Islamic Pedagogy and Critical Thinking: Does Islamic Pedagogy Want Critical Thinkers?

[dropcap size=big]R[/dropcap]ecent discussions about the critical thinking skills of students who graduate from Islamic religious institutions have brought to question the aims of an Islamic pedagogy and the capacity for religious institutions in general to instill critical thinking abilities in students. Can an institute which makes knowledge sacred truly create critical thinkers? Critical thinking defined by McPeck (1981) is “the propensity and skill to engage in an activity with reflective skepticism” (Fahim & Masouleh, 2012). While others tend to show a more positive meaning to critical thinking, “a probing inquisitiveness, a keenness of mind, a zealous dedication to reason, and a hunger or eagerness for reliable information” (Facione, 1990, p. 10). The question still remains, how did the Islamic pedagogical system synthesize the sacred and skepticism? Can an Islamic pedagogical system offer insight into the goals of education in general and perhaps bring to question the idea that critical thinking is the final objective of education? Al-Sharaf (2013) and Altunya (2014) are both of the opinion that Islamic pedagogical outlook is based in engineering critical thinkers.

The role of education and learning from the Islamic tradition is seen as the method for preserving religious values and belief (Diallo, 2012) (Al-Sharaf, 2013). In fact, Halstead (2004) said regarding an Islamic pedagogical system, “religion must be at the heart of all education, acting as the glue which holds together the entire curriculum into an integrated whole.” Gunther (2006) explains that the Islamic ideal of piety underlies the concept of education. He explains that this ideal is due to the emphasis placed on Learning by God in the Quran and by the Prophet Muhammad in the collections of his sayings, such as, “Seek knowledge from the day of your birth to the day of your death” or “seek knowledge even if it be in China”, all demonstrate the importance of learning and education in shaping the ideal Muslim society (Al-Sharaf, 2013). Due to the fact that science is seen in the Quran as the method to recognize and identify the divine, Islamic educational pedagogies were never historically restricted to “religious” knowledge but was broadened to incorporate secular disciplines (Al-Sharaf, 2013).

The unification of religious knowledge and secular knowledge is fundamental for one attempting to understand the similarities and differences between western pedagogies and Islamic pedagogies. Others have pointed out that the centrality of education to the Islamic tradition should be traced back to the beginning of the Prophetic mission of Muhammad. The first verses revealed upon Muhammad through the angel Gabriel were, “Read! In the name of your lord.”(Quran). Can it be suggested that this verse is the primary inspiration for the oldest continually operating university founded in 859, Al-Qarawiyyin in Fez, Morocco and all western scholasticism (Sabkia, 2013)? George Makdisi (1989) believes so,

“Two major intellectual movements, which we have long considered as of exclusively Western origin, have their roots deep down in Islamic soil. The first movement, appropriately called scholasticism, is that of the school guilds in the middle ages; the second is that of humanism in the Italian Renaissance”

According to Makdisi the term doctorate was called licentia docendi in medieval Latin. This term however, is a “word for word translation of the original Arabic term, ijazah attadris” This license, in classical Islam was a license to teach religious law exclusively. As Makdisi points out the doctorate bestowed triple status; (1) he was a master of law, (2) he was a professor of legal opinions, (3) he was a doctor or “teacher” of law. The Latin equivalents of which were magister, professor, and doctor. If Makdisi is correct regarding the origins of western scholasticism, why do we see a split between the secular from religious? Diallo (2012) places the differences between the two educational systems not in their origin but rather in the social and cultural shifts that took place in Europe after the 18th century philosophers such as Descartes, Kant, and Durkheim and the appearance of academia who gained credibility for the newly formed universities. This shift is described, accurately as a push for “the primacy of secular reason and knowledge over the reason and knowledge within religious framework. The Enlightenment eliminated the realm of the sacred and there remained no authority that could not be challenged. As Diallo (2012) emphasizes, “western pedagogy and epistemology was freed from religious control”. The Islamic academic tradition responded different than its Christian counterpart, in that it never divorced religious knowledge from scientific or secular knowledge. But rather married the two (Al-Sharaf, 2013).

Looking at early Islamic scholarly works on education shows that from the beginning there was unification of all sciences under religion. Al-Jahiz an eight century Muslim scholar outlined an Islamic pedagogical system that unified all fields. Al-Jahiz (800cc) enumerated the topics a student should be taught and the sequence in which they should be taught. Al-Jahiz (800cc) wrote that that a student should be taught: writing, arithmetic, law, the pillars of religion, the Quran, grammar, prosody, and poetry. Al-Jahiz’s breakdown shows the interconnectedness of what some would call secular fields and religious.

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Makdisi (1989) explains why Islamic scholarship did not face the same crisis that the Christian world faced. The Islamic doctorate, which was referred to earlier, was only restricted to field of law alone. Meaning that one did not need a license to teach other sciences. When the doctorate was introduced it consisted of two elements: (1) competence i.e. knowledge and skill as a scholar of law, and (2) authority i.e. “the exclusive autonomous right… to issue opinions having the value of orthodox (Makdisi, 1989). However, in the Christian West there was already another authority in place i.e. the church. This appearance of authority from other than the church marks the beginning of the struggle between the church and the university and thus religion and science. “There was therefore the prospect of duality of authorities in Christian West” Makdisi points out.

St. Thomas Aquinas had already recognized this problem and made a distinction between the two magisterial; the teaching authority of the pastor and the authority of the professor of theology. The first possessed jurisdictional authority, while the second possessed, the competence that belongs to a master in a given field of knowledge. Makdisi explains it very clearly, “the competence of the professor was subordinate to the authority of the pastor”. One has to wonder how it was perceived that a growing community of educated parishioner would continual overlook the possible incompetence of the pastors? It wasn’t long before the Faculty of Theology in Paris in 1387 assumed the power of passing final judgements on religious doctrine (Makdisi, 1989). What this means is that the authority of the professor could not help but clash with the authority of the pastors. The pastors gained their authority from the church i.e. the Pope and the academia gained authority from the University i.e. academic pursuit and verification. This forces one to question the origins of atheist trends among academia.

Islamic pedagogical systems simply didn’t create a struggle for power between academia and “the church”, because there was never a centralized body that assumed the authority to issue rulings. Religious scholarship in the Islamic tradition has always been decentralized. The licensing to teach always remained restricted to religious law and was open to anyone. Essentially the theological professors became the pastors. Science and other fields where never controlled by the religious scholarship. Thus avoiding conflict between areas where freedom of thought ideally should be allowed unchecked i.e. sciences, and other areas where freedom of thought would first have to licensed and regulated i.e. religious law.

Medieval Muslim scholars did of course make a distinction between the two types of knowledge. The “traditionally transmitted” sciences included Quran, Hadith (the traditions attributed to the Prophet Muhammad), Law, and principles of jurisprudence. And the “rational” sciences logic, philosophy, math, astronomy, etc. (Zaman, 1999). The religious institutions were the primary centers for learning both sciences. Zaman (1999) describes the breakdown of knowledges in two broader categories. The Primary sciences i.e. that which was “sought for its own sake” and the auxiliary sciences i.e. that which was sought “to aid” the primary sciences. These auxiliary sciences were never static and adjusted throughout the ages according to the threats to Islamic society.

The question that naturally should be asked after looking at the “sacred” nature of knowledge and the presumption that reverence is needed for learning true knowledge is, “Is there any room for critical thought in Islamic pedagogical systems?” Halstead (2004) claims, that in Islamic educational systems’ “knowledge must be approached reverently and in humility, for there cannot be any ‘true’ knowledge that is in conflict with religion and divine revelation, only ignorance” (Halstead, 2004). But is it plausible to assume that a civilization which placed so much emphasis on education, did not construct a critical thinking pedagogy? According to Gunther (2006) there are multiple examples of the Islamic religiously based educational system emphasizing critical thought in students. In fact, Gunther (2006) speaks in detail about the numerous medieval Arabic works devoted to “pedagogical and didactic issues”. These works focus on teaching methods and ideals for learning and touch upon the moral aspect of learning and organization and content learning as well as curriculum and how to create a student capable of thinking critically. In addition, Gunther (2006) offers two observations about medieval Islamic education. Firstly, Arab culture and Greco-Hellenistic heritage were both adapted and incorporated into Islamic educational theory. Secondly, “from the eighth century to the sixteenth, there was a continuous tradition of Arabic-Islamic scholarship dealing with pedagogical and didactic issues…”.

Dr. Al-Sharaf (2013), places the source of critical thought in the primary sources of Islam i.e. the Quran and Prophetic traditions and sayings of Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said, “contemplate everything, but do not contemplate over the nature of God”. This concept of questioning everything which is encouraged in this saying of Muhammad is the very same idea behind critical thinking pedagogies. As explained by Fahim and Masouleh, “To Critical Thinking, the critical person is something like a critical consumer of information; he or she is driven to seek reasons and evidence.” (Fahim & Masouleh, 2012) The Prophetic tradition mentioned above clearly encourages analysis of everything, while however placing a limit to what can be contemplated i.e. god.

A sixteenth century scholar Ahmed ibn Lutfullah also referred to as Muneccimbasi wrote an entire book on the method of perusing books, which he titled adabul-mutala (the art of reading). He explained that critical thinking wasn’t a skill that students naturally possessed but rather a skill that was slowly learned and mastered (Muneccimbasi, 1660).

Indicating a need for instruction in the area critical thinking, and that critical thinking and analysis was a desired objective of religious education. Ḥāmid ibn Burhān ibn Abī Dharr al-Ghifārī wrote, Risālah fī ādāb al-muṭālaʻah (Treaties in the method of Studying) in the fourteenth century. This books primary focus as explained by the author is the explanation and guide for students and researchers (Ghaffari, 869). Al-Ghifari (869) states in his introduction, “Everything that one reads will be either a statement or a propositional claim. The reader must consider if the requirements of a definition are met, if the definition is adequate, is it circular…”. Al-Ghifari’s work is significant because of the profound influence he had on seventeenth century Ottoman scholarly culture. (ElRouayheb, 2015) In fact El-Rouayheb’s research clearly displays a shift in the type of literature written regarding the method of study. This shift focused on the methods of verification and critique rather than the ethical aspect of learning. Al-Ghifari (869) writes in his final advice to his readers,

“And be careful that you don’t restrict yourself to merely rote memorization of words without understanding the inner meanings of those words. This can create stupidity and mental lethargy; in fact, such memorization has the propensity to complete take away one ability to understand deeply”

According to Diallo (2010) and Gunther (2006) and the majority of Islamic educationalist, memorization of Quran and prophetic traditions is the base of the Islamic educational system. The focus and attention placed on memorization of traditional sources of knowledge has caused, in Diallo’s (2010) understanding assumptions about the Islamic educational system. For example, the idea that such as pedagogy impedes on the learner’s creativity and critical thinking skills and that this memorization based pedagogy creates passive learners. These mentioned assumptions regarding the effects of a memorization based educational system are then placed in juxtaposition with the western pedagogy based in critical thinking development where students actively participate in the knowledge building process.

A curriculum development manual was written as early as ninth-century, by Muhammad ibn Sahnun, titled Rules of Conduct for Teachers (Adab al-Muallimun) (Gunther, 2006). This treatise deals with issues that an elementary school teacher might face when teaching. He discusses aspects of curriculum development, examination, appointment and payment of teachers, organization of teaching, supervision of pupils at school, supervision of pupils on their way home, discipline of pupils and conflict resolution and final graduation of students. (Gunther, 2006)

Ibn Sahnun’s treatise also sticks with the Islamic norm of placing Quran memorization as the base for educational pursuits. Interestingly however is Ibn Sahnun’s instruction to teachers to challenge the mind of the pupils.

Gunther (2006) also presents another medieval Islamic scholar who wrote about pedagogical issues, Al-Jahiz. Al-Jahiz (869) penned his treaties, The Book of Teachers (Kitab al-Muallimin) in the eight-century. His book focuses heavily in issues and questions regarding learning and education at a more advanced level. Al-Jahiz places school teachers as the champions of society and the best of all educators. This is an appreciation which according to Gunther is not evident in our society. Al-Jahiz also makes an interesting correlation between the advancement of civilization and the skills of writing and calculation. Which according to Al-Jahiz displays the value of school teachers. Al-Jahiz (869) also brings to light the problems of a memorization based pedagogy. According to Al-Jahiz (869) a good memory is needed and valuable for the learning process. However, he believes, “Memorization inhibits the intellect”. He further explains the “memorization is mere imitation whereas deductive reasoning brings one to certainty and great confidence” (Gunther, 2006).

Al-Jahiz suggest a reasonable balance, he feels that a student that doesn’t exercise the rational reflection than ideas won’t come quickly to him, and if he doesn’t exercise his memorization and retention skills his ideas won’t stay. (Jāḥiẓ, 869)

How can we understand the different approach of Ibn Sahnun and the majority of Islamic educationalist and Al-Jahiz (869) and others who exhibit an abhorrence for memorization based pedagogy? One possible approach for understanding the Islamic pedagogical relationship between memorization and critical thinking is to apply Blooms Taxonomy of learning objectives.

As explained by Qader Vazifeh Damirchi, Mir Seyyedi and Gholamreza Rahimi (2012), “Bloom’s taxonomy is a framework for analyzing and testing levels of knowledge achievements”. This approach may give insight into the deeper workings of the Islamic memorization based pedagogy. The base level of Bloom’s taxonomy are the knowledge objectives. Stated clearly by Bloom himself, the knowledge objective primarily emphasizes the psychological process of remembering. (Bloom, 1956) The second level of the of Bloom’s taxonomy are the comprehension objectives, which represent the lowest level of understanding, an individual must not only have knowledge, but must also understand what he/she knows (Damirchi, Seyyedi, & Rahimi, 2012)

Thereafter Bloom’s taxonomy places the application objective. Which according to Bloom is the use of abstractions in particular and concrete situations (Bloom, 1956). Fourth is the analysis objectives, which is according to Bloom the breakdown of material into its consistent elements. Fifthly, the synthesis objective which is “the putting together of the elements and parts so as to form a whole” (Bloom, 1956). The last of the objectives according to Bloom (1956) is the evaluation objective which is defined as making judgements about the whole. This is the original taxonomy, which has since its creation been revised. David R. Krathwohl (2002) has pointed out that the original taxonomy is ordered from simple to complex and from concrete to abstract (Krathwohl, 2002). Forty-five years after its creation however Bloom’s well accepted taxonomy was revised. The revised Taxonomy maintained its six categories however the names of the categories were changed and rearranged: (1) Remember, (2) Understand, (3) Apply, (4) Analyze, (5) Evaluate, (6) Create (Krathwohl, 2002). Bloom’s taxonomy be it the original or the revised, highlights the importance of building a base of knowledge. Critical thinking is clearly a skill which is developed after a student has obtained some fundamental level of information. In fact, a pedagogy which places over emphasis on critical can run the risk of destroying a student’s ability to learn. If critique comes before acquisition. Hayes (2015) explains, “By critical thinking we mean thinking for one’s self as opposed to just accepting what authorities of various kinds tell us to think”. Is it actually possible to ever begin the learning process without blind acceptance for what authorities say? Hayes (2015) explains that ordinary students normally begin “without comprehension of a text or work of art”. Hayes (2015) explains that a critical thinking based pedagogy teaches a student to reject everything until further investigation. Yet it fails to explain how the student who rejects authoritative knowledge should verify claims about fields which they have no prior knowledge. Hayes (2015) also explains how developing comprehension takes time and is dependent on conversation. Critical thinking undermines meaning-receiving. Meaning-receiving is the act of trying to find meaning in what I am saying. It is both ethical and cognitive as Haynes explains. Interestingly Hayes (2015) explains that this is an act of charity on the part of the listener because,

“you have to reach out to me with charity, to make an effort to construe me as sense-making rather than nonsensical”.

The charity involved is that you establish that I deserve to be listened to before I can prove that what I am saying makes sense. It is an effort to find sense in what the other person is saying. This ethical effort is undermined from the critical thinking orientation, which assumes that belief is easy and challenging is hard. However, as Hayes points out when dealing with the ideas and thoughts of others searching for plausibility may in fact be more challenging than thought processes based in skepticism. Thus according to Hayes the real challenge of today’s classroom is to try in take up the position of interest rather than the position of disinterest.

Al-Ghifari (1868) seems to agree that critical thinking comes after having initially attempted meaning- receiving. He writes in his Treaties on the Method of Studying, “And be careful that you do not restrict yourself to a general reading without following up that reading with close analyzation and deeper investigation. Because this i.e. a topical reading will lead to being deprived of the ability to read deeply and cause of stupidity”. This clearly shows that this eighteenth century Islamic scholar understood the method and approach which Bloom invented. Sidiq ibn Hasan al-Qanuji (1889), wrote an encyclopedic work on learning and teaching, which he titled Abjad al-ulum (the simple truths of knowledge) in the eighteenth century. AlQanuji (1889) quotes the words from another book which his lost today written by Alimullah ibn Abdul al-Razaq. He writes;

“…Studying is a science which teaches one how to learn the meaning of a writer…when you wish to begin studying a work, look at the work from start to finish in a way that extract the meaning from it. If you are successful in extracting the meaning the first time well be it…After extracting the meaning examine every conceptual aspect very closely for any deficiency…” (al-Qanuji, 1889)

It appears that this source which predates al-Qanuji (1889) understands the importance of meaning-receiving before critical analysis.

Both the Western Critical thinking based pedagogy and an Islamic pedagogy have religious roots. And while the Western pedagogy has for the most part divorced religion, the Islamic pedagogy has remained deeply spiritual and religion orientated. With Memorization as a key stepping stone in the process of acquisition of knowledge, it is not seen as an obstruction to learning until it is made the objective of educational pursuits in either of the pedagogical systems. There also seems to remain questions regarding how a critical thinking pedagogy effects acquisition of knowledge meaning-receiving. Questions regarding the ability of Islamic seminaries to actually achieve their critical thinking objective still needs to be discussed.


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Critical Pedagogy, Islamisation of Knowledge and Muslim EDucation. Intellectual Discourse, Vol 15, 85-104. Jāḥiẓ. (869). Kitābān lil-Jāhiẓ : Kitāb al-muʻallimīn wa-Kitāb fī al-radd ʻalá al-mushabbahah. TelAviv : Universiṭat Tel-Aviv, ha-Ḥug li-śefat ṿe-sifrut ʻIvrit, 1980. Krathwohl, D. R. (2002).

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27 / View Comments

27 responses to “Islamic Pedagogy and Critical Thinking: Does Islamic Pedagogy Want Critical Thinkers?”

  1. Bismillah…all knowledge is sacred knowledge because it stems from Allah SWT alone. There really is no difference between the religious and the secular.

    • J L Fuller says:

      An interesting concept. As a Christian, (A Mormon one at that) what you say seems right. Everything we see around us had a beginning. As a beleiver, one has to accept that someone was in charge of it all whether He created Creation with the aid of others or some other method. In the end, it all comes back to what God did. His methodology is a deep dark secret however – unless one gets into scientific study of what we see. That is when we discover nutrinos, quarks, molecules, the universe and mysteries of all sort. Scientific study does not seem to deny us knowledge about God. It provides us deeper understanding of Him.

    • Zara Robertson says:

      This is an interesting article but does not convey quite properly the critical pedagogy embedded at the educational self-understanding in Islam.
      For a comprehensive treatment of the subject see “Islam’s Heritage of Critical Education: The Missing Catalyst in Addressing the Crisis Informing Modern Muslim Presence” by A Sahin at

  2. Umm Jehan says:

    Criticism and difference of opinion are two completely different things. Our deen does not need any critical analysis by anyone. Why would the students of Islamic institutions want to critise any aspect of their deen, which was divenly revealed by Allah(swt) on His beloved Prophet (pbuh) and Rasoolallah (pbuh) explained and acted upon every aspect of this deen. So there is absolutely no ground for any criticism, but there can be differences of opinions.

    • Mustafa A Kawooya says:

      I think you, Ms Umm Jehan, appear to confuse criticising and critiquing. You are also assuming that evry aspect of Islamic life is explicitly covered by devine revealation. You would be aware that while all Muslims agree it’s way outside of anyone’s capacity to critique divine revelation like all of the Quranic content, and so the Prophet (SAW)’s guidance, the manner and means of reporting and transmitting Hadith is not outside the boundaries of critical analysis. So are the remaining two sourses of Ijtihad and Qiyas.

      In summary, the way I understand it is critical thought is not outside of what can, if not should, be inculcated in Islamic caricullum and within Muslims’ day to day learning and practicing of their faith.

  3. I’ve been involved with pedagogical & andragogical paradigms lately. Reading your article gave me great insight into the history of it. The way these concepts are interconnected and how despite the different timelines and the labels with which they were described, the basic concepts remain the same.

    To me its interesting that we stay stuck on the first rung i.e
    remembering (memorization), often not moving beyond that.
    Questioning, critical thinking & reasoning are a basic requirement of being ‘Muslim’ towards Allah Most High, as He says about His verses & signs and stories of the Quran, that it is guidance for those who ponder & contemplate/reflect over it and use reason (23:68, 2:242, 8:22, 30:28).

    Amazing it is.

  4. GregAbdul says:

    without an actual degree in Islamic studies, but from the few classes I have sat in on, I can say we have to understand that any study is a discipline that usually entails some memorization. We understand 1+1 = 2, not through analysis, but through memorization. God is one is a basic axiom in Islam. If you are “skeptical” about the Oneness of God, then your reflections and skepticism become open displays of an untrained mind. The internet is an example. If you are using the internet, yet working within the basic thought guidelines on any subject, it’s a powerful useful too. When get people who say, they are using the internet to study Islam and then decide that hadeeths are not for the modern world, that all religion is the same or that there is a messenger after Muhammad, then that is what happens to an untrained mind that tries to engage in critical thinking. Memorization is a training of the mind. Muslims are critical thinkers. After we are given our axioms, we then proceed to learn how important it is to be critical thinkers about the material world that surrounds us. We know we are passing through a temporal phenomenon, so our critical thinking is we don’t get too happy or sad at any momentary material development. Our final outcome lies with Allah. This is skepticism at its highest level. We are not skeptical about God the way most people are not skeptical about 1+1, but that in no way means Muslims aren’t taught to think in a critically. Properly viewed, Islam is the science which teaches healthy skepticism..

  5. Al Muntadhar says:

    As i think to my self, I come to the conclusion that i was by Allah sent as a Mercy to Mankind, But most people do not know. They wanderer blindly in darkness, So they do not see Allah’s signs, They do not hear the call of the messengers of Allah, And they do not understand that this life is Merely a delusion through the false promises of Satan and the enjoyment of evil last only for a brief moment for the wicked. The Truth i Eternal, so is Allah’s promise of his severe punishment or the excellent reward of paradise. Then will they not reason, but most of them are defiantly disobedient. They will have no helpers against Allah and they will not be aided and their punishment shall not be lightened. But as for those who believe and do righteous deeds and endure patiently with their trust in Allah, They shall have the greatest of rewards and have an eternal abode of peace in the pretense of their Lord. Then ask you self in truth with Allah as your witness, WHO is more honorable then the humble servant of Allah among the people, Who strive with might and power for Allah’s Cause with the small provision Allah have provided for him but with the great blessings of Faith, Righteousness, and a pure Heart. O People of Allah, Do not be among the first to doubt and do not be impressed by the widespread corruption on Earth. And remember what was the end of the corrupter’s from before our time. How many city’s and people have Allah Al Mighty not destroyed with a complete destruction, And brought new generations after that. Allah is not unaware of what you do!
    Then o you who have believed, Do fear Allah so you might be successfully, and fear only him so you do succeed.

  6. Omer Riaz says:

    As the world has moved into a more digital age since the dawn of the 21st century, many aspects of life have also evolved, one of them being education techniques. With the wide scale implementation of the internet, online education has become widespread and significantly popular enough that many universities and colleges that have been operating for hundreds of years now have broken their old shackles and traditions and started offering online programs for those who are interested. Similarly many Islamic centers and institutes have made use of this new technique of technology and started online schools where people, Muslims and non-Muslims alike from all over the world can learn how to recite Quran online and enroll into courses such as online Quran qaida classes and online Quran Tafseer classes. It is generally prescribed to people who wish to learn the Quran and to those parents who wish to have their children memorize the Quran to start at an early age.

    • Notheist says:

      In the upcoming age of technology and loss of traditional “work” it will be the ability to think critically and creativity that will come to be valued, they will be the things that will be most difficult to replicate.

  7. Irfan says:

    studying some Islamic subjects, perhaps fiqh, aqidah, etc can be likened to how it was at school… you can get an A grade in chemistry by memorising the whole textbook but actually understanding very little. However, if you actually understand the concepts you may only need memorise a small amount to get your A grade.

  8. Mohammad says:

    The main goal of education should not be to produce critical thinkers but person with high morals, ethics and values based on the divine revelations. Since, every society at every age has certain set of morals, ethics and values which can be debatable by the change in innovations, discoveries or perspective arises due to the introduction of new technology, we must resort to the divine revelation for our morals, ethics and values which is the ultimate standard for mankind. When we set the goal of education to produce critical thinkers, then in actuality we produce people with doubts, questions and confusions as critical thinking inherently based on the questioning of the life style, social customs, practices and beliefs. So “critical thinkers” term is very problematic; may be we can say we want to produce person with deep thinking and understanding guided by the morals, ethics and values set by the divine revelation. Allah knows the best.

  9. Dawud Israel says:

    Critical thinking requires moral traits which Islam inculcates: intellectual patience, intellectual courage, intellectual honesty, intellectual empathy, and intellectual clarity. All these are reflected in Islamic teaching. Critical thinking for Islamic pedagogy is the ability to see MORE in Islam, not less – the ability of Islam to expand for our needs and aims. This requires a belief in the wisdom of Allah and trust in Allah. Otherwise, you commit intellectual treachery and the secrets of Islam are closed off to you.

    “Critical thinking is thinking about your thinking while you’re thinking in order to make your thinking better.”
    ― Richard W. Paul

    Changing *how* we think can help us find new wisdoms in our deen. Ibn Abbas’ sayings and wisdom are a good example of this, for example how he determines Laylatul Qadr is 27th of Ramadhan via his tafsir of Surah al-Qadr.

    Critical thinking is also important in how we see patterns in the creation or “Sunnatullah” and how we can gain yaqin in our deen. When we struggle, and do mujahada, in thinking about our deen’s wisdom and the Qur’an there is a reward for that, if we have the correct niyyah. There are hadith that speak also of wisdom being in the hands of angels and being given to us when we are humble and taken away when arrogant.

    So spirituality and intellectuality are connected symbiotically in Islam; our spirituality and intellectuality feed off each other. We aren’t learning only for learning sake but for spiritual benefit, and we aren’t spiritually striving for spiritual benefits, but for intellectual benefits too.


  10. Muzzi Rahman says:

    I really love Islam . Islam teaches all about life . Only Islam religion evolved over the centuries. I love Allah and Rasulullah. Great post

  11. umroh bekasi says:

    Islam is the best, i wanna life and die with Islam

  12. Sir Magpie De Crow says:

    “The unification of religious knowledge and secular knowledge is fundamental for one attempting to understand the similarities and differences between western pedagogies and Islamic pedagogies”.

    Interesting comment.

    But I have to imagine that those who desire a increasingly pure religiosity like the Salafists of Boko Haram would be disinterested in such a noble pursuit. And to be frank, the Salafists of that strain are not just found in great numbers in Nigeria. I once years ago in New York City encountered a group of them preaching about the endless evils of a secular existence on a street corner. They had the stench of that corrosive/Saudi form of religiosity that was presented in a faux African-American package of 1960’s militancy. It was a grotesque spectacle that hopefully did not ensnare a large number of impressionable youth.

    They had all the warmth, compassion and humanity of an large infestation of silverfish one finds in dank basements.
    The critical thinking that is essential to keeping the world from sinking into the pit of prophetic irrationality, ignorance and religiously sanctioned cruelty is historically considered the enemy of the respected community “clerics”. Perhaps now more than ever.

    This is something I have seen time and time again with my own eyes.

  13. Noble Peace says:

    sallam alaikom,

    sorry i am going over board but if the mass migration to the Holy land was taken up, but may i suggest that if with in the muslim convoys that mobiles be switched off so that we can shun shaytan as much as possible.

    forgive me again and peace and blessings of the One the Only Allah the GREATEST, GREATER than any puny satanic minion, whether king queen president or prime minister. can you hear mr canditate , yes you are right, speech is not too great! :)

    Zakaria the second please if you wish ….

    from the madman hahahahahahhaha

    peace unto those who follow the guidnace of the Lord!

    • Noble Peace says:

      bismillah w salat w sallam ala khair al khulq sayidna Muhammed,

      apologies…just a little clear up…..bells and dogs…

      also, just to re-instate and re-iterate..Allah the GREATEST…GREATER than the above mentioned..GREATER than me and you..GREATER than the one they claim they worship.i.e..the man Jesus son of Mary…Also GREATER than..Muhammed /Moses/ Abraham too…and may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon them…..straight to the point…ALLAH GREATER than all HE created…i.e. everything!

      zackaryia..was it here or there..past/present…..albeit bigger bro has got a new flow ( I do not even know why I mentioned that – but hawa is sometimes cruel to one self- I suppose ) now I say yahya the second please too….

      sorry I am just an original nutter…I know I am not alone…neither is Syria too…..with that said, satan will pay for the latter too..and who ever owes their relative anything better start paying up before it gets too late too…..(Arrogance and power are addictive aren’t they??)……may we all learn to fight our nafs..if it is the eternal abode of true success and happiness that we truly crave…..well we all crave it——but perhaps we all go about it in all the wrong ways………..!

      p.s. verily some speech is a form of magic – I am definetly not eloquently spoken..etc, but just a reminder to switch off and if not like me at least sometimes….at least be deliberate in what we hear and see…….they say what goes up must come just another reminder for me and you what comes in goes out…i.e. the eyes and ears = the windows to the heart….God forgive us.


      • Noble Peace says:

        over there….fix yourself and home unit first…and I tell myself that first….you do know where the solution is do you not?…..unfortunately..mimics are the people do not really know who anybody is… we can not even save our selves..let alone any body else…..where there is a will there is a way….yet ultimately, it is Allah’s will all the way……………..

  14. Rome caput mundi says:

    Charles Darwin rules!!!!!

  15. Munazzah says:

    I am currently studying Islamic pedagogy via ITEP the Islamic teacher education program: a well organized course with lots to reflect upon.
    It would be helpful to know the context of this article. Was it for a certain course or assignment?
    Looking forward to reading it more carefully in sha Allah.
    In the mean time, here is the link for ITEP if anyone else is interested:

  16. Hamid J says:

    Lets see some interesting islamic news here:

    • Into the Light says:

      May Allah destroy the will of Shaitan as it is weak, he has no power over man. Moderators should delete this blatant advert for worshiping the devil and dabbling in magic.

      May Allah guide you and your like from the clutches of darkness and bring you into the light.

  17. Noble Peace says:

    sallam alaikom…..

    excuse my madness…..look back and research…seek n is the key


    • Noble Peace says:

      first man made from mud!…conserve and preserve the future…or is it the past??…uplifting or elevation……tulteef and patience..but do not be wrongly mistaken!!

      al-aakiba lil mutaqeen..may I be form among them and all of you too..

      a peaceful zealous essene

  18. Narayan Murthy says:

    WATCH – Mr. Deep Trivedi’s fitting reply to Mr. Zakir Naik on

  19. i was thinking ...emmm...oh i forgot too says:

    salaam alaikom

    According to Al-Jahiz (869) a good memory is needed and valuable for the learning process. However, he believes, “Memorization inhibits the intellect”. He further explains the “memorization is mere imitation whereas deductive reasoning brings one to certainty and great confidence” (Gunther, 2006).

    reminds of Omar RA and how he and the other sahaba would memorize an ayah or two at a time. Subhan Allah. Also what our beloved (p.b.u.h) said about verses and lost or untied camels, one way or the other, could also be mentioned.

    may Allah gives us all tawfiq dunyia and akhira.ameen.


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