-Huda International for several years, and each time I cover the subject, I am surprised and equally disappointed, to be asked the same questions over and over by them. One of the most oft-recurring question is,

“How do we pay the Zakaah on our gold jewelry when we do not earn money?”

Most women innocently assume that they are absolved from paying Zakaah on their gold because of this reason, or that it is primarily and completely their husbands’ responsibility, and not their concern at all. They assert that the husband should, therefore, always pay the Zakaah on their gold. Other women come up with certain ahadith as ‘proof’ that Zakaah is not to be paid on gold that is in regular use by them i.e. that which they wear. Others still, come up with other ‘ahadith‘ claiming that Zakaah is not due on gold at all. Others, still, – the rarer lot – suggest that women should save money from their household budget each month to pay off the yearly Zakaah on their gold. Not one – I repeat – not one woman student have I come across to this day, who would give the suggestion that women sell off some of their gold jewelry to generate the required amount of Zakaah on it.

Has your jaw dropped? Are you stunned? If so, why, may I ask? Sadly, this is the reaction of most Muslim women when I suggest this solution. However, I do not understand this reaction at all. Why is the idea of selling gold to generate money for sadaqah in the way of Allah so shocking or unthinkable?

Is it not what Allah has ordained?

لَن تَنَالُواْ الْبِرَّ حَتَّى تُنفِقُواْ مِمَّا تُحِبُّونَ

“By no means shall you attain righteousness unless you give (freely) of that which you love.” [3: 92]

Was it not the suggestion of our Prophet Muhammad [صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم] directed specifically at Muslim women, to give a lot of sadaqah/charity from their ornaments?

Narrated Ibn Abbas: “I am a witness that Allah’s Apostle offered the ‘Eid prayer before delivering the sermon, and then he thought that the women would not be able to hear him (because of the distance), so he went to them along with Bilal, who was spreading his garment. The Prophet advised and ordered them to give in charity. So the women started giving their ornaments (in charity).” (The sub-narrator Ayub pointed towards his ears and neck meaning, that they gave ornaments from those places, such as ear-rings and necklaces.)

[Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 2, Book 24, No. 529]

Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri: “On ‘Eid Al-Fitr or ‘Eid Al-Adha, Allah’s Apostle [صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم] went out to the Musallah. After finishing the prayer, he delivered the sermon and ordered the people to give alms. He said, “O people! Give alms.” Then he went towards the women and said. “O women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-Fire were you (women).” The women asked, “O Allah’s Apostle! What is the reason for it?” He replied, “O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray.” Then he left. And when he reached his house, Zainab, the wife of Ibn Masud, came and asked permission to enter. It was said, “O Allah’s Apostle! It is Zainab.” He asked, ‘Which Zainab?” The reply was that she was the wife of Ibn Masud. He said, “Yes, allow her to enter.” And she was admitted. Then she said, “O Prophet of Allah! Today you ordered people to give alms and I had an ornament and intended to give it as alms, but Ibn Masud said that he and his children deserved it more than anybody else.” The Prophet replied, “Ibn Masud had spoken the truth. Your husband and your children had more right to it than anybody else.”

[Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 2, Book 24, No. 541]

Narrated ‘Amr bin Al-Harith: “Zainab, the wife of ‘Abdullah said, “I was in the Mosque and saw the Prophet [صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم] saying,

تَصَدَّقنَ وَ لَو مِن حُلِىِّكُنَّ

O women! Give alms, even from your ornaments.”

{*Excuse the Arabic typo in the last word; the Arabic editor didn’t connect the letters properly. It is meant to be “huliyyikunna” and means “your ornaments”}

…Zainab used to provide for ‘Abdullah and those orphans who were under her protection. So she said to ‘Abdullah, “Will you ask Allah’s Apostle whether it will be sufficient for me to spend part of the Zakaah on you and the orphans who are under my protection?” He replied “Will you yourself ask Allah’s Apostle?” (Zainab added): So I went to the Prophet and I saw there an Ansari woman who was standing at the door (of the Prophet) with a similar problem as mine. Bilal passed by us and we asked him, ‘Ask the Prophet whether it is permissible for me to spend (the Zakaah) on my husband and the orphans under my protection.’ And we requested Bilal not to inform the Prophet about us. So Bilal went inside and asked the Prophet regarding our problem. The Prophet [صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم] asked, “Who are those two?” Bilal replied that she was Zainab. The Prophet said, “Which Zainab?” Bilal said, “The wife of ‘Adullah (bin Masud).” The Prophet said, “Yes, (it is sufficient for her) and she will receive a double reward (for that): One for helping relatives, and the other for giving Zakaah.”

[Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 2, Book 24, No. 545]

The ahadith above give clear proof of that fact that women should donate their ornaments in charity, and particularly if their husbands are in need. In fact, women may give Zakaah, the obligatory charity, to their husbands first, if the latter are deserving of it.

Was it not the way of our mothers and aslaaf (pious predecessors) to give away gold or silver in sadaqah?

When our mother, Umm Habibah [may Allah be pleased with her], received the glad tidings of Prophet Muhammad’s [صلی اللہ علیہ وسلم] marriage proposal for her in Abyssinia, she gave the ornaments she was wearing, then and there, to the slave-girl who had brought her this good news.

Then why do we Muslim women feel so reluctant to convert our gold ornaments to liquid cash in order to discharge an obligation of Islam that is one of its most fundamental pillars?

Simple answer: We love gold. Oh boy, do we love it! We love to wear it, flaunt it, and store it for our sons’ and daughters’ marriages. We pass down cherished heirlooms in order to maintain familial traditions. The more antique the jewelry is, the more we hold it close to our hearts.

Most women are in the habit of gradually collecting ornaments over the years. The reason why jewelers’ shops do roaring business worldwide is the symbol of this attachment of the female hearts to anything that twinkles, shines and is worth millions. I admit I was very surprised on visiting Madinah for the first time, to see that even the majority of shops outside Masjid-e-Nabawi were those selling gold jewelry.

So how can Muslim women help their husbands and/or brothers and sons out this year, in paying off their Zakaah?

Simply, convert some of your trinkets and/or rings, bangles, bracelets or earrings to liquid cash, and use that cash to give off Zakaah. I wouldn’t be preaching this had I not done it myself. I can promise you that you’ll feel tremendous closeness to Allah and serene joy of faith as a result, as long as you do not brag about your sadaqah to anyone; that is, you do not waste what you’ve done.

I also happen to know of other women who have similarly donated their jewelry, wedding clothes or other precious possessions; they do not, in any way, feel guilty or regretful for having done so. Life is short; so many chances of doing sadaqah pass us by, yet we continue to hold on to our clothes and jewelry as if they’ll stay with us forever. Wake up, O Muslimah! Remember that your permanent abode is the Hereafter, with the only permanent joys and blessings being those given to the dwellers of Paradise; therefore, strive to attain that long-lasting abode by letting go of just a wee bit of the things you love in this passing, worldly life, and then taste the sweetness of faith, and the high levels of taqwa that Allah will bless you with, as a consequence.

Evidence that Muslim women are permitted to wear gold

Details of the difference of opinion regarding zakaah on gold and silver intended for use

Zakaah has to be paid on gold inherited, by its owner

Allah knows best and is the Source of strength.

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Sadaf Farooqi is a postgraduate in Computer Science who has done the Taleem Al-Quran Course from Al-Huda International, Institute of Islamic Education for Women, in Karachi, Pakistan.11 years on, she is now a homeschooling parent of three children, a blogger, published author and freelance writer. She has written articles regularly for Hiba Magazine, SISTERS Magazine and Saudi Gazette.Sadaf shares her life experiences and insights on her award-winning blog, Sadaf's Space, and intermittently teaches subjects such as Fiqh of Zakah, Aqeedah, Arabic Grammar, and Science of Hadith part-time at a local branch of Al-Huda. She has recently become a published author of a book titled 'Traversing the Highs and Lows of Muslim Marriage'.For most part, her Jihad bil Qalam involves juggling work around persistent power breakdowns and preventing six chubby little hands from her computer! Even though it may not seem so, most of her time is spent not in doing all this, but in what she loves most - reading.

38 Comments

38 Comments

  1. Avatar

    UmA

    July 30, 2009 at 9:52 AM

    Jazakillah khayr for covering the important issue of ‘the desi bride’s burden’.

    From what I understand, surely the point is that of ownership. When something is ‘zakatable’ the zakah is to be paid from that resource and the obligation is on the owner of that resource, not the owner’s husband etc.

    Another important reminder I once heard is that, unwittingly, some women may own enough gold to oblige them for hajj.

    May Allah make it easy for us to take ownership of ourselves and hold our assets to account.

    Sr. Sadaf, would you know where we could look up which karats of gold assets are zakatable?

    • Avatar

      matter of fact

      July 30, 2009 at 3:03 PM

      “Another important reminder I once heard is that, unwittingly, some women may own enough gold to oblige them for hajj. “

      *Very very* important point. Sister’s please read this twice. Many people’s attachment with gold and fear of giving it up (peer pressure etc) stops you from your own obligations (hajj, debt etc)!

    • Avatar

      Sadaf

      July 31, 2009 at 1:57 AM

      Bismillah
      Jazakillahu khairan for your positive comment and the very necessary reminder, UmA.

      Indeed the issue is of ownership. The owner should pay up. Scholars have allowed Muslim women to be provided Zakaah money by her husbands, but Muslim women should not use this leeway to not spend their own wealth (e.g. Mahr money) or to not liquidate their own gold to generate cash.

      As for how much zakaah is due on how many carats: you leave out the impurity percentage in the gold (taking 24 carats to be 100%), and pay off 2.5% on THE REMAINING weight.

      Allah knows best.

      • Avatar

        UmA

        August 3, 2009 at 8:51 AM

        So, is my Math okay on this….22K = 91.6% purity?
        Therefore 100g of 22K gold = 91.6g zakatable weight?
        Assuming that’s correct….with today’s rate of gold being approx $30/gm:
        100 g of 22K gold = ($30 rate x 90 g approx weight) = $2700.
        So zakah on 100g of 22k gold = 2.5 % x 2700 = .025 x 2700 = roughly $67.50 zakah

        Wow so 100g of 22k gold is like a 1/3 of a hajj expense or a great charity or investment opportunity.

        Could someone help me out with the 22k=91.6% purity. Is that how purity of gold is meant to be calculated?

  2. Avatar

    Reem

    July 30, 2009 at 12:49 PM

    JazakAllahuKhair for this great article…

    Instead of turning it into liquid cash, often times, during masjid and/or islamic school fundraisers I will donate a piece of jewelry to be actioned off.

  3. Avatar

    MM Associates

    July 30, 2009 at 1:06 PM

    Jazakh-Allah khair.

    An excellent article. It is this type of article that makes me love MM so much.

    -J.Hashmi

  4. Avatar

    tabassum ahsan

    July 30, 2009 at 2:53 PM

    JazakAllah . very nice article, covered a very important issue, hope more women get to read it

  5. Avatar

    UmHefsa

    July 30, 2009 at 3:49 PM

    O women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. O women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray.”

    Can you please give some tafsir on this hadith quoted in the article? I have a brother in law who was telling me that women are less intelligent than men. I didn’t pay much heed to his proofs until I saw this hadith. Can anyone clarify or give the arabic text of it?

    Jzk.

    • Avatar

      Subhan

      July 31, 2009 at 3:54 PM

      Salaam Sister Umm Hefsa,
      I saw your comment and remembered another narration of this hadith, which has an addition at the end – relating specifically to this:
      ‘I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you.’
      Then the Prophet (pbuh) went on to say ( I have parapharased this from memory): Is not the witness of two women equal to one man and are there not times ( ie periods) when a women is not able to fufill religious obligations such as salah.
      I hope this gives some clarification, I am not scholar but I thought to share what I did know on this matter.

  6. Avatar

    Sista

    July 30, 2009 at 3:57 PM

    JazakAllah Khair! :)
    A much needed reminder.

  7. Avatar

    Amatullah

    July 30, 2009 at 4:59 PM

    Jazaaki Allahu khayran Sadaf. I truly enjoy and look forward to your articles. May Allah bless you and increase you, Ameen.

  8. Avatar

    Norma Loquendi

    July 30, 2009 at 6:17 PM

    I am not clear on the concept of this payment. From what I’m reading here it seems as if Muslims are supposed to pay a yearly tithe based on the aggregate of all the assets they own at the time the payment comes due, no matter when they were purchased, not just their income from that year. If the person has enough assets they also have to do the hajj (which I infer is one of the required Muslim pilgrimages).

    Am I right in this? If so, what percentage of a Muslim’s assets are “taxable” in this way, and where does the money go? For instance, is it acceptable to make donations to specific charities chosen by the person who is tithing and count that as the zakah? Or, is it something that has to be paid to the religious leaders of the community, for distribution by them to…. what? The poor? Their own coffers (as has very often been the case when tithes offered by Catholics are entrusted to their priests…)?

    Also, is this the same thing as the jizya (pardon me if I’ve got that one wrong) that the Muslims are said to impose on those who don’t accept their religion, much like the recusancy fees levied by English Protestants against the (mainly) Irish Catholics a couple of hundred years ago?

    Thanks for any clarification you can give to a curious outsider…

    • Avatar

      UmA

      July 31, 2009 at 12:38 AM

      Remember a tithe would a tenth, in Islam typically zakah is due on assets accumulated over a year, provided they meet a minimum amount. 2.5% is payable and to a recipient of one’s choosing who falls within those who are eligible to receive zakah.
      Sorry can’t elaborate more right now, but that’s the general gist and, no they don’t have to pay it to a central authority

      • Avatar

        UmA

        July 31, 2009 at 12:43 AM

        So 2.5 % is usually the payable amount, not a tenth which is what I understand a Christian tithe would have been

        • Avatar

          Norma Loquendi

          July 31, 2009 at 12:32 PM

          Thank you for your response. It is handy to know the percentage – I was pretty impressed to find that Muslims were supposed to pay on assets on top of income, though if it’s really only a payment on assets acquired during a year (which is paid for with the money for that year, presumably) then it sounds more financially do-able. I was imagining you all virtually bankrupting yourselves, like the local aboriginal people used to do when they hosted potlaches to gain spiritual honour. Glad to see it’s not that grim.

    • Avatar

      Sadaf Farooqi

      July 31, 2009 at 2:03 AM

      Norma, thanks for asking.

      Zakaah is a little complicated to understand at first, but the bottomline is that it is a portion of a Muslim’s wealth which he or she has to pay every lunar year, if the wealth reaches a certain threshold and a year passes by without it being reduced below that threshold (called “Nisab”). E.g. the nisab of gold is approximately 87 grams.

      For more information: please see below, where all kinds of questions on Zakaah are answered in detail:
      http://www.islam-qa.com/en/cat/289

      • Avatar

        Norma Loquendi

        July 31, 2009 at 12:33 PM

        Thank you for your answer and the site link. I’ll check it out.

  9. Avatar

    Olivia

    July 30, 2009 at 7:09 PM

    I think with Muslims thinking they can turn to riba and credit cards bc they’re so broke, it’s time to sell the gold, no matter what your in-laws think. How can we stand before Allah with the excuse of using riba and having debt when we have all this gold just chilling?

    • Avatar

      SaqibSaab

      July 30, 2009 at 10:45 PM

      Related blog post by wife wife asking why do girls even have so much of that jewelry sitting around anyway? –> http://www.anightingale.com/2008/02/25/moderation-not-extravagance/

      I mean, most of that jewlery just sits around, anyway, right? Meaning, it’s not even worn?

      And I would imagine that is a definite yes to practicing sisters who dress in proper hijab 24/7, there’s no real way for them to wear the jewelry all to often, save at home or maybe the occasional girls-only party.

      • Avatar

        Sadaf Farooqi

        July 31, 2009 at 2:29 AM

        As a sister who has been married for 5 years, yes I can vouch for what you have said. Most of the jewelry does just sit around. The heavier pieces get worn only on Eid or at segregated weddings (because of my observance of hijab), or occasionally, at home.

        These are the very pieces that incur the heaviest zakaah, so by now I am sort of starting to question why I have to keep so much gold locked up in the first place, when it hardly gets used? The aunties say, “For your kids’ weddings” – and they are right, to a certain extent (because it would cost a whole lot more to get all the kids’ jewelry made from scratch 2 decades down……).

        However, nowadays I see most brides opting for their own, latest-design, custom-made necklaces and earrings for their wedding day, not their mother’s hand-me-downs, which are no longer in vogue, and which do not match their wedding dress color (talk about nakhray! :)). They prefer to wear just one set of jewelry rather than a whole potpourri of mixed stuff. So saving jewelry over decades for your daughter or bahu, just to have it disregarded or not appreciated by her, doesn’t make much sense.

        Plus, we Muslims believe that whatever we spend for Allah, is compensated for amply by Him, not only in the Akhirah, but in this world as well. I am sure Allah will provide our children with great stuff on their weddings, if we try to give up some jewelry we love – solely for His pleasure – right now, when we are younger, fearful of poverty and desirous of more wealth:

        When the Prophet Muhammad was asked which charity is best, he replied, “That you should give charity (in a state when you are) healthy, closefisted, haunted by the fear of poverty and hoping to become rich. And you must not defer (charity to such a length) that you are about to die and would be saying: This is for so and so, and this is for so and so. Lo, it has already come into (the possession of so and so).” (Reported by Muslim)

  10. Avatar

    HalfDate

    July 30, 2009 at 7:22 PM

    Good timing for Ramadan, even though Zakah shouldn’t be BLINDLY linked to Ramadan.

    May Allah purify our wealth with Zakah

  11. Avatar

    Muslim Husband

    July 31, 2009 at 1:26 AM

    As-salaamualaikum,

    Many women/wives keep their gold and silver and pay the equivalent in money. I believe this is better and wiser. This way they can use the gold and silver in other ways:

    1. Gold holds value and so its better/smarter investment to hold onto.
    – i know one imam who made some good money over the years trading gold
    2. You can pass it on to your children or their wives!
    3. You can give it as gifts/presents during wedding season to your friends and family!
    4. You can hold it since you know it has value and paper money can one day be worth nothing!

    By the way, the husband can choose to pay for his wife’s zakah if he wants.

    Just my 2 cents.

    was-salaamualaikum

    • Avatar

      Sadaf Farooqi

      July 31, 2009 at 2:11 AM

      You are right in what you have said. Most Muslim women I know follow this method i.e. their husbands willingly pay their gold’s zakaah in cash form (which is permissible) and save their gold jewelry for their children or as an investment. Also, they consistently make new gold jewelry every year or other year.

      What do you say about this exccessive love for gold in women, and their incessant desire to constantly make more without giving any of it away for Allah’s sake (i.e. not to their children or to other family members)? Does this tendency coincide with higher levels of taqwa, as depicted in the ahadeeth above?

  12. Avatar

    cotton eye joe

    July 31, 2009 at 4:56 AM

    its a great time for the sisters to sell their gold. Gold value is at an all time high

  13. Avatar

    Umm Ahmad

    July 31, 2009 at 11:42 AM

    Jazaki Allah khair for the excellent reminder,I hope we all muslim women can get rid of loving gold .

  14. Avatar

    Mezba

    July 31, 2009 at 3:25 PM

    Wow… somehow an article on Gold and Zakat turned into women bashing. I was looking forward to an insight of zakat and am disappointed. So typical of MuslimMatters though.

    Please take this suggestion constructively and I hope we can read an article on common misconceptions of zakat soon.

    • Avatar

      amad

      August 1, 2009 at 6:27 AM

      im sorry… Dont get it. A sister is talking to her sisters about a common malaise in our society… How is this woman bashing?

  15. Avatar

    Amy

    July 31, 2009 at 8:02 PM

    An excellent article, informative but also useful and timely, serving the best purpose to remind us (especially ladies) of our obligations. Jazakillahu khayran.

  16. Avatar

    Olivia

    August 1, 2009 at 7:27 PM

    I also fail to understand how it’s woman-bashing. I think someone’s being sensitive.

    I think its is a valuable investment if you don’t have debt. So many people turn to credit cards or have debts from college. It can be a wise way to pay of a hunk of that debt. It’s like, why are we saving gold and paying money on it if we’re living with the black-hole of debt?

  17. Avatar

    Abu Yunus

    August 2, 2009 at 4:44 PM

    I am not understanding this statement as Zakaah is not due on property that is used besides gold jewelry. From what I have read, I only came across what is mentioned about zakaah due on property that is allocated for sale. For example, all the applicances that you mentioned if they are used by the household, zakaah is not due on it. And the reason I am mentioning this is because you followed up all these applicances after talking about paying off due on our assets.

    “So the problem with giving Zakaah this coming Ramadan is, to a great extent, the challenge of generating enough extra cash to be able to pay off the due on our assets. People who nowadays own lavish homes, individual cars for members of the household, electricity-bill-thumping appliances such as washers, driers, air conditioners, microwave ovens, dishwashers, hair-irons, kettles, coffee-makers and heaters.”

    • Avatar

      Sadaf

      August 2, 2009 at 11:14 PM

      You are right that Zakaah is not applicable on items which we use ourselves; those which have not been bought with the intention of re-sale for profit. Those appliances were mentioned as an observation of how they become more common for use by the average person, so when the economy takes a turn for the worse and people need to cut down on their bills, they sort of have to curtail the use of these “luxuries”.

      Please read till the end of the paragraph having this sentence. Jazak Allah.

  18. Avatar

    mcpagal

    August 2, 2009 at 8:10 PM

    Great article mA! We had a seminar on zakat last year at our women’s Islamic centre and it helped clear up a lot of these misconceptions – I had no idea I needed to pay zakat til then, I never even thought about it and my dad pretty much took care of it.

    I don’t really get the gold attraction – it’s just a cultural thing I guess, gives a sense of security. I read an article online a while back (can’t seem to find it now) about a couple who transferred all their savings into the form of gold bullion because they were afraid of their bank collapsing!

    (Also, I hate to be that girl but the apostrophe in the title is superfluous…)

    • Avatar

      Sadaf

      August 2, 2009 at 11:19 PM

      Hehehe, no you are not “that” girl at all for pointing this out. :)
      I will edit it, insha’Allah. Jazakillahu khairan.

      May Allah preserve the person who gifts me my mistakes.

  19. Avatar

    Saif

    August 3, 2009 at 9:26 AM

    Salam alaikum,

    Since you’ve quoted the Hadith in full, I think the naqisat al-aql wa al-din (deficient in intellect and religion) part needs some clarification from our scholars here. In the absence of a proper explanation, people will be free to make their own assumptions.

  20. Avatar

    Voyageure

    August 6, 2009 at 5:39 PM

    You post was just on time sr Sadaf!

    I had been worrying sick about whether I have to pay the zakaah, for the first time in my life, on gold that I acquired.

    Jazakillaahu khayr for explaining it in detail.

    Just so it is clear, the 2.5% comes from this hadeeth: Narrated by Abu Dawood (1572) from ‘Ali (may Allaah be pleased with him) who said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “If it is two hundred dirhams, then five dirhams are due, and if it is more than that, it should be worked out on that basis.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.

    5/200 = 0.025 * 100 = 2.5%

  21. Avatar

    Jake

    December 28, 2009 at 10:33 PM

    Enjoyed reading your article and follow up by your muslim readers. Not being a follower of Islam as a concerned person I am trying to learn and understand your faith. I have been reading a English version of the KORAN and sometimes I do not understand if I am reading religion or law? But I hang in and at least now I know what a ZAKAAH is and what it respresents to Muslims. Now I have to find out why the Sunni and Shite are so adverse to each other. Allah Be Praised!

    • Amad

      Amad

      December 28, 2009 at 11:58 PM

      Jake,
      if you have more questions about Islam, feel free to ask them here. Or you could even email us and we could put you in touch with a convert who went through a similar learning process as you.

      Thanks
      info at muslimmatters dot org

  22. Avatar

    Sadaf

    May 30, 2013 at 10:11 PM

    A few years ago my husband’s family declared that all the daughters in law are responsible for their own zakat on the gold that they owned. I must admit it sounded quite unpleasant to me since Alhamdolillah they are quite well off whereas none of the women are working or rather are not allowed to work outside the home. We don’t get any money for household expenses either as most of the transactions are through credit card. The only option left for me was to sell off my gold every year. In our desi culture, jewellery is somehow considered ‘ghar ki izzat’ and is only sold for cash in extreme circumstances , so it seemed quite humiliating to me. Moreover, each piece had some sentimental value for me as it was lovingly bought by my Mom or gifted by some other family member. Earlier, I had voluntarily donated some jewellery and all my mehr money to our local masjid but when it was imposed it hurt me because my husband had always said that I don’t need to earn as he will provide for me but for zakat on gold his logic was that since it’s my personal property and he doesn’t gain anything out of it he should not be held responsible for it. I knew very well that in the akhirah I will be responsible for it, so I kept on selling my jewellery. Eventually I decided to start a home based Islamic clothing business so that I could atleast save enough to pay off my zakat every year because I feel I do need some kind of asset if tough times fall .

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Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting | Hadiths 9-12

 وعن عائشة رضي الله عنها قالت: “كان رسول الله ﷺ إذا دخل العشرُ أحيَى الليل، وأيقظ أهلهُ، وشدَّ المئزر” متفقٌ عليه().

 

ʿAʾishah (May Allah be pleased with her) reported:

When the ten nights would begin, the Messenger of Allāh r would keep the night alive; he would also awaken his family and tighten his wrapper.

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Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“When the ten nights would begin”

What is meant is the last ten nights

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ would keep the night alive”

He would keep stay up at night and engage in various forms of worship such as ṣalāt, dhikr, and meditation/reflection. Or he kept himself alive by remaining awake, since sleep is death’s sibling. The metaphor refers to the night because when someone who is sleeping is woken-up and brought back to life, their night can be said to have been given life through them.

“He would also awaken his family”

He did so to draw their attention towards the time of goodness, so they may expose themselves to the gusts of goodness. A narration in Tirmidhī states, “When the last ten days of Ramaḍān would enter, the Messenger of Allāh r would not fail to wake up anyone who was capable of staying up in his household”. He would lead them towards the avenues of goodness, and help them attain it.

“And tighten his wrapper”

Al-Khaṭṭābī explains: “The meaning is likely to be earnestness in acts of worship. Just as one would say ‘I have tightened my wrapper for this matter’ i.e I have buckled down to it/rolled up my sleeves for it. It is also said that it may be a metaphor for buckling down and withdrawing from women. It is also said that it may have a literal meaning and a figurative meaning at the same time, i.e that he literally tighten his waist wrapper (izār) and also withdrew from women and buckled down for worship. However, the first explanation is more plausible because in another narration the following wording is found “He would tighten his wrapper and withdraw from women”. This leads us to conclude that the expression tightening his wrapper relates to earnestness in worship only.

– باب فضل السحور وتأخيره ما لم يخشَ طلوع الفجر

Chapter on the virtues of saḥūr, and of delaying it as long as one does fear the rising of dawn

 

 عن أنسٍ، رضي الله عنه، قال: قال رسول الله : “تسحروا؛ فإن في السحور بركةً” متفقٌ عليه .

Anas (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh said, “Eat suḥūr [or practice saḥūr] (predawn meal) because surely, there is baraka in suḥūr.”

[Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

Saḥūr is the meal which is taken prior to the rise of dawn. Suḥūr on the other hand, is the act of partaking food at that time. This will have relevance in the ensuing commentary of the ḥadīth.

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, ‘Eat suḥūr [or practice saḥūr] (predawn meal)’ ”

This is considered mandūb i.e praiseworthy. The Sunna itself is fulfilled by having a little food even if it is only a sip of water. It is mentioned in a ḥadīth of ʿAbdullāh bin-Surāqa, traced back to the Nabī r: ‘Practice suḥūr, even if only with a sip of water’. It is narrated by Ibn-ʿAsākir[2]. The Sunna is likewise fulfilled by having a considerable quantity of food.

“Because surely, there is baraka in suḥūr [or saḥūr].”

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn-Ḥajar explains: ‘The use of both spellings is found in authentic narrations. If suḥūr is meant i.e the act of eating at that time, then by baraka is meant the reward and merit. If saḥūr is meant i.e the food which is eaten at that time, then by baraka is meant the fact that it strengthens one for fasting and makes one energetic for it. It also reduces the difficult involved in it’.

It is also said that the baraka lies in the fact of being awake at that time and engaging in duʿāʾ.
It is however more appropriate to say that the Baraka is attained through various avenues, namely: adherence to the Sunna, acting differently than the ahlul-kitāb (Christians and Jews), strengthening oneself for worship through it, its being a cause for one to engage in dhikr and duʿāʾ at a time when acceptance is highly likely, and it also allows for one who has forgotten to make the intention for fasting before sleeping to do so[3].

This ḥadīth was also narrated by Aḥmad, Al-Tirmidhī, Al-Nasāʾī, and Ibn-Māja all through Anas. Al-Nasāʾī has already narrated it through Abū-Hurayra and Ibn-Masʿūd. Aḥmad has also narrated it through Ibn-Masʿūd. This has all been mentioned in Al-Jāmiʿul-Ṣaghīr.

 وعن زيد بن ثابتٍ، رضي الله عنه، قال: تسحرنا مع رسول الله ثم قمنا إلى الصلاة. قيل: كم كان بينهما؟ قال: قدر خمسين آية. متفقٌ عليه

Zaid bin Thābit (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

We took suḥūr (predawn meal) with the Messenger of Allāh r and then we stood up for ṣalāt (prayer). It was asked: ‘How long was the gap between the two?’ He replied: ‘The time required for the recitation of fifty verses.’

[Al-Bukhārī and Muslim].

Zaid bin-Thābit was from the Anṣār of Madīna, and he was 11 years old when the Nabī r emigrated from Makka to Madīna. His father passed away when he was 6 years old, and the Nabī r considered him too young to participate in the battle of Badr (~13 years old). He however allowed him to participate in Uḥud. It is also said that he in fact did not participate in Uḥud but rather in Khandaq and the following expeditions with Rasūlullāh r. He used to write revelation for the Nabī r and he was one of the three people who compiled the Qurʾān by gathering its various verses and chapters and verifying their authenticity. The effort to compile the Qurʾān after the demise of the Nabī r was ordered by Abū-Bakr and ʿUmar.
ʿUmar and ʿUthmān would both designate him as imām in Madīna when they traveled for Ḥajj. Ibn Abī-Dāwūd explains: ‘Zaid bin-Thābit was the most knowledgeable of the rules of inheritance among the Ṣaḥābah, and he was among those firmly grounded in knowledge.
A total of 92 ḥadīth from Rasūlullāh r have been narrated by him, 10 of which are found in the collections of Bukhārī or Muslim. He passed away in Madīna in the year 54 A.H.

“We took suḥūr (predawn meal) with the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ”

One can notice a subtle indication of etiquette in the choice of words, rather than saying ‘Us and Rasūlullāh took suḥūr’ he used wording which emphasizes the fact that they followed his example r.

“And then we stood up for ṣalāt (prayer)”

The morning ṣalāt i.e ṣubḥ.

“It was asked: ‘How long was the gap between the two?’ He replied: ‘The time required for the recitation of fifty verses.’ ”

Anas is the one who asked the question. Imām Aḥmad also narrated a ḥadīth where Qatāda asks Anas the same question.
The verses referred to are of moderate length. They were neither long nor short, and were read neither fast nor slow. The ʿArab had the habit of estimating time through physical actions, such as saying ‘As long as it takes to milk a goat’. Zaid however chose to estimate the time through the action of reading the Qurʾān to indicate that it was a time fit for worship through recitation of the Qurʾān. Ibn Abī-Jamra explains: ‘The ḥadīth is an indication of the fact that the vast majority of their time was immersed in ʿibāda (worship)’.

The ḥadīth also indicates that suḥūr was done as late as possible, as it is more befitting for the intent behind it. Also because it was the Nabī r’s habit to look for that which was most gentle for his Umma and apply it. If he did not take suḥūr that would prove difficult for some of them, just as taking suḥūr in the middle of the night would be difficult for those overtaken by sleep. That could lead to leaving suḥūr altogether or in it being a tiresome process.

 وعن عمرو بن العاص رضي الله عنه أن رسول الله r قال: “فَصْلُ ما بين صيامنا وصيام أهل الكتاب أكلةُ السحر” رواه مسلم .

ʿAmr bin Al-ʿĀṣ (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, ‘The difference between our observance of fasting and that of the people of the scriptures (ahlul-kitāb) is suḥūr (predawn meal)’

[Narrated by Muslim].

ʿAmr bin Al-ʿĀṣ accepted Islām in the year of Khaybar, i.e the beginning of the 7th year A.H. Him, Khālid Ibnul-Walīd and ʿUthmān bin-Ṭalḥa came to the Nabī and accepted Islām together. He was made the commander of the 17th expedition, called sariyatu dhātil-salāsil and which had 300 men. It was then reinforced through another regiment in which were Abū-Bakr and ʿUmar, and whose commander was Abū-ʿUbayda bin-Jarrāh. The Nabī r told the latter ‘Do not be at odds with eachother’. ʿAmr used to lead the ṣalāt of the combined regiments until they returned to Madīna (notwithstanding the illustrious personalities who joined them). He was designated as an ambassador to Omān where he remained until the death of the Nabī r. Abū-Bakr t then sent him as governor to Shām and he was present in the various conquests of its territory. He then governed Palestine for ʿUmar t for some time after which he was sent with a regiment to Egypt, which he conquered. He remained its governor until the death of ʿUmar. ʿUthmān left him in his position for another 4 years, and he then removed him. ʿAmr then settled away in Palestine from which he would occasionally visit Madīna. Muʿāwiya t eventually designated him governor of Egypt, where he remained as governor until his death and was buried there. He passed away on the eve of ʿIdul-Fiṭr the year 43 A.H at the age of 70 years. His son ʿAbdullāh led his funeral prayer. He was among the heroes and intellectuals of the ʿArab, and was known to be a leader with a great vision.
When the time of his death dawned upon him he said: ‘O Allāh you have ordered me and I was not compliant, you prohibited me and I did not refrain, I am not strong so I seek assistance, neither am I free of blame so I apologize, and I am not arrogant but rather I am repentant; there is no deity except You’. He kept repeating these words until he passed away.

“The difference between our observance of fasting and that of the people of the scriptures (ahlul-kitāb)”

The ahlul-kitāb are the Jews and Christians. They were given revealed scriptures, hence the name ahlul-kitāb.

“Is suḥūr (predawn meal)”

This is an unequivocal statement to the fact that taking suḥūr is a special trait for us, and that Allāh has made it a favor and distinction for this Umma. This favor and distinction were not granted to the previous nations.

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Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting. Hadiths 7-8

– وعنه، رضي الله عنه، أن رسول الله ﷺ، قال: “إذا جاء رمضانُ، فُتحتْ أبواب الجنة، وغُلقت أبواب النار، وصُفدت() الشياطين” متفقٌ عليه().

Abū-Hurayra (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh said, “When Ramaḍān begins, the gates of paradise are opened, the gates of the fire of hell are closed, and the devils are chained.”

Narrated by Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

The Messenger of Allāh said, “When Ramaḍān begins, the gates of paradise are opened”

The most apparent meaning is that this is a literal opening of the doors of paradise for a person who passes away during Ramaḍān, or for a person who performs good actions which are accepted. It is also said that the meaning is figurative, meaning that performing good actions in Ramaḍān will lead to the gates of paradise being opened in the hereafter. Another figurative meaning may also be the abundance of mercy and forgiveness, as can be inferred by a narration of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim “The doors of mercy are opened”.

“The gates of the fire of hell are closed”

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The same observation can be made about this statement as has just been said regarding the gates of paradise.

It is also said that this is a metaphor to express the fact that the egos of the fasting persons are pure from the impurities of shameful actions, and they are liberated from the things which lead to sinful acts by means of their tamed based desires.
Al-Ṭībī explains: ‘The benefit of this is two-fold: the angels are clearly made aware that the action of those fasting is highly revered in front of Allāh. The fact that the truthful Nabī is the one informing about this matter also serves to increase the eagerness of the Muslim individual’.

“And the devils are chained”

This statement can also be considered to be in a literal sense. It may also figuratively mean that they are prevented from causing excessive nuisance to the believers and from provoking them. That makes them seem as they are chained. It may also mean that the Muslims refrain from involving themselves in the acts of disobedience which the devils annoy them with.

– باب الجود وفعل المعروف والإكثار من الخير في شهر رمضان

والزيادة من ذلك في العشر الأواخر منه

Chapter on generosity, performing good actions, increasing in goodness during Ramaḍān and augmenting in that during its last 10 days

1/1222- وعن ابن عباس، رضي الله عنهما، قال: كان رسول الله ﷺ، أجود الناس، وكان أجود() ما يكونُ في رمضان حين يلقاهُ جبريلُ، وكان جبريلُ يلقاهُ في كل ليلةٍ من رمضان فيدارسهُ القرآن، فلرسولُ الله ﷺ، حين يلقاهُ جبريلُ أجودُ بالخير من الريح المرسلة” متفقٌ عليه().

Ibn ʿAbbās (May Allah be pleased with them) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was the most generous of men; and he would be the most generous during the month of Ramaḍān when Jibrīl visited him. Jibrīl would meet him every night of Ramaḍān and he would review the Qurʾān with him. As a result, at the time Jibrīl met him the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ was more generous with goodness than the free wind.

What is meant by good actions in the title are obligatory and recommended actions alike. Increasing such actions in Ramaḍān is mandūb (i.e commendable) as the reward will be multiplied on virtue of the distinction of this time. This particularity in Ramaḍān is because it is the best of the months, so it is commendable to keep it alive with such actions and see their reward multiplied as a result.

The last ten days start on the eve of the 21st day of fasting, and they end on the last day whether the month ends in 29 days or 30 days.

Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“The Messenger of Allāh (ﷺ) was the most generous of men”

He was the man endowed with the most generosity. Indeed it is a fact that that which has been narrated of his generosity has not been narrated regarding anyone else.

“And he would be the most generous during the month of Ramaḍān when Jibrīl visited him.”

His state of generosity in Ramaḍān was superior to that outside of Ramaḍān, but he was nevertheless the most generous man in an absolute sense.

“Jibrīl would meet him every night of Ramaḍān and he would review the Qurʾān with him”

It is said that the wisdom in reviewing the Qurʾān is that it renews the pledge of having a content ego. Contentment in turns breeds generosity. Ramaḍān is also the season of goodness because Allāh’s bounties on his servants are increased therein. It was the habit of Nabī to give preference to follow the example of the sunna of Allāh (i.e his customary practice) in dealing with His servants. The combination of what has been mentioned i.e the time, the one who came down (Jibrīl), what he descended with (the Qurʾān) and the learning were all obtained through the hand of generosity. And Allāh knows best.

“As a result, at the time Jibrīl met him the Messenger of Allāh (ﷺ) was more generous with goodness than the free wind”

He was, in the speed of his generosity faster than the wind. The free wind indicates the wind which continuously blows with mercy. His generosity was all-encompassing in its benefit just as the free wind fully encompasses anything it blows on.

A narration of Imām-Aḥmad includes the following wording at the end of this ḥadīth: “He was never asked anything except that he gave it”[1].

Imām Al-Nawawī explains:

“This ḥadīth contains many fine lessons: encouragement towards generosity at all times, and increasing it during Ramaḍān as well as when meeting righteous people (analogy with the meeting of Jibrīl). It also indicates the virtue of visiting the pious and noble folk, and to do so repeatedly as long as the person being visited does not mind. It also points to the laudable nature of abundantly reading Qurʾān during Ramaḍān and the fact that it is superior to all forms of remembrance of Allāh [dhikr/adhkār]. Indeed, if dhikr was superior or equivalent to it then they would have done it (the Nabī and Jibrīl). Some commentators have said that these were tajwīd sessions. This is however objectionable as memorization of the Nabī was a given, and anything beyond memorization could be achieved through a few sessions. It is therefore clear that the intent in Jibrīl’s coming was an increase in the amount of recitation.

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Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting | Hadiths 3-6

– وعنه أن رسول الله ﷺ قال: “من أنفق زوجين في سبيل الله نُودي من أبواب الجنة: يا عبدالله هذا خيرٌ، فمن كان من أهل الصلاة دُعيَ من باب الصلاة، ومن كان من أهل الجهاد دُعيَ من باب الجهاد، ومن كان من أهل الصيام دُعيَ من باب الريان، ومن كان من أهل الصدقة [480] دُعيَ من باب الصدقة” قال أبو بكر رضي الله عنه، بأبي أنت وأُمي يا رسول الله! ما على من دُعيَ من تلك الأبواب من ضرورةٍ، فهل يدعى أحدٌ من تلك الأبواب كلها؟ قال: “نعم وأرجو أن تكون منهم” متفقٌ عليه().

Abū-Hurayra (May Allāh be pleased with him) also reported:

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, “He who spends a pair in the way of Allāh will be called from the gates of paradise: ‘O slave of Allāh! This is goodness’ and one who is among the people of ṣalāt (prayer), will be called from the gate of ṣalāt; and whoever is eager in fighting in the cause of Allāh, will be called from the gate of jihād; and one who is regular in fasting will be called from the gate Ar-Rayyān. The one who is a charitable person will be called from the gate of charity.” Abū-Bakr (May Allāh be pleased with him) said: “O Messenger of Allāh ﷺ ! May my mother and father be sacrificed for you! Those who are called from these gates will stand in need of nothing. However, will anybody be called from all of those gates?” He replied, “Yes, and I hope that you will be one of them.” ”.

Narrated by Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“ The Messenger of Allāh said, “He who spends a pair in the way of Allāh will be called from the gates of paradise: ‘O slave of Allāh! This is goodness’ ”

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In some narrations of this ḥadīth it is added: “It was said: what is a pair? He ﷺ said: two horses, two cows, or two mules”.

It is possible that his ḥadīth applies to all virtuous actions, be it two ṣalāt, fasting two days, or two acts of charity. That is substantiated by the wording of the rest of the ḥadīth, which enumerates those different actions.

In the way of Allāh applies to all acts of goodness [i.e for Allāh’s sake]. It is also said that it is specific to jihād, but the first interpretation is more correct and apparent. That is Imām Al-Nawawī’s position.

Goodness here is said to mean reward and delight. It is also said that it means this is better i.e we think that this is better for you than the rest of the doors, due to the abundance of its reward and bounties. Come and enter through it.

Ḥāfiẓ Ibn-Ḥajar however contends in Fatḥul-Bārī: “The meaning of goodness is virtue, not superiority, although the wording may lead to think so. The intent of the statement is to provide additional encouragement to the individual for entering through that door”.

“And one who is among the people of ṣalāt (prayer), will be called from the gate of ṣalāt; and whoever is eager in fighting in the cause of Allāh, will be called from the gate of jihād; and one who is regular in fasting will be called from the gate Al-Rayyān.”

Al Qurṭubī explains: to be among the people of ṣalāt means that one performs abundant optional prayers to the point that it represents the most common of his optional actions. The obligatory ṣalāt is not meant, because all people are equal in that respect.

The same reasoning applies to fasting and ṣadaqa.

The door is called Al-Rayyān i.e the one who is satiated/quenched, as opposed to the one who is thirsty i.e the person fasting. This is to signify that he is rewarded for his thirst through a permanent satiation in paradise.

“The one who is a charitable person will be called from the gate of charity.”

After the mention of this door, four of the five pillars of Islām have been included, leaving the pillar of Ḥajj. There is no doubt that there is a door for [those who performed] Ḥajj [abundantly]. That leaves a remainder of three doors to complete the number of eight doors.

One of those doors is the door for ﴾ الْكَاظِمِينَ الْغَيْظَ وَالْعَافِينَ عَنِ النَّاسِ ﴿ “those who control their wrath and are forgiving toward mankind” (s. Āl-ʿImrān, v. 134). Imām Aḥmad bin-Ḥanbal narrates from Al-Ḥasan [in a ḥadīth mursal] “Certainly Allāh has a door in paradise which none except those who forgive injustice will enter through”.

Another one of those doors is “the door of the right side.” That is the door of the mutawakkilīn i.e those who used to put their entire trust in Allāh, through which will enter those who will not go through any reckoning nor will they be subject to any punishment.

As for the third door, it may be the door of the remembrance of Allāh, as a ḥadīth in Tirmidhī alludes to it. It is also possible that it is the door of knowledge.

Considering the fact that the types of virtuous actions number much more than eight in total, it is then possible that the doors through which people will be called are in fact internal doors which are located beyond the eight main doors of paradise.

Al-Suyūṭī explains in Al-Dībāj: “Al-Qāḍī ʿIyāḍ explains: the remaining doors are mentioned in other aḥādīth: the door of repentance, the door of “those who control their wrath and are forgiving toward mankind”, the door of those who are content, the door of the right side from which will enter those who will not undergo any reckoning”.

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn-Ḥajar explains in Fatḥul-Bārī: for one to spend in the way of Allāh in ṣadaqa, jihād, knowledge and ḥajj is obvious. It is however not so obvious for other actions.
Spending in ṣalāt may refer to acquiring its tools such as the water to purify oneself, and one’s suitable garments or the like thereof.
As for spending while fasting it would be on those things which strengthen one to do such as suḥūr [pre-dawn meal] and fuṭūr [meal after sunset].
Spending to forgive others would mean that one forsakes those rights which he is entitled to from them.
Spending in tawakkul would be that which one spends during a sickness which prevents them for earning a living, while exerting patience in one’s affliction. It can also be that which one spends on someone else who is afflicted by the same, seeking thereby reward.
Spending for dhikr would be along the same lines.

It is also possible that what is meant by spending on ṣalāt and fasting is for one to exert their person in those acts. In the language of the ʿArab, exertion of one’s person is called expenditure [nafaqa]. They will for instance say, “I have expended my life on it” when referring to a trade which one has learnt. Exerting one’s body in fasting and ṣalāt would therefore be considered expenditure.

“Abū-Bakr  (May Allāh be pleased with him) said: “O Messenger of Allāh ﷺ ! May my mother and father be sacrificed for you! Those who are called from these gates will stand in need of nothing. However, will anybody be called from all of those gates?” ”

He means that one being called by anyone of these doors would certainly not suffer any diminution or loss. This statement brings alertness to the fact that very few people will be called from all those gates.

The one who has all those actions to his account is called from all the doors is an expression of merit, but entrance will nevertheless occur from only one door . That door is likely to be the one corresponding to the action which was most dominant for that person.

In this same context, one should not be confused by the ḥadīth of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim which says “Whoever performs ablution and does so most adequately, and then says I bear witness that there is no deity but Allāh…” and then it mentions “then the eight doors of paradise will open and he may enter from whichever one he choses”. The takeaway from this ḥadīth is that the doors are opened in this instance as a sign of esteem. One will nonetheless only enter through the door corresponding to their most abundant action.

Al-Zarkashī explains: “It is possible that the paradise is a fortress with embedded walls, and each wall would have its own door. Some will be called from the first door only, while others will be made to skip to the first door and taken to the interior door. So on and so forth…”.

“He replied, “Yes, and I hope that you will be one of them.” ”

The ʿulamāʾ explain: “Hope from Allāh and His Nabī ﷺ unequivocally comes to realization”.

The author-Imām Nawawī-explains: among the things which are inferred from this ḥadīth is the virtue of Abū-Bakar , and the permissibility of praising a person in their presence as long as a tribulation is not feared for them such as them becoming fond of themselves.

 وعن سهل بن سعدٍ رضي الله عنه عن النبي ﷺ، قال: “إن في الجنة باباً يُقالُ له: الريانُ، يدخلُ منه الصائمون يوم القيامة، لا يدخلُ منه أحدٌ غيرهم، يقالُ: أين الصائمون؟ فيقومون لا يدخل منه أحدٌ غيرهم، فإذا دخلوا أُغلق فلم يدخل منه أحدٌ” متفقٌ عليه().

Sahl bin-Saʿd  (May Allāh be pleased with him) narrates:

The Prophet ﷺ said, “In paradise there is a gate which is called Al-Rayyān through which only those who observe fasting will enter on the Day of Resurrection. No one else will enter through it. It will be called out, “Where are those who observe fasting?” so they will stand up and no one else will enter through it. When the last of them will have entered, the gate will be closed and then no one will enter through that gate.”

Narrated by Bukhārī and Muslim.

“The Prophet ﷺ said, “In paradise there is a gate which is called Al-Rayyān”

The significance of the name Rayyān i.e the one who is satiated/quenched has been explained earlier. One may add here that being satiated has been used to also signify that one’s hunger is satisfied, because they clearly go hand-in-hand.

“Through which only those who observe fasting will enter on the Day of Resurrection”

The mention of the day of resurrection is because that is when this will occur. It can also be said that it’s to differentiate from the souls of the martyrs and those of the believers which enter paradise during the duration of this lowly world, without it being contingent upon the action of fasting.

“No one else will enter through it. It will be called out, “Where are those who observe fasting?” so they will stand up and no one else will enter through it. When they have entered, the gate will be closed and then no one will enter through that gate. ”

The narration of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim mentions “when the last one of them will have entered”.

The repetition of the fact that no one else will enter through it is done for emphasis. The wording of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim is also narrated by Ibn Abī-Shayba in his Musnad, Abū-Nuʿaym in his Mustakhraj, Ibn-Khuzayma, and Al-Nasāʾī. Al-Nasāʾī added: “Whoever enters will never ever experience thirst again”.

Both Bukhārī and Muslim narrated this ḥadīth in the chapter of fasting.

وعن أبي سعيد الخدري، رضي الله عنه، قال: قال رسول الله ﷺ: “ما من عبدٍ يصومُ يوماً في سبيل الله إلا باعد الله بذلك اليوم وجههُ عن النار سبعين خريفاً()” متفقٌ عليه().

Abu Saʿīd Al-Khudrī  (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, “There is no slave of Allāh who observes fasting for one day in the way of Allāh, except that Allah will detach his face from hell-fire to the extent of a distance to be covered in seventy years. ”

Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“The Messenger of Allāh ﷺ said, “There is no slave of Allāh”

Meaning no legally responsible individual, and what will be mentioned next is true for both men and women. This is substantiated by the fact that a narration of Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim does not specify a gender “Whoever fasts a day in the way of Allāh, He detaches their face from the hell-fire for a distance of seventy years”.

“Who observes fasting for one day in the way of Allāh”

Meaning in the obedience of Allāh.

“Except that Allāh will detach his face from hell-fire to the extent of a distance to be covered in seventy years.”

Meaning for the duration of a journey lasting seventy years.

وعن أبي هريرة، رضي الله عنه، عن النبي ﷺ، قال: “من صام رمضان إيماناً واحتساباً، غفر له ما تقدم من ذنبه” متفقٌ عليه().

Abū-Hurayra (May Allāh be pleased with him) reported:

The Prophet ﷺ said, “He who observes the fast of the month of Ramaḍān with faith and reflecting upon its reward, will have his past sins forgiven.”

Narrated by Al-Bukhārī and Muslim.

“The Prophet ﷺ said, “He who observes the fast of the month of Ramaḍan with faith”

Meaning in a mental state where one affirms the truth of the reward related regarding it.

“And reflecting upon its reward”

Reflecting upon it and seeking thereby Allāh’s countenance [i.e His pleasure].

“Will have his past sins forgiven.”

Al-Nasāʾī and Aḥmad both add in a fine [ḥadīth ḥasan] narration, “and future sins”.
The sins which are forgiven on account of acts of obedience are those minor sins which relate to Allāh’s rights.

Ibn-ʿAllan’s Commentary Dalilul-Falihin: The Book of Fasting. Hadiths 1-2

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