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Fiqh of Love: O You Who Are About to Marry, Any Last Words? Any First Words?

It was my pleasure to write this article at the request of Shaykh Waleed Basyouni for distribution to students in his upcoming course, Fiqh of Love, which will be taught in mid-May in Toronto, ON (sold out online, but there may be availability onsite).  In addition to reviewing the article before publication, he graciously suggested that it be shared here with all of you, too.  May Allah increase in ‘ilm and hiqmah Shaykh Waleed and others of His slaves who contributed, and may He overlook the faults of this piece and its author, and may He be pleased with all of us who seek His Pleasure in our marriages and married lives.

Bismillah walhamdolillah.

Allah Created. And among His unique qualities is that He Creates without precedent.

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Before Allah Decreed it, there had never been a “pair” of anything.  What He made could never have been imagined by any of His Creations, and what He Created was something wonderful, walhamdolillah.

He has described the husband and wife as garments for each other.  Think about that — if you are unmarried something about you is fundamentally incomplete.

Allah has decreed that man and woman each has free choice.  So how will you choose to complete the pair?

When you ‘shop’ for your spouse, what will you look for, who will you ask, and what questions or discussions will follow?  Length?  Width?  Color?  Perhaps.

The sunnah in Islam is to find out the information that will cause you to know whether to propose to someone or accept that person’s proposal.  And when you have what you need to know, then you should proceed with the proposal or else stop.

This differentiates Islamic practice from other courtship rules in as much as other rules would permit courting as entertainment, ie, dating.

If you want to take your spouse on a date, bismillah.  If you want to go on a date with someone to whom you are not married, beware the evil into which shaytan would lead you.

The same discretion should enter your questions and conversations before marriage.  It is perfectly reasonable to have conversations whose only purpose is to establish that you two can have an easygoing and light conversation.

Yet too many open-ended conversations might lead to affections developing, and at that point many commentators have pointed out that people’s brains switch off: at that point they see only good in the other person.  One writer even said that the person in love is as unreasonable as a drunk person.

Indeed Allah does not hold us accountable for our feelings: just as the pen is lifted for the intoxicated person — but the person who is intoxicated now may find tremendous punishment for his actions while he was sober: when he had the aql to avoid drink.  And in the same way, Allah may hold us to account for indiscretions committed before we fell (intoxicated) in love — blameworthy actions that led us to a state of love, actions committed when we still had the aql to avoid them.

At the same time, how the other person makes you feel is important.  Indeed when the Prophet sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam found out from Jaabir that Jaabir had selected a woman to marry, the Prophet sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam did not first ask Jaabir if she were a pious woman.  He asked if Jaabir had seen her, looked upon her.  And he advised doing so until Jaabir saw what would cause him to marry.  Implying that it would have been possible he might not see it, and thus might not marry.  And Allah’s Decree was that he saw, and they did marry, alhamdolillah.

So we know looking is allowed and that implies that other investigation is, too, because when you observe a person you do not see them posed or on a runway, naudhobillah, like clothes in the store.  You see them in life, and you observe their interactions so inquiries into those are like what you would see, permissible at least as to what could be seen.

With so many warnings in mind, you may imagine that the only conversations and questions should be about deen: “How many verses have you memorized and of how many of them have you studied the tafseer?”  “What are your favorite adhkaar — in salaat — before the basmallah?”  “Do you read Muslim more often, or Bukhari?”

Those questions are… odd.  Let’s face it — if you are starting out with conversations like those…  Who are you marrying?  Your shaykh?  Shaykh Waleed is already married, folks. :)

So which questions then should come first?  Indeed, Imam Ahmed, RahimAllah, advised that questions about deen should be the very last ones a person asks.  Why?  For a beautiful reason: good deen beautifies a person and it is better to reject a physically beautiful woman for her ugly deen, than to reject a woman whose deen is beautiful to you for any other reason.

This principle is so strong that it may help explain why the Prophet sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam re-married the daughter of Omar, Umm al Mumineen Hafsa, radi Allaho anhumaa.  Jibreel alayhis salam conversed with the Prophet sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam about her taqwa and ibadat after their initial divorce, and it was some time after that conversation that they remarried, alhamdolillah.

Interestingly, from the sunnah, there is also the case of Umm Salamah, also Umm al Mumineen, walhamdolillah.  She was widowed and had children from her marriage.  And after her iddah the Prophet sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam came to her to propose marriage.  And clearly no one had more beautiful deen than him, sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam.

And yet, knowing that, she was prepared to reject him — not for his qualities, subhanAllah, but for her own issues that needed reconciliation.  Her children — that they should have a father who loves them.   Her age — that she avoid a situation whereby her husband find her at all lacking.  And her jealousy of other women — including the other wives of the Prophet sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam.

And mashaAllah, this case shows us one of the keys to a successful courtship — indeed a successful courtship by the way, is one that ends in a marriage that pleases Allah.  The nikah is just one moment, the exchange of a few words.  And what follows the nikah is much more than just one night.

Keep that in mind: the success was more likely to come in marriage because the qualities the Prophet sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam showed in his responses to her were qualities of a successful husband.  Her children he promised would be just like his own to him.  As for age he compared theirs as reassurance to her.  And he prayed to Allah for an easing of her jealousy, walhamdolillah.

Three beautiful qualities (at least) are easy to see in the responses: accommodation, empathy, dua/taqwa/tawakkol.  Okay i squeezed three qualities in there for the last example, but alhamdolillah alaa kulli haal, it is difficult to pick only a few traits from his example.

We know that Umm Salamah was a perceptive and intelligent woman — witness her advice to the Prophet sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam at Hudaybiyyah.  Thus she must have seen in his answers what she needed to know to accept his proposal, alhamdolillah.  And indeed it was a successful marriage.

Before embarking on advice about specific questions or conversations you could have when looking for your wife or husband, reflect again on the example of Umm Salamah’s proposal and what followed: how could she have asked such good questions?  She was aware of her own needs.  And she knew the difference between her needs, and her wishes.

A Messenger of Allah for a husband?  A wish.  Her questions reflect that she knew, too, her needs.  And you should, too, before you propose or respond to a proposal, wAllaho’Alim.

Otherwise, if you merely read to each other from a list of questions or conversation-topics — at best you are throwing darts in the dark wondering if you will hit something that yells out in surprise.  And at worst you are ignoring the concerns that should be addressed.

Specific topics and questions to consider — an outline to build on:

Air and Water

–What are the roles of a husband?
–What are the roles of a wife?

This is a separate category because no other topic was so identified in research by Muslims and non-Muslims as a cause of divorce.  Huh?  Divorce?  Yes, couples that have completely different ideas about these roles, and lacked the ability to concede or compromise — they often end their marriages.

“Air and Water” are essential for life, but we hardly ever have to talk about them.  You might have additional topics that are “air and water” for you, but these two are different: they will affect everything else.  If you are honest with each other now about your expectations, and if you can both breathe easily (accommodate each other), then later on, bi’idhnillah, you will only talk about these roles when you need to clear the air or get through murky waters.  You can start the conversation in the abstract, what is the role of “a” husband and “a” wife, but you’re talking about each other.

Bread and Butter

–Finances including expectations of income and spending, who will work, what kind of work/income you would seek or refuse.
–Kids including how many and when, and how to raise them.
–Parents (ie., your kids’ grandparents, bi’idhnillah), other family, friends, socializing.
–Living arrangements including with or without parents and city/neighborhood and expectations of how big and how much.

Unlike “air and water” you can have as many bread and butter topics as you want.  All of these things are important, and they may become the subject of arguments in a marriage if you do not discuss your expectations before marriage.  But one thing that makes this category different from the others is that all the items are material or external in some fashion.  Numbers, sizes, other people, stuff: how much of it do you want, by when, where, and does it even matter to you — assuming the other person has the same answers as you would be a mistake.

Veiled Gems

If you pay close attention to the discussions you and your potential spouse have during bread and butter topics, you will not only address each other’s expectations, bi ‘idhnillah, but also learn a lot about each other’s character.

For the same reason have conversations about goals and accomplishments, past and future — find out how each of you defines an accomplishment.  See how much your goals, expectations, and priorities match with each other.

Have conversations about people in need — to find out whether the person cares about others or is more self-interested.  Also to find out whether the person really listens to you, or is just waiting for his/her turn to speak.  Finally, remember that marriage will have challenges, too, and these conversations will help you figure out whether you are talking to someone that you can rely on if times are tough.  Or naudhobillah, someone who would run at the first sign of trouble.

Note: see “poison pills.” When it comes to any conversation, but especially for a veiled gem, you are not digging for faults, but searching for genuine understanding.  Allah is ar Rahman nir Raheem — you can be forgiving and merciful to each other without being judgmental, while thinking seriously about your compatibility.

Poison Pills

Anything at all about which you yourself do not care while you speak.  Even a noble subject, if you talk about it when you do not care what you or the other person are saying could become ghafla.  There is also the disastrous possibility that the other person will see you do not care about the conversation and believe you do not care about them — (perhaps) mistaking your attitude.

Immodest conversations in general.  Imagine the two of you were sitting in a room with the woman’s father, and the man’s mother.  if you think the topic would cause the mother to look away or the father to pull out a sword, then you’re probably thinking of a topic that should not be discussed.  Maybe the problem is only that immodest words are being used to discuss a topic that is permissible for you — so exercise good judgment.

What Happened to Deen?

Fasabrun jameelun.

The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) praised the quality of deen in a future spouse above wealth, beauty, family, and nobility.

Yet, you should realize that finding a religious person is not enough.  You should have other things in common before marriage.  Do look for a religious spouse, and choose one who is more compatible with you.

And a word of wisdom from past TDCs spoken by multiple shuyukh and advocates: when you search for a religious spouse, ask yourself if she would be happy with your religiosity, too!  As Shaykh Yaser puts it, “Would you marry you?” — in this context would you be satisfied with a spouse who was only as religious as you?

Specific sources used in developing this handout: Fiqh of Love and (with Shaykh Yaser Birjas), 10 Conversations You Must Have Before Marriage by Dr. Guy Grenier, 1001 Questions to Ask Before You Get Married by Monica Mendez Leahy, Article posted in the Al Maghrib forums by Rabbi Mordecai Rottman, MA, “Four things to look for in a spouse.”

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Bismillah walhamdolillah. May Allah accept my repentance and yours. I am an attorney, a stepfather, a husband, a son, and a Muslim. Studying Islam is a means, reflecting what I have learned is a must, and to Allah is the inevitable return.If you would like my help, know that Allah is the source of all aid. If you would like to contact me, try tariqnisarahmed at Gmail, LinkedIn, Twitter, or add me as a friend on Facebook.



  1. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 7:46 AM

    Assalamu Alykum, The article is great, especially liked this part “ask yourself if she would be happy with your religiosity, too! “

  2. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 8:03 AM

    would you marry you? lol…. never.

    great article jazak Alllahu kheiran.

    salam alaikum

  3. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 9:15 AM

    Mashaallah .Great article.Jazakumallahu khairaa brother.

    During a tafseer class my teacher explained the verse of libas very nicely.She said that libas [garment] always hides the faults of our skin, protects the skin from heat, cold etc, beautifies us, very intimate to us.That`s how a couple should be.


    • Avatar

      MM Associates

      May 14, 2009 at 2:47 AM

      Wa eeyakum wa alaykumus salam to everyone. (reply by abu abdAllah)

      Allah’s examples are the best in their beauty and appropriateness. Jazak Allah khayr: I wanted to recount what I remembered from similar tafseer of the ayat, but could not nail down where I had heard it.

  4. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 9:37 AM

    From the title it suggests the marriage is a suicide mission..

    • Avatar

      MM Associates

      May 14, 2009 at 2:48 AM

      Bismillah. (reply by abu abdAllah)
      LOL. I remember when my parents first asked me to talk to a woman they wanted me to consider marrying. Gallows humor seemed appropriate for the title.

    • Avatar


      October 15, 2009 at 5:00 AM

      beautiful Article .. Alhamdullila ..

      I am nervous just .. thinking about it .. :(

  5. Avatar

    Yasir Qadhi

    May 11, 2009 at 9:57 AM

    That was, ma sha Allah, a refreshingly novel article! Wouldn’t expect anything less from you Tariq. :)

    And now that you’ve written the article … ;)

    • Avatar

      MM Associates

      May 14, 2009 at 2:50 AM

      Bismillah. (reply by abu abdAllah)

      Am working on it, Shaykh Yasir. :)

  6. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 10:07 AM

    And now that you’ve written the article … ;)

    Hehe, my thoughts exactly. Glad to see this will be included at FoL in Toronto, JAK Tariq.

  7. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 11:03 AM

    Very nice article!

  8. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 11:15 AM

    JazakAllah khair.

    Side note: you should follow the professional college level way of citing sources. :-D

    • Avatar

      MM Associates

      May 14, 2009 at 2:51 AM

      Wa eeyakum. (reply by abu abdAllah)
      There were a few places in the article where citations would have been particularly appropriate — these were specific ideas that I got from specific sources. All of the article was a synthesis of ideas I saw in most if not all of the sources, so I just punted when it came to blue-booking the article. InshaAllah, several years from now, MM may be absorbed by the Fiqh and Society Review of the Jamia AlMaghrib, Houston, Texas. Then eager fiqh and aqeedah students will be able bi ‘idhnillah to extract more rigorous citations from authors. Till then, though, keep up the reminders. ;)

  9. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 11:20 AM

    jazakallahukhair for that excellent article bro.

  10. Avatar

    Umm Fulaanah

    May 11, 2009 at 11:22 AM

    maasha-Allaah… i loved the article from the very start…. and i agree with Hassan… when i saw the a tittle, i had suicide in my mind…!
    Insha-allaah we’ll expect more articles of these kinds….

  11. Avatar

    Ibn Masood

    May 11, 2009 at 1:27 PM

    Interesting article mashAllah

  12. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 5:02 PM

    A question…….
    why are they having so many speakers and what is the set up. How is it going to be different from the others.
    anyone from here going?
    P.S. Nice Post mashAllah.

  13. Avatar


    May 11, 2009 at 6:33 PM

    Asalam alaykum

    Mashallah nice post… very informative and very different from the ‘usual’ marriage articles. Definately something i’ll be keeping for future reference.

    one of the most difficult topics to discuss with a prospective spouse (in my opinion) is finances… it’s such a delicate area. It’s no wonder its one of three main reasons for divorce in muslims in the west.

  14. Avatar

    marry halal

    May 11, 2009 at 8:44 PM

    Well written, but why does it all have to be SO difficult?
    May Allah make it easy on all the unmarried couples feeling around in the dark (especially me).

    • Avatar

      MM Associates

      May 14, 2009 at 2:19 AM

      Bismillah was salamu alaykum. (reply by abu abdAllah)

      I actually found from my research that Islam makes every aspect of finding someone and getting married easy. Trust me, every difficulty you find has its source with people.

      If I may rephrase your question, “Why do people make things SO difficult?” For the same reasons that man needs Guidance to worship Allah properly.

      We could re-write the question again, “Why do people make things SO difficult (for people seeking to marry) even after receiving Guidance from Allah in the Qur’an and Sunnah?” For the same reason that mankind and the jinn will deserve to be Judged by Allah — to varying degrees: we forget and are easily distracted, we prefer our own whim and reason to Guidance, and we simply disobey Allah.

      May Allah Forgive me, you, and all the Muslims, and have Mercy on us, and may He Guide each of us and everyone we care for to that understanding of Him which brings us to submit to Him fully and without reservation.

      • Avatar


        May 22, 2009 at 1:44 AM

        Beautiful article and this was a beautiful reply!

    • Avatar

      Sirnucy ibn Bakr bn Salih

      October 20, 2014 at 2:58 AM

      It’s such an enlighten and fascinating piece. May Allah make it easy for us for nothing is easy except that which Allah makes easy. Marriage is really kinda tough. Jazakhallah!

  15. Avatar


    May 12, 2009 at 11:49 PM

    Asalamu Alaykum,

    MashaAllah this was a great aritcle. I’m glad I came across this article, because I’m thinking about getting married soon, and i’m currently talking to someone. But I have one main concern, I’m older than him five years even though mashaAllah he is I think mature for his age. Should I be worried?

  16. Avatar


    May 13, 2009 at 12:43 AM

    AGE is a matter of perspective. IF it doesn’t bother you and you are compatible with each other than it really doens’t matter.
    Many of my relatives are married to men that are younger than them and they are MashAllah very happy and have been married for many many years.
    Its all a mind set :)

    • Avatar


      May 13, 2009 at 12:17 PM

      Walaykum Salam, sister Algebra

      Thanks for replying, may Allah make the marriage process easy for myself and all other Muslims out there.


  17. Avatar


    May 15, 2009 at 10:20 AM

    Make lots of dua …. tell everyone you know to make dua for you..

    go out do dawah and ask those ppl once they embrace this deen – to also make dua for you.

    lessons learned from a recently married.

  18. Avatar


    July 4, 2009 at 8:18 PM

    Although I am too late to follow up, but I must thank you for this nicest set of advices, jazkallah khair, and may Allah SWT bless you for your efforts, inshAllah. Asalamalaikum.

  19. Avatar

    abu abdAllah Tariq Ahmed

    August 29, 2009 at 7:11 AM

    For some people, love comes one day in February. For Muslims in Houston, love comes this Fall.

  20. Avatar


    October 15, 2009 at 5:07 AM


    Please All duva for me – I am in the same situation like loads of brothers and sisters who are on the verge to take Next Step ..

    ALLAH hafiz.

  21. Avatar

    Umm Saara

    April 14, 2010 at 5:59 AM

    beautiful article mash’Allah.

    One thing that i want to emphasise on is DUA, DUA and more DUA. Allah, the most High, knows what is in your hearts and hears your duas and will accept them. when? we don’t know. Allah, Glory be to Him, is the best of planners. He alone knows whats best for you and when. Put your trust in Allah and know that as long as you continue to be a good muslim – one who is gaining knowledge and trying to correct yourself at all times, KNOW that your prayers will be answered.
    I got past the age of 28 and was constantly bombarded with my AGE…getting past it and all that. It got to the point that a relative suggested an asylum seeker – he needed stay and i needed to get married. Subhan’Allah. My father soon put a stop to that! Allhamdullilah. dua in sujood is one of the best times – open up your heart. say what you want. I refused alot of people based on religion and as i got older, i gained more knowledge mash’Allah, i became more practising, Allhamdullilah and for someone who was at one time in my life ‘disgusted’ with beards…got to the point that i had to marry someone who had a beard. Allhamdullilah. why? because i knew the ‘beauty’ of it, i knew the reasons behind it and above all i wanted someone who was aspiring to be like our beloved prophet (peace and blessing be upon him).
    So whatever your situation, think about yourself – as it states in the article mash’Allah – WOULD YOU MARRY YOU? strive to make yourself a better muslim. if you are getting hassle from others – because perhaps they think you are being too fussy, choosy etc… then SEEK REFUGE FROM SHAYTAN do not fall in the trap of feeling depressed and know that Allah, the most gracious the most powerful is on your side
    May Allah ease the path to marriage and bless all of our marriages. ameen.
    May Allah swt reward the sheikhs and their families for their time, effort and knowledge that they share with us. ameen.

  22. Avatar

    A Muslim in search for an answer!!!

    May 24, 2010 at 1:19 PM

    Just recently my mom introduced me to a few prospective girls that she wanted me to consider for marriage.

    I did istikhara and my thoughts kept going on one of these and I conveyed my decision to my parents. Then they asked a shaikh to do the istikhara. He said that his answer to the istikhara was a no.

    I can’t understand why after doing istikhara my heart would tend to go towards a specific person and this shaikh says that he does istikhara and its a no. So much so, that my parents say that since the shaikh says no they will not consider the girl even……

    Can you guide me on what to do in this situation??????

    • Avatar


      May 24, 2010 at 4:22 PM

      You may want to consult with a proper scholar of Islam rather than some possibly unqualified “Shaikh”. The reason I say this is because I was told by a knowledgeable person that you cant do Istikhara for someone else…can someone please correct me if I am mistaken here?

      Also, what are the qualifications of this Shaikh? Is he a scholar? Has he studied abroad or in the country under qualified shuyookh? Or is he a so called peer/murshad/sajjada etc. – its best to stay away from the likes of these…

      In any case, the parents have to be respected and one should not strain relations with them.

    • Amad


      May 25, 2010 at 12:32 AM

      I am no sheikh, but I can tell you that istikhara is personal, and the sheikh is not in a position to do the istikhara for you as nothing like this is proven from the Sunnah. You should find some literature online for istikhara and share with your parents, showing them that we do not go to the sheikh to ask him to check out “signs” for us.

    • Avatar

      Umm Saara

      May 25, 2010 at 6:58 AM

      All praise and thanks is to Allah, peace and blessings be upon our beloved final prophet.

      I agree with the posts about ‘checking out the shaikh, as well as the post of doing the istikhara yourself.

      Please read the following:
      The correct view is that when Allaah makes something easy for you – after having decreed it and accepted your du’aa’ – this is a sign that it is good to go ahead and do it. The existence of obstacles and difficulties is an indication that Allaah is pushing His slave away from doing it. This meaning will be very clear when one ponders the meaning of the hadeeth of Jaabir concerning al-istikhaarah, where the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:
      “… O Allaah, if You know this affair – [and here he should mention it] – is good for me in relation to my religion, my life, and end, then decree and facilitate it for me, and bless me with it, and if You know this affair to be ill for me towards my religion, my life, and end, then remove it from me and remove me from it, and decree for me what is good wherever it be and make me satisfied with such.”
      There is a difference between making feeling happy the only sign and making it one of several signs. There is no set time period for salaat al-istikhaarah; it is permissible to repeat it more than once, but there is no limit to how many times. The person may offer the du’aa’ before or after saying the salaam. And Allaah knows best.

      Ref: Islam Q&A
      Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

      I pray Allah makes things easy for you and your family. our families always mean well and think that they are doing the right thing. we have to respect that to a point – but if it is going against the qur’an and sunnah then we have to gently guide them to what is right. Allah make this easy for us. ameen

      Things will be difficult – this is your test. I know certainly when i was intended to marry someone – i did my istikhara regularly. i felt okay about the situation but i put my whole heart in that dua – which made me cry at times – as it is amazing mash’Allah. i went through 3 whole months of hanging on to this proposal – and one day i just made the decision to put a stop to it all – what a weight lifted off of my shoulders! Alhamdullilah. the best decision of my life.


      • Avatar

        A Muslim in search for an answer!!!

        May 26, 2010 at 2:44 AM

        Jazakallah for your answer!!

  23. Avatar


    July 14, 2010 at 7:44 PM

    Salaam wa laykum!

    my name is firdous and im 15 years old. all my life i always new islam treated muslim women fairly and justly but i reasently discoverde some hadith which stated the following:

    I were to order anyone to prostrate to other than Allah, I would have ordered the woman to prostrate to her husband. even if he were to request her for herself (i.e. to have intercourse with her) whilst she was sitting upon a camel’s saddle, she should not refuse him.”
    (Sahih, reported by Ibn Maajah and Ahmad from Abdullah ibn Awfaa)

    The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said,
    By Him in whose Hand is my soul, if from his foot the crown of his head there was a wound pouring forth with pus, and she (his wife) came and licked that,
    then she would (still) not have fulfilled his right.” (Good, reported by Ahmad and others)

    The Messenger of Allah (SAW) said,

    “If the woman knew the right of the husband, she would not sit when his morning and evening meals were presented until he finished.” (Reported by al-Bazzar and others)

    reading this i felt like i am nothing! i felt as though im not really free and i have no right or place ..its just REALLY CONFUSING AND IM NOT THE ONLY ONE WHO THINKS THAT WAY! SOME ONE PLS HELP ME UNDERSTAND THESE HADITH AND MY STATUS AS A WOMAN. for example in another hadith it says somthing like women are broken or bent and if men try and straited them they will break! WHAT DOUES THIS MEAN ABOUT ME..THAT IM BENT THAT IM BROKEN.SOME ONE PPPPPLLLLEAAASSSSEEE HELP ME MAKE SENCE OF ALL THIS WITH A REALLY REALLY GOOD ANSWER



    please email me a responce

    • Avatar


      August 5, 2010 at 6:53 PM

      Walaikum salaam,

      You have to understand the big picture whilst looking at the details. In Islam we are told of numerous stories where people are given some sort of authority, i.e. Pharoah, ‘Ad and Thamud, certain leaders of Quraish, Banu Israel at the time of Isa (alayhi salam) etc, and these are the people who did not fulfill the responsibilities they had in relation to their power, resulting in them suffering horrible and unimaginable punishment in this life and the Hereafter.

      To put it simply, authority = responsibility = accountability = more things to worry about on the Day of Judgement (which is the last thing you want on that day). The Sahabah understood this, and they feared taking positions of authority.

      Coming back to the husband and the wife:

      …And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allâh is All-Mighty, All-Wise. (2:228)

      Ideally, when a man realizes he has been given a degree of authority in the relationship, it would send a shiver down his spine. All of the stories of the past and fear of standing before Allah on the Day of Judgement would come to him – and he would have a degree of authority,responsibility, and fear that women do not have to worry about at the same level.

      There are a ton of things in the family that a man could potentially receive sin for which a woman would not. Essentially what’s being asked of the woman is to love, help and support her husband as her wife so that he could fulfill this sacred trust of epic magnitude, and so that he could do a good job of loving, helping and supporting her as her husband.

      From the last sermon of the Prophet (sual Allahu alayhi wasalam):

      O People, it is true that you have certain rights with regard to your women but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah’s trust and with His permission.

      • Avatar


        August 5, 2010 at 7:02 PM

        Right right…. i totally get you:) besides its a wisdom frm Allah and we shouldnt always question it..makes alot more sence bro



        • Avatar


          August 5, 2010 at 7:27 PM

          It’s super important to ask critical questions to get a clear picture of things – just stay away from the CAPS button lol

  24. Avatar


    August 5, 2010 at 5:01 PM

    salamu alaikum my dearest sister Firdaus. I am a male. I nearly cried when i read your article.may Allah grant us understanding & guard us agaist shaitan.
    Let us cast our minds back to where Rasul(SAW) says ‘the best of you are those who are best to their wives.’By bearing in mind all that you have mention above with respect to the relation between you & your husband, it will be the key to letting you have all the love, respect, protection etc from him.
    How many times do we hear people say to a couple that the kady haq bewitched the man? Thats just it. I hope ive helpedyou al

    • Avatar


      August 5, 2010 at 5:25 PM

      Jezzakllah bro, i’m not actually married i just came across the hadith and didnt know what to make of it… i can imagine non- muslims grilling us with these types of hadiths if we dont know how to respond and i want to be able to explain it to others in a way that they can understand it as well as my self….

      to be honest im kinda feel scared to get married in the future, im just wondering how much of a responsiblilty as a wife i would be carrying….and making sure my husband isnt angry or i get curesd by the angels….i dunno….. thank you anyway for replying i’ve been waiting for someone to help me out with this for a while and all the shiekhs and scholers seem to be dodging these kind of questions……

      to be honest, by Allah i woun’t lie to you…, i still don’t really get it ..but thank you very much bro…

      pls forward my Q to anyone else u no that can help me make sense of these…i’m quite desperate

      salaam walaykum!


  25. Avatar


    August 5, 2010 at 6:52 PM


  26. Avatar


    November 29, 2010 at 4:45 PM

    I take offence to this statement:

    “He has described the husband and wife as garments for each other. Think about that — if you are unmarried something about you is fundamentally incomplete.”

    I never had the chance to get married. I am 40 years old and I never received any proposals, nor did my parents try to help because they didn’t know how. So I lived my life. I wasn’t allowed to “date”, and, I had no one to help me find a muslim spouse. So that’s that.

    Am I fundamentally incomplete? I would like to think that I am not fundamentally incomplete, that Allah has made me complete. If I am unmarried, it is because God decided that a husband was not to be; so God has made me incomplete?

    As idealistic as this article is, the reality is that in North America, muslim women have a very difficult time getting married, and as my parents always tell me, many of us women do not get married and are not destined to. The men, apparently, have no problem.

    • Avatar

      Tariq Nisar Ahmed

      April 11, 2011 at 3:39 AM

      I apologize twice, sister. Once because I did not see your comment until just now, and second because my words caused you some bad feeling.

      Reflecting on what I wrote I feel I should put my words in perspective. I stand behind what I wrote in as much as marriage is as Allah and His Messenger sull Allaho alayhi wa sallam described it, and I believe the conclusion I reached was reasonable.

      However, I should have made it more clear that pleasing Allah by a good marriage is only one means of pleasing Him, and that Allah may be well pleased with people who delayed marriage or who never married. And we can all think of examples of such people, alhamdolillah.

      And the measure that most matters in this dunya is how close we will have come on the day of our death by our deeds and actions to pleasing Allah. So I apologize sincerely for the defects of my article. And I pray for your success in pleasing Allah in this dunya and akhirah, and likewise for myself and the Muslims.

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Shaykh Seraj Hendricks: An Obituary

This article was originally published at Al-Madinah Institute.


An internationally recognised Islamic scholar, who saw spirituality, justice, and knowledge as integral to an authentic religious existence.

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Shaykh Seraj Hendricks, who passed away on the 9th of July 2020 at the age of 64, was a scholar of international repute, able to communicate and engage on the level of state leaders, religious scholars and the broader public. As a scion of one of the most prominent Islamic institutions in South Africa and internationally, who also spent a decade studying at the hands of the most prominent of Makkan scholars, he not only inherited a grand bequest, but expanded that legacy’s impact worldwide. In particular, he upheld a normative understanding of Islam, embedded in a tradition stretching back more than a millennium – but deeply cognisant of the needs of the age, including the need to strive to make the world a better place.

Shaykh Seraj Hendricks was a high school English teacher between 1980 and 1982 in Cape Town before leaving for Saudi Arabia in 1983 to study at the Umm al-Qura University in Makka. Before this, he spent many years studying particularly at the feet of his illustrious uncle, the late Shaykh Mahdi Hendricks – erstwhile Life President of the Muslim Judicial Council and widely regarded as one of the foremost scholars of Islam in southern Africa – as well as his father, Imam Hassan Hendricks.

Shaykh Seraj Hendricks studied the Islamic sciences for more than a decade in the holy city of Makka, spending three years at the Arabic Language Institute in Makka studying Arabic and related subjects, before being accepted for the BA (Hons) Islamic Law degree. He specialised in fiqh and usul al-fiqh in the Faculty of Shariʿa of Umm al-Qura University and graduated in 1992. Shaykh Seraj took ijazat from both the late Sayyid Ahmad Mashur al-Haddad and Sayyid ʿAbd al-Qadir b. Ahmad al-Saqqaf, as well as his extensive time spent with the likes of Shaykh Hasan Mashhat and others. These scholars are all known as some of the pre-eminent ‘ulama of the ummah in the 20th century, worldwide.

Additionally, he obtained a full ijaza in the religious sciences from his primary teacher, the muḥaddith of the Hijaz, the distinguished al-Sayyid Muhammad b. ʿAlawi al-Maliki, master of the Ṭarīqa ʿUlamaʿ Makka – the (sufi) path of the Makkan scholars. Together with his brother, the esteemed Shaykh Ahmad Hendricks, Shaykh Seraj and I wrote a book on this approach to Sufism entitled, “A Sublime Way: the Sufi Path of the Sages of Makka”. Alongside his brother, he became the representative (khalifa) of the aforementioned muhaddith of the Hijaz.

Further to his religious education, Shaykh Seraj was also actively engaged in the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa during the 80’s and early 90’s, alongside the likes of figures like Ambassador Ebrahim Rasool, comrade of Nelson Mandela, and the renowned journalist, Shafiq Morton. His commitments to furthering justice meant insistence on expressing constant opposition to injustice, while fiercely maintaining the independence of the institution and community he pledged himself to his entire life. At a time when different forces in Muslim communities worldwide try to instrumentalise religious figures for partisan political gain, Shaykh Seraj showed another, arguably far more Prophetic, model.

The shaykh also was keenly supportive of the rights of women, whom he saw as important to empower and cultivate as religious figures themselves. His students, of which there were many thousands over the years, included many women at various levels of expertise. I know it was his wish that they would rise to higher and higher levels, and he took a great deal of interest in trying to train them accordingly, aware that many unnecessary obstacles stood in their way.

After his return to Cape Town he received an MA (Cum Laude) for his dissertation: “Tasawwuf (Sufism) – Its Role and Impact on the Culture of Cape Islam” from the University of South Africa (UNISA), which is currently being prepared for publication as a book. He translated works of Imam al-Ghazali, and summarised parts of the Revival of the Religious Sciences (Ihyaʾ ʿUlum al-Din), most notably in the Travelling Light series, together with Shaykhs ʿAbdal Hakim Murad and Yahya Rhodus.

Some of his previous positions included being the head of the Muslim Judicial Council’s Fatwa Committee (which often led to him being described as the ‘Mufti of Cape Town’), lecturer in fiqh at the Islamic College of Southern Africa (ICOSA), and lecturer in the Study of Islam at the University of Johannesburg (UJ). He was a member of the Stanlib Shariʿa Board, chief arbitrator (Hakim) of the Crescent Observer’s Society, and was listed consecutively in the Muslim500 from 2009 to 2020. He was also appointed Dean of the Madina Institute in South Africa, a recognised institution of higher learning in South Africa and part of the world Madina Institute seminaries led by Shaykh Dr Muhammad Ninowy. Shaykh Seraj was also appointed as professor at the International Peace University of South Africa, holding the Maqasid Chair for Graduate Studies.

Apart from fiqh and usul al-fiqh, some of Shaykh Seraj’s primary interests are in Sufism, Islamic civilisation studies, interfaith matters, gender studies, socio-political issues and related ideas of pluralism and identity. He lectured and presented papers in many countries, sharing platforms with his contemporaries. Shaykh Seraj taught a variety of Islamic-related subjects at Azzawia Institute in Cape Town, where he was its resident Shaykh, together with his brother Shaykh Ahmad Hendricks. His classes showed an encyclopaedic knowledge that was rooted in the tradition, while completely conversant with the modern age.

But beyond his classes, he was a pastoral figure to many – a community made of thousands – whom he gave himself completely to, in service of the religion, and counselling them as a khidma (service), with mahabba (love), in accordance with the Prophetic model. Many urged him to restrain himself in this way, fearing for his health, which suffered a great deal in his final years as a result – but he saw it as his duty.

The Shaykh was an international figure, a teacher to thousands, and an adviser to multitudes. Many today ask the question as to why ‘ulama truly matter, seeing as it seems so many of them can be compromised by different forces in pursuit of injustice, rigidness and petty partisanship. Such a question will not be asked by those who knew Shaykh Seraj, for in him they saw a concern for spirituality, not paltry political gain, and a commitment to justice and wisdom, not oppression or slogans. In him, many saw, and will continue to see hope for an Islamic commitment to scholarship that seeks to make the world a better place, rising to the challenge of maintaining their values of mercy and compassion, and exiting the world in dignity.

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#Current Affairs

Oped: The Treachery Of Spreading Bosnia Genocide Denial In The Muslim Community

The expanding train of the Srebrenica genocide deniers includes the Nobel laureate Peter Handke, an academic Noam Chomsky, the Serbian Prime Minister Ana Brnabić, as well as almost all Serbian politicians in Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina. One name in this group weirdly stands out: “Sheikh” Imran Hosein. A traditionally trained Muslim cleric from Trinidad and Tobago, Hosein has carved his niche mostly with highly speculative interpretations of Islamic apocalyptic texts. He has a global following with more than 200 hundred thousand subscribers to his YouTube channel, and his videos are viewed by hundreds of thousands. He has written tens of books in English, some of which had been translated into major world languages. His denial of the Srebrenica genocide may seem outlandish, coming from a Muslim scholar, but a close inspection of his works reveals ideas that are as disturbing as they are misleading.

Much of Hosain’s output centers around interpreting the apocalyptic texts from the Qur’an and Sunnah on the “end of times” (akhir al-zaman). As in other major religious traditions, these texts are highly allegorical in nature and nobody can claim with certainty their true meaning – nobody, except Imran Hosein. He habitually dismisses those who disagree with his unwarranted conclusions by accusing them of not thinking properly. A Scottish Muslim scholar, Dr. Sohaib Saeed, also wrote about this tendency.

In his interpretations, the Dajjal (“anti-Christ”) is American-Zionist alliance (the West or the NATO), the Ottomans were oppressors of the Orthodox Christians who are, in turn, rightfully hating Islam and Muslims, Sultan Mehmed Fatih was acting on “satanic design” when he conquered Constantinople, the terrorist attacks of 9/11 were a false flag operation carried out by the Mossad and its allies, and – yes! – the genocide did not take place in Srebrenica. Such conspiratorial thinking is clearly wrong but is particularly dangerous when dressed in the garb of religious certainty. 

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Hosain frequently presents his opinions as the “Islamic” view of things. His methodology consists of mixing widely accepted Muslim beliefs with his own stretched interpretations. The wider audience may not be as well versed in Islamic logic of interpretation so they may not be able to distinguish between legitimate Muslim beliefs and Hosain’s own warped imagination. In one of his fantastic interpretations, which has much in common with the Christian apocalypticism, the Great War that is nuclear in nature is coming and the Muslims need to align with Russia against the American-Zionist alliance. He sees the struggle in Syria as part of a wider apocalyptic unfolding in which Assad and Putin are playing a positive role. He stretches the Qur’anic verses and Prophetic sayings to read into them fanciful and extravagant interpretations that are not supported by any established Islamic authority.

Hosain does not deny that a terrible massacre happened in Srebrenica. He, however, denies it was a genocide, contradicting thus numerous legal verdicts by international courts and tribunals. Established by the United Nations’ Security Council, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) delivered a verdict of genocide in 2001 in the case of the Bosnian Serb General Radislav Krstić. The International Court of Justice (ICJ) in the Hague confirmed, in 2007, that genocide took place in Srebrenica. In 2010, two more Bosnian Serb officers were found guilty of committing genocide in Bosnia. The butcher of Srebrenica, Ratko Mladić, was found guilty of genocide in 2017.

In spite of this, and displaying his ignorance on nature and definition of genocide, Hosain stated in an interview with the Serbian media, “Srebrenica was not a genocide. That would mean the whole Serbian people wanted to destroy the whole Muslim people. That never happened.” In a meandering and offensive video “message to Bosnian Muslims” in which he frequently digressed to talking about the end of times, Hosain explained that Srebrenica was not a genocide and that Muslims of Bosnia needed to form an alliance with the Orthodox Serbs. He is oblivious to the fact that the problems in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in the former Yugoslavia stem not from the Bosniaks’ purported unwillingness to form an alliance with the Serbs, but from the aggressive Greater Serbia ideology which had caused misery and destruction in Bosnia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Kosovo. 

Hosein’s views are, of course, welcome in Serbia and in Republika Srpska (Serb-dominated entity within Bosnia), where almost all politicians habitually deny that genocide took place in Srebrenica. He had been interviewed multiple times on Serbian television, where he spewed his views of the Ottoman occupation and crimes against the Serbs, the need to form an alliance between Muslims and Russia, and that Srebrenica was not a genocide. His website contains only one entry on Srebrenica: a long “exposé” that claims no genocide took place in Srebrenica. Authored by two Serbs, Stefan Karganović and Aleksandar Pavić, the special report is a hodge-podge of conspiracy theories, anti-globalization and anti-West views. Karganović, who received more than a million dollars over a six year period from the government of the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska for lobbying efforts in Washington, was recently convicted by the Basic Court in Banja Luka on tax evasion and defamation. The Court issued a warrant for Karganović’s arrest but he is still on the loose. 

True conspirators of the Srebrenica killings, according to Hosain, are not the Serbian political and military leaders, and soldiers who executed Srebrenica’s Muslims. The conspirators are unnamed but it does not take much to understand that he believes that the massacres were ultimately orchestrated by the West, CIA, and NATO. Hosain even stated on the Serbian TV that if people who knew the truth were to come forward they would be executed to hide what really happened. Such opinions are bound to add to an already unbearable pain that many survivors of the Srebrenica genocide are experiencing. It is even more painful when Bosniak victims – who were killed because they were Muslims – are being belittled by an “Islamic” scholar who seems to be more interested in giving comfort to those who actually perpetrated the heinous crime of genocide than in recognizing the victims’ pain. These views are, of course, welcome in Serbia, Russia, and Greece.

It is not difficult to see why Hosain’s views would be popular in today’s day and age where misinformation and fake news are propagated even by the world leaders who should know better. A conspiratorial mindset, mistrust of established facts, undermining of international institutions – these are all hallmarks of the post-truth age. In another time, Imran Hosain would be easily exposed for what he truly is: a charlatan who claims religious expertise. Today, however, his opinions are amplified by social media and by the people who already question science and established facts. For these reasons, he needs to be unmasked to safeguard the very religious foundations which he claims to uphold but ultimately undermines. 

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A Festival Amidst a Pandemic: How to Give Your Kids an Eid ul-Adha to Remember

Eid ul-Adha is less than 3 weeks away!  This year, more than ever, we want to welcome Eid ul-Adha with a full heart and spirit, insha’Allah, despite the circumstances we are in with the global pandemic.

If you follow me on social media, you probably know that my husband and I host an open house brunch for Eid ul-Adha, welcoming over 125 guests into our home. It’s a party our Muslim and non-Muslim neighbors, friends, and family look forward to being invited to each year. It’s a time to come together as a community, share heart-felt conversations, have laughs, chow down lots of delicious food, and exchange gifts. Kids participate in fun crafts, decorate cookies, and receive eidi. The reality is that we cannot keep up with the tradition this year.

Despite social distancing, we have decided that we will continue to lift our spirits and switch our summer décor to Eid décor, and make it the best Eid for our family and our child. We want to instill the love of Islam in my daughter and make the Islamic festivals a real part of her life. We want to create warm Eid memories, and COVID-19 isn’t going to stop us from doing that. I really hope you plan to do the same.

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Here are 4 ideas to inspire you to bring that festive spirit alive for your family this Eid ul-Adha:

Hajj and Eid ul-Adha themed activities and crafts

There are so many activities to keep the little ones engaged, but having a plan for Eid-ul-Adha with some key activities that your child will enjoy, makes the task so much easier.

Kids love stories, and for us parents this is a great way to get a point across. Read to them about hajj in an age appropriate way. If you don’t have Hajj and Eid-ul-Adha related books, you can get started with this Hajj book list. Read together about the significance and the Islamic traditions of hajj, and the story of how zamzam was discovered. While you teach them the story of the divine sacrifice of Ibrahim 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him), ask relatable questions. As a lesson from the story, give your child examples of how they can sacrifice their anger, bad behavior, etc. during this season of sacrifice for the sake of Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He). Ask your children how they would feel if they had to give away their favorite toys, so that they can comprehend the feeling.

Counting down the 10 days of Dhul Hijjah to Eid ul-Adha is another fun activity to encourage kids to do a good deed every day. Have different fun and education activities planned for these 10 days.

Family memories are made through baking together. In our household, Eid cannot pass without baking cookies together and sharing with friends and family. Bake and decorate Eid ul-Adha themed cookies in the shape of a masjid, camel, or even lamb, and share with the neighbors one day, and color in Islamic wooden crafts the next. This DIY Ka’bah craft is a must for us to make every year while learning about the Ka’bah, and it’s an easy craft you can try with your family. Have the kids save their change in this cute masjid money box that they can donate on the day of Eid.

Decorate the main family areas

We are all going to be missing visiting friends and relatives for Eid breakfast, lunch, and dinner this year, so why not jazz things up a bit more at home than usual?

Start decorating the areas of your home that you frequently occupy.  Brighten up the living area, and/or main hallway with a variety of star and masjid-shaped lights, festive lanterns, and Eid garlands, to emphasize that Eid has indeed arrived. Perhaps, decorate a tent while you tell your children about the tent city of Mina.

Prep the dining room as if you are having Guests Over

Set up the breakfast table as if you are having family and friends over for Eid breakfast.

These times will be the special moments you spend together eating as a family. Now, with all hands on deck, plan to get everyone involved to make it a full-on affair. What specific tasks can the little ones take on to feel included as part of the Eid prep and get excited?

While the Eid table set-up itself can be simple, the moments spent around the table sharing in new traditions and engaging in prayer will insha’Allah be even more meaningful and memorable.

 An afternoon picnic

Family picnics are a perfect way for family members to relax and connect. If Texas weather permits, we may take advantage of a cool sunny day with a picnic at a nearby, shady park. With the heat wave we are experiencing, it may either not happen or will be an impromptu one.

Out of all the picnics, it’s the impromptu family meals on the lawn or at a park that I love the most. The ones where we grab an old quilt, basket, light meals, fresh fruits and venture out into the backyard or a nearby park. It’ll be a perfect socially distanced Eid picnic.

Eid ul-Adha comes around just once a year, so let’s strive to make the best of it for our children, even amidst this global pandemic.

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