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Yasir Qadhi | The Definition of “Travel” (safar) According to Islamic Law | Part 3




Part 1 |  Part 2 |  Part 3

In our previous parts, we discussed the travel distance required to be considered a traveler. In this article, we shall discuss the time duration that one remains a traveler.

2. For How Long Does One Remain a Traveler?

The final issue that we need to discuss is the time duration for which one is allowed to shorten the prayer while one remains a ‘traveler’. In other words, once one has arrived at one’s initial destination and intends to remain there for a duration before returning home, for how long can s/he shorten and combine? Once again, we face a myriad of opinions on this issue (I have come across at least eighteen different opinions, and there are more); for the purposes of this article, we shall restrict ourselves to the more common ones.

2.1 The State of ‘Travel’ Ceases after 15 days

The Ḥanafīs considered a ‘traveler’ to be someone who intends to reside at a place for fifteen days or less (inclusive of the day that he intends to travel). They based this on qiyas, or analogy, with the longest possible days of a woman’s period. At first glance, this analogy does seem rather bizarre. However, they reasoned that both a traveler and a woman in her menses must ‘return’ to a more permanent state of worship (the menstruating woman returns to her prayers after desisting from them, and the traveler returns to the full prayer after ceasing to be a ‘traveler’), hence there is a commonality between these two scenarios that would allow us (or so the Ḥanafīs felt) to extrapolate the same ruling to these two scenarios.

They also use as evidence a tradition of Ibn ʿAbbās in which he stated that the Prophetalla Allahu ʿalayhī wa sallam stayed in Makkah for fifteen days, praying qar (Reported by Abu Dawud; most scholars of hadith consider this version to be inauthentic for a number of reasons, one of which is that more authentic versions of this hadith mention even higher numbers.)

The Ḥanafis also attributed this position to Ibn ʿAbbās and Ibn ʿUmar,[1] and it is also one opinion of Saʿīd b. al-Musayyib.

2.2 The State of  ‘Travel’ Ceases after 4 days

The Mālikīs, Shāfiʿīs, and Ḥanbalīs claimed that the time that makes a traveler into a resident is four days.

Note that the Ḥanbalīs have qualified this as ‘twenty prayers’ and not four days; also there is some difference of opinion between the Mālikīs and the Shāfiʿīs over when this time frame should start and end and whether the day that one arrives and leaves counts or not. For the purposes of this article, all of these differences will be ignored. What is important to note is that these three schools have a similar time frame of ‘four days’.

Their main evidence is the command of the Prophet alla Allahu ʿalayhī wa sallam that the Emigrants (Muhajirūn) who were performing Hajj with him should not stay in Makkah for more than three days [Reported by Muslim].

In order to understand the reasoning of these three schools with respect to this tradition, an important fact must be understood. The Emigrants who had left Makkah for Madinah during the hijra were prohibited from returning to Makkah as ‘residents’, since they had given up that land for the sake of Allah. The point derived by the majority, therefore, is that the reason the Prophet alla Allahu ʿalayhī wa sallam prohibited them to stay more than three days is that it is the staying of four days or more that converts a traveler into a resident. To buttress this point, these schools also mention that the Prophet alla Allahu ʿalayhī wa sallam himself prayed qaṣr when he remained in Makkah for three days, after performing ʿUmrah.

Another evidence that is used is the travel restrictions that ʿUmar b. al-Khaṭṭāb placed on non-Muslim traders who wished to conduct business in Makkah or Madinah: he only allowed them permission to remain for three days.[2] Once again, the interpretation given is that it is four days or more that converts a traveler to a resident, hence he forbade them from remaining for more than three days.

And it is also reported from Saʿīd b. al-Musayyib (d. 95), who said, “If you want to stay for four, then pray four!”[3] This is also the opinion of the Permanent Committee of Scholars, the fatwa of Shaykh Ibn Bāz, and the opinion of our Shaykh Muḥammad al-Mukhtār al-Shanqīṭī.

2.3 The Opinion of Ibn Taymiyya

Ibn Taymiyya, extrapolating from many of the same premises as his earlier position on thedistance of travel, felt that there exists no explicit evidence or reasoning that would specify a particular time period that effectively converts a traveler into a resident. Therefore, he felt that a traveler would remain a traveler even if he stayed at a specific location for a longer period of time, as long as his lifestyle was that of a ‘traveler’.

As part of his evidences, Ibn Taymiyya also pointed out that there are authentic narrations that indicate the Prophet alla Allahu ʿalayhī wa sallam would pray qar for more than fifteen days. Of them is the hadith of Jābir that the Prophet alla Allahu ʿalayhī wa sallam camped at Tabuk praying qar for twenty days (Reported by Abu Dawud). Another is the hadith of Ibn ʿAbbās in which he reported that the Prophet alla Allahu ʿalayhī wa sallam stayed in Makkah nineteen days, praying qar (Reported by al-Bukhārī). The four schools all re-interpreted these evidences (by claiming, for example, that the Prophet did not know how long he would camp at Tabuk during that expedition, so he did not intend to stay for more than ‘x’ number of days; and so forth). However, Ibn Taymiyya clearly takes an unbiased and apparent reading of these evidences to suggest that there is no specific number that the Prophet  alla Allahu ʿalayhī wa sallam suggested and that at times he prayed qar for more than four or fifteen days.

Nonetheless, perhaps understanding that this open-ended response also had potential problems, Ibn Taymiyya did feel that the majority opinion of four days was safer to follow.

In one fatwa, Ibn Taymiyya was asked about a traveler who intends to remain for one month in a city: is he permitted to shorten? He replied that it was safer for him not to shorten but to pray in full.[4] In another fatwa that he was asked, he explicitly permitted a person in a similar situation to shorten the prayer for this longer period, even while saying that it is ‘safer’ to pray the full amount.[5]

In other words, Ibn Taymiyya himself did not unequivocally allow such a person to pray qaṣrfor a limitless number of days. Even though he said that it is permitted and that one should not rebuke those who do this, he also said that it was better to pray full.

However, a modern follower of Ibn Taymiyya, Shaykh Ibn ʿUthaymīn, took this fatwa to a possible logical conclusion. According to Ibn ʿUthaymīn, as long as a person did not intend to remain permanently in a city, such a person would be considered a traveler, even if he remained in that city for years on end. Based on this fatwa, numerous Saudi students (some of whom I personally met) would pray qar for years while students overseas. They reasoned that since they had the full intention of returning to Saudi Arabia after their four or five years of study, they were, in fact, in the state of ‘travel’, even if they purchased houses and cars, and put their kids in a local school. When Ibn ʿUthaymīn was asked about this scenario, he agreed with this interpretation and reasoned that since there was no actual time limit, even the duration of ten years would constitute ‘travel’ as long as one wished to return to a place called ‘home’.

2.4 The Strongest Opinion

Before mentioning what appears to be the ‘strongest’ opinion, it should be mentioned that there are many other opinions on this issue as well. For example, some have said that the time duration is twenty days; Isḥāq b. Rāhwayh said this period was nineteen days; others said seventeen; yet others thirteen; al-Awzāʿī said twelve; al-Ḥasan b. Ṣāliḥ said ten; Ḥasan al-Baṣrī said three; and Rabīʿa al-Raʾy said a stay of one day converts one from a traveler to a resident. However, for the purposes of our discussion, we will limit the opinions to these famous and mashhūr ones.

Also note that the issue of one who is not certain about the time that he is remaining in a land is a separate one, and even within these schools, the majority would allow qar for much longer periods in this case. The classic example mentioned in legal books is that of the soldiers of the army guarding the borders; they could be called for duty at any time, and they are most certainly not ‘residents’ considering the harsh conditions they live in. There are authentic reports that some of the Companions prayed qar for months on end (perhaps even for years). It is reported that Ibn ʿUmar prayed qar for six months while in Azerbaijan.[6] However, this was done in a state of war, and therefore when one is in such a state that one can leave at any time, obviously this would take a separate ruling from the one who intends a particular number of days.

Returning to our discussion, once again, Ibn Taymiyya’s points resonate strongly with the open-minded researcher. The ‘four-day rule’ seems derived, and not intended. There are numerous authentic traditions in which the Prophet alla Allahu ʿalayhī wa sallam stayed at a location for more than four days while shortening the prayers. Therefore, even though the majority of the schools of law did stipulate four days, there really seems no evidence whatsoever to limit such a ruling to a specific time period. In our times, it is extremely common for office workers (in particular, consultants) to travel for five days of the week to an on-site location, and such workers are travelers in every sense of the word, despite the fact that they are remaining in the same location for more than four days.

Yet, to allow no limit whatsoever (as our respected Shaykh Ibn ʿUthaymīn did) really does not seem to be either in the spirit or the intent of the Shariah. Yes, it is true that a traveler cannot be defined by a particular time-frame, but surely s/he can be defined as a resident by actions that s/he undertakes. A traveler does not buy a house, or ‘settle down’, or take care of his children’s long-term education. Therefore, a person who comes to a town, knowing that he will stay for a few years, is clearly not a ‘traveler’ anymore, since he must take care of all of these matters and more. Owning or renting a house is not the same as living in a motel.

No doubt, such a distinction is not a black-and-white one, and there are many shades of grey in between. It is precisely because of such grey areas that most legal scholars are prone to give solid numbers (‘48 miles’, or ‘4 days’) rather than the more ambiguous yardsticks of Ibn Taymiyya. And therefore, should someone prefer to follow one of these standard opinions mentioned in our classical schools, this is something that should be encouraged and not looked down upon. Nonetheless, if someone were to follow the more academic position of Ibn Taymiyya, this (in my humble opinion) would be closer to the intent of the laws of the Shariah.

And in the end, it is indeed Allah alone who knows best.


This article did not discuss the following issues in detail; for the sake of completeness, they will be mentioned in passing:

Firstly, the legal status of shortening the prayer (qaṣr). The Ḥanafīs deemed it to be obligatory for the traveler and stated that if the traveler prays the regular prayer, he will in fact be sinful. The majority said that shortening the prayer was preferred, but not obligatory.

Secondly, the legal status of joining between two prayers (jamʿ), specifically of course, Ẓuhr and ʿAṣr, and Maghrib and ʿIshā. [No school of law allowed jamʿ for any other two combinations of prayers].

The Ḥanafīs did not allow any joining of the prayers except for the pilgrims during the days of Hajj. They did not view joining as one of the concessions granted to the traveler and claimed that the joining together during the days of ʿArafat and Mina are related to the rites of Hajj and not to the issue of traveling.

The vast majority of other scholars allowed Ẓuhr and ʿAṣr to be joined, and Maghrib and ʿIshā to be joined, based on explicit, authentic traditions on this matter. Additionally, they said that this should preferably be done only during the actual travel. Once a traveler arrives at his temporary destination, it is preferred (but not obligatory) to pray each prayer at its proper time.

Ibn Taymiyya writes, after mentioning some traditions that describe the Prophet’s prayer during travel,[7]

So all of this shows that combining the prayers (jamʿ) is not from the sunnahs of traveling, unlike shortening them (qaṣr) – rather, combining the prayers is only done where there is a need to do so, regardless of whether one is traveling or not, for it is also permissible for the resident to combine. Therefore, if a traveler needs to combine, he may do so, for example: if he will be engaged in the act of travel during the first or second prayer time, or he needs to sleep or rest… However, as for someone who stops for a few days in a village or city, then his ruling is the same as that of the people of that village. So such a person, even though he should pray qaṣr as a traveler, should not combine, just like he should not pray on an animal, or resort to tayammum, or eat a dead animal. All of these matters are only allowed when there is a need to do so, unlike shortening the prayer, for this is a sunnah for all travelers.

Note that this is contrary to what most travelers do: they assume that combining the prayers takes the same ruling as shortening does and regularly combine for the entire duration of the travel.

Thirdly, when precisely is it allowed for a traveler to begin shortening and combining the prayers? A small minority said that he may do so as soon as he commences the travel, even if he still be in his house (i.e., immediately before he leaves). However, the majority said that he may only begin shortening and combining once he has left the city walls (or, in our times, when he has exited the last settlements that are still considered a part of his city).

[1] Al-Kasānī, Badāʾi al-Ṣanāʿʾ; al-Tahānawī, Iʿlāʾ al-Sunan, 7/312-5.

[2] Ibn Qudāma, al-Mughnī, 3/148.

[3] Ibn Abi Shayba, Muṣannaf.

[4] Ibn Taymiyya, Majmūʾ al-Fatāwā 24/17.

[5] Ibid., 24/18

[6] Reported in the Sunan of al-Bayhaqī (3/152).

[7] Ibn Taymiyya, Majmūʾ al-Fatāwā 24/64-5.

Sh. Dr. Yasir Qadhi is someone that believes that one's life should be judged by more than just academic degrees and scholastic accomplishments. Friends and foe alike acknowledge that one of his main weaknesses is ice-cream, which he seems to enjoy with a rather sinister passion. The highlight of his day is twirling his little girl (a.k.a. "my little princess") round and round in the air and watching her squeal with joy. A few tid-bits from his mundane life: Sh. Yasir has a Bachelors in Hadith and a Masters in Theology from Islamic University of Madinah, and a PhD in Islamic Studies from Yale University. He is an instructor and Dean of Academic Affairs at AlMaghrib, and the Resident Scholar of the Memphis Islamic Center.



  1. Pingback: Yasir Qadhi | The Definition of ‘Travel’ (safar) According to Islamic Law | Part 2 |

    • Avatar


      May 15, 2015 at 1:26 AM

      I agree with Ibn Tayyimiah’s opinion. So just to clarify if what I’ve understood is correct.

      – we pray qasr for all salats
      – we can join zuhr with asr, and Maghreb with isha?
      -I’ll be travelling overseas for 2-3 weeks

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    abu Abdullah

    July 22, 2011 at 1:54 AM

    Jazak Allah khayr jiddan dear Shaykh Yasir. May Allah protect you and your family. Ameen.

    Q. I always face this dilemma about prayers travelling through time zones. How about praying during trans atlantic 15 hour flight from NJ to Mumbai (time zone difference, GMT++) or NY to San Francisco flight (GMT–)? Or should we just make them up afterwards.


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      July 22, 2011 at 7:50 AM

      I wondered this too. If you’re going by the actual physical signs, you’d be praying something like 8 prayers in a day one way and 2 prayers in a day on the return trip.

    • Avatar

      Yasir Qadhi

      July 22, 2011 at 11:52 AM

      Salaam Alaikum

      You would be required to pray them according to your current location.

      Merely look out the window and you can get a good enough estimate.

      So, a night flight from NJ to Mumbai (which I’ve taken a few times myself!) leaves at around 9 PM NJ time and arrives in Mumbai the next evening around 8 PM.
      Therefore, you would be required to pray Fajr and Dhuhr and Asr in the plane. You can pray Maghrib/Isha before boarding the late night flight, and then pray the next Maghrib/Isha in Mumbai.


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        abu Abdullah

        July 22, 2011 at 1:25 PM

        wa alaykum assalam wa rahmatullah wa barakatuh,

        Jazaak Allahu khayran Shaykh. may Allah increase you in goodness and cause this to be accepted sawab jariya for you and forgive your parents . Ameen.

        Additionally, I wonder if such travelling destination is ALSO your home where you intend to stay (back home, Parents live there and you don’t have to live like in motel) for say 2-3 weeks and masjid is accessible easily. What do I do? (Pray Jam’/Qasr or both or none)

        In and of itself, its a good dawah opportunity to be praying on a plane. What was ibn Taymiyyah’s opinion on praying while flying in the air/space ( I heard He rahimahullah did give a fatwa about same, centuries before flying was discovered). If its there and is appropriate here, please let us know it.

        PS Regardless, when are you coming to Mumbai next insh Allah? :)

      • Avatar

        Sunny ibn Salman Al-Amreekee

        January 6, 2014 at 2:38 AM

        As-Salaamu `alaykum,

        I second the curious thought above by Abu Abdullah. What is the understanding of praying salaah while on a moving vehicle, be it a car, train, airplane, et cetera?

        Jazaakumu llaahu khayran was-salaamu `alaykum.

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    July 22, 2011 at 4:45 AM


    Jazakumullah Khairan! This was very informative!!

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    July 22, 2011 at 7:12 AM

    Yasir Qadhi says:

    “as our respected Shaykh Ibn Ê¿UthaymÄ«n did”.

    It is just be or does it seem like he is implying he was a student of the late shaykh (rahimahullah)

    • Avatar

      Yasir Qadhi

      July 22, 2011 at 11:54 AM

      Salaam Alaikum

      Allah blessed me to study with the Shaykh in his annual summer intensives that he held in his mosque in Unayzah. I was only able to attend one summer intensive, in 2000, the very last year that they were held. The Shaykh passed away early 2001, yarhamuhullah.


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        July 22, 2011 at 1:02 PM

        Barak Allah fiyk, sorry for the apparent accusation.

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    July 22, 2011 at 8:06 AM

    assalamu alaikkum warahmathullahi wabarakathuhu

    JazakumAllahkhair . Ma’asha Allah , You do all the hard work in searching and researching , and we get to learn easily from you. May Allah(swt) bless you and reward you and your family immensely .Ameen.

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    July 22, 2011 at 8:44 AM

    Jazakallahu Khairan.

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    July 22, 2011 at 9:29 AM

    Salam alaykum Sheikh

    JazakAllah khair for an informative series. May this be the reason you enter jannat alfirdaws. ameen

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    July 22, 2011 at 1:04 PM

    salam & jazakalalhkhair

    how about following real-life situations:
    1) Travelling to work in another city, state or country. Everyday. E.g.: Commuters from Malaysia to Singapore.

    2) Excursion trip to another state for a day. E.g. going from Philly to Washington DC for a day-trip.

    3) Going to school in another city, 40 miles away everyday
    b) Weekend school where you stay overnight, e.g. Delaware to Philly.

    I have also heard that if u r “settled”, you shorten but don’t combine. When is that applicable?

    • Avatar

      Yasir Qadhi

      July 23, 2011 at 1:56 AM


      Did you actually read all three parts carefully ;) All of your answers are there….

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    July 22, 2011 at 1:32 PM

    The Prophet (S) said, “Live in this world as (if you are) a traveler.” (Bukhari). Does this mean we should shorten and combine prayers and not fast at all times?

    [P.S. This is a joke]

    • Avatar

      Yasir Qadhi

      July 23, 2011 at 1:59 AM


      Well, this can actually be used to correct the understanding that someone who is temporarily in a place for a long period of time can still be called a traveller (the opinion that Shaykh Ibn Uthaymin held). One could say, based on this hadith, that an entire lifetime is merely a ‘travel’ from this world to the next!

      Thsi hadith actually supports Ibn Taymiyya’s position, because the point here is that the Prophet (SAWS) intended to describe a particular lifestyle, here indicating someone with few possessions and little attachment to his place of residence. This clearly shows that a traveller is someone with a particular lifestyle, and this lifestyle is known by one’s culture and custom.


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        July 25, 2011 at 5:13 PM

        Actually, A lot of shias pray 3 times a day and they combine all the time. I was told this was one of thier proofs, we are all ”permanent” travelers.

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    July 22, 2011 at 3:00 PM

    It seems that defining residence is something which is struggled with even nowadays.

    The UK is currently trying to make a statutory tax definition of residence (in the UK, unlike in
    the US there are tax advantages to being non-resident as you are only taxed on your UK earnings
    if you are non-resident, not your worldwide earnings like the US.)

    The things they are listing as factors which are similar to above are things like:
    * Purchase of properties / availability of private accomodation in the UK
    * Location of the residence of your spouse and children (similar to what was said elsewhere (not above) in that you are not resident where your parents live)
    * Number of days passed in the UK (though cumulative, not in one instance as above)

    Previously (and currently) they relied on purported intention (did you ‘intend’ to live in the UK permanently)
    which is naturally hard to prove either way in a court of tax law.

    What Sh Uthaymeen seems to be describing is domicile – or what someone considers to be their natural home – taking that to its natural conclusion a refugee who is a citizen in say the UK and lives here all his natural life could be considered to be a traveller if they always intended to return to their home country when it was possible to do so – even if that return would be undefined and would be dependent on for example that country being politically stable enough for them to return to at some point.


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    July 22, 2011 at 4:28 PM

    BarakaAllahu feek ya Shaykh Yasir,

    Reading this series has tremendously increased my respect for our fuqaha’

    – There is a great deal of legal reasoning that goes into fiqh, a great deal of mental prowess, which many don’t appreciate
    – Islam is a vast deen, that respects differences, even on fundamentals like time of prayer
    – Our scholars are smart people, but fallible humans
    – We need many modern mujtahids
    – You are in love with Ibn Taymiyya :)

    • Avatar

      Yasir Qadhi

      July 23, 2011 at 1:59 AM

      You’re absolutely correct…on ALL counts!


  12. Avatar


    July 22, 2011 at 5:13 PM

    JazakAllahuKheiran! Very informative, very useful, and very appreciated.

    Would love to read more pieces like this, this was like the FAQ for Qasr that I’ve never been able to find elsewhere. :)

  13. Avatar


    July 22, 2011 at 5:25 PM

    JazakAllahu khayran ya Shaykh! This was really informative. If you’re taking requests to do another fiqh series, i would appreciate it if you could do a series on the fiqh of investing. I’ve heard so many different opinions on this topic and can’t seem to get a hand on a comprehensive analysis on the topic like you do.

  14. Avatar


    July 22, 2011 at 10:07 PM

    Shaykh Yasir: what if the traveller attends a masjid or prays in congregation with the locals with the imam leading 4 rakahs for dhuhr or asr or isha? What should the traveller do? Pray the full 4 rakahs behind the imam or pray 2 rakahs and keep sitting in tashahud till the salam?

    • Avatar

      Yasir Qadhi

      July 23, 2011 at 2:00 AM

      Such a person must pray the full salat behind the Imam. This is in accordance with all four schools of Sunni law.

      • Avatar


        July 24, 2011 at 8:16 PM

        What if I join late in the prayer and miss a few rakahs? For example in Isha if I join in the 3rd rakah, do I finish just my 2 and say salam with the imam, or do another 2?

        I recall Sheikh Waleed Basyouni said his personal opinion was to pray just my 2, though he said the majority view is to pray the full 4 (or whatever the imam prayed).

      • Avatar


        December 28, 2012 at 7:36 AM

        Salaam u alaikum,
        Dear Sheikh Yasir,
        Can u please authentife the following Hadith for me:
        “I will continue to struggle with this mission until a woman can travel freely all by herself without fear of molestation or assault on her person from any quarter!”

        And can u also please tell me what different scholars have said about the hadith of Abu Hurayra from Abu Dawud that a woman may not travel without a mahram the distance of a Bureida. Thank you.

  15. Avatar

    Ibn Sabeel

    July 22, 2011 at 10:56 PM

    As-salam-u-alaikum Shaykh Yasir Qadhi!

    Could you please briefly discuss what constitutes a city in the matter of travel?

    I have heard the following three opinions:

    1. City Limit
    2. County Limit
    3. Where the metropolitan area ends

    JazakAllahu khayr.

  16. Avatar

    Michael Scott

    July 23, 2011 at 1:39 AM

    mashaAllah great article! Thank you Shaikh Yasir! May Allah reward you for your efforts. I would encourage others to take the gist of his message and decide wisely based on their circumstances and pray to Allah SA for acceptance. We can continue to create hypothetical scenarios which will only complicate matters further and not achieve anything useful. Wallahu ‘Alam.

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    July 24, 2011 at 4:36 AM

    combining the prayers is only done where there is a need to do so, regardless of whether one is traveling or not, for it is also permissible for the resident to combine

    Let’s say i’ve been out all day (in my own city), can I combine for example Maghrib and Isha @ Maghrib time only because I might be too tired when I get home @ isha time to pray Isha (because of being out the whole day with kids, etc)?

  18. Avatar

    Umar Shariff

    July 24, 2011 at 7:25 AM

    Very informative article. May Allah bless the Shaikh for bringing this wonderful piece of work.

  19. Avatar

    Ismail Kamdar

    July 24, 2011 at 8:48 AM

    Jazakallah Khair for Shaykh for this detailed explanation. Please publish more articles of this nature as we are much in need of them.

  20. Avatar

    Shuaib Mansoori

    July 24, 2011 at 10:30 AM

    It is reported that Ibn Ê¿Umar prayed qaá¹£r for six months while in Azerbaijan

    So for those of us who’ve recently moved to Azerbaijan from the West, can we invent a new ruling and pray qasr always? ;)

  21. Avatar


    July 24, 2011 at 11:43 AM

    May Allah preserve you. This was a tremendously beneficial series of posts. Jazaakallahu khayran for clarifying the distinction in rulings regarding combining as opposed to merely shortening prayers for travel. InshaaAllaah I can see that immediately changing my perception of the issue.

  22. Avatar

    Khader Ali Khan

    July 25, 2011 at 1:25 PM

    Salaam Alaikum Shaykh Yasir,

    This is trivial question but I would appreciate if you answer it.

    All the rules and concession that applies to Traveler with regards to Salah also applies to fasting, correct?

    So, If I travel 90 miles to play cricket game (which is all day long), can I skip the fasting and make it on other day? Is it a valid reason? It is unthinkable for me to skip fasting in Ramadan.


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    August 21, 2012 at 3:14 PM

    Salaam, I have a question. My wife follows the opinion that u are no longer traveler once u are stationary in a house or hotel etc. I follow ibn uthaymeens opinion. Should she obey me and follow my opinion or is it haram for me to make her follow my opinion?
    I feel it would cause hardship for me as I will always have to wait for he to pray full salah while I combine and also is praying in masjid fardh while traveling? And if I combine then how do I pray in masjid 5 times?
    Jazakallahu Kheiran sheikh

  24. Pingback: Yasir Qadhi | The Definition of “Travel” (safar) According to Islamic Law | Part 1 -

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    September 7, 2012 at 6:49 PM

    I’m a girl, and If i travel to university which is around 1/2-1hr away from my home everyday, do I take a mahram with me? Do I also need a mahram for everything else I do outside my home, like shopping?
    JazakAllah kheir

  26. Avatar


    September 8, 2012 at 10:04 AM

    JazakAllah khairan sheikh…its really helpful…brother i am going through a problem,my mother is asking me to travel without a mahram…i tried alot but she is not willing to change her mind,infact our seats hv been booked aswell,and it costs a lot of money if u want to change da bookings,em soo distressed sheikh…plz advice…secondly can u plz tell me if is it possible 4 me 2 publish my articles on dis website…honestly speaking,im literally dying 2 do sumthing 4 da sake of Allah but due to sum restrictions im unable 2 do wat i want…i consider writng islamic article for His sake a source of sawaab-e-jaaria….plz sheikh help me……..em eagerly waiting 4 reply…please sheikh…..JazakuAllah khairan…May Allah protect u and ur family…Ameen!

  27. Avatar


    September 8, 2012 at 10:06 AM

    please if anyone else has any answer to my questions plz plz answer me….May Allah reward aalll of u highely..wassalamualikumwRwB

  28. Pingback: MM Treasures | Yasir Qadhi | The Definition of “Travel” (safar) According to Islamic Law | Part 2 -

  29. Pingback: MM Treasures | Yasir Qadhi | The Definition of “Travel” (safar) According to Islamic Law | Part 3 -

  30. Avatar


    October 25, 2012 at 11:47 AM


    I do quite a few train journies and I was wondering if I can combine dhur and asr at home before leaving at dhuhr time, as during asr time I will be on the train and unable to pray. Would this be permissible?

  31. Avatar

    Cape Townian

    June 25, 2013 at 7:27 PM


    Sheikh yasir jazakakallah for your interesting article,
    Do you mind me enquiring as too what your approach is to the Quran and sunnah? I.e. what usool do you use?
    I am a Shafi, and naturally we would follow our schools usool as espoused in latter works such as جمع الجوامع of ابن السبكي rahimullah. And the shuruh and hawashiy there of.

    Certain of these points , when looked in light of each scholars approach (usool), would elucidate why the furu’ end up the way they do. Allah knows best

  32. Avatar


    January 30, 2014 at 5:52 PM

    Alhamdolelah I am a only a Muslim and not from the 44 mathhabs, and I follow The Prophet (ﷺ) and not anyone’s opinion

    In saheh Muslim Yahya b. Yazid al-Huna’i reported:
    I asked Anas b. Malik about shortening of prayer. He said: When the Messenger of’ Allah (ﷺ) had covered a distance of three miles or three farsakh (Shu’ba, one of the narrators, had some doubt about it) he observed two rak’ahs.

    That’s it either 3 miles or 3 farsakh (9 miles) , I am an ummi and I follow and I don’t measure – No opinion after the opinion of the Prophet (ﷺ).

    PS – Shiekh yaseer, why didn’t you mention the above hadith from sahih Muslim, it’s the most authentic hadith on the subject. with all due respect you have a long research of what this scholar said and their opinions are , what about the opinion of rasol Allah and Umar ibn Alkkhatab ?

  33. Avatar


    April 19, 2014 at 7:36 AM

    Jazaa kumullah Shaykh.I’m an Australian residing in Turkey and follow many of your lectures online.May Allah(S.W.T) reward you well for all the good that you’re doing.

    As selamu Aleykum.

  34. Avatar

    Maleka Jamil

    May 28, 2014 at 7:30 PM

    Assalamualaikum. I have a question. Will a married women pray qasar ul salat when she goes to parent’s home to visit them?

    • Avatar


      June 12, 2014 at 3:11 PM

      That’s exactly my question!

  35. Avatar

    M. Akhtar, new delhi

    June 21, 2014 at 1:35 AM

    Salam o alaikum Sh Qadhi. Jazak Allah khair. Excellent article. May your tribe increase among Ummah

  36. Avatar


    September 9, 2015 at 12:21 AM


    i live in North America, currently not able to afford to buy my own home for living. many people have told me having 1st mortgage for self residence is permissible.

    what is the exact ruling in Islam about it.

    and are there known Islamic Mortgage is shariah Compliance in North America that you know of.

    JazakuAllah khairan

  37. Pingback: Comment on Yasir Qadhi | The Definition of “Travel” (safar) According to Islamic Law | Part 3 by Shakeel | Souqhub | Blog

  38. Avatar

    Abdul Rahman

    August 19, 2016 at 3:14 PM

    I have a question regarding daily commutes that are pretty long 1-2 hours a day one way. So i can be in a car traveling for 2-4 hours daily. I primarily pray all prayers not shorten but sometimes it is difficult and choose to combine. Is that ok?

  39. Avatar


    November 11, 2016 at 7:29 AM

    Nice article! Everybody find the Qibla Direction and prayer time for this Web Application Al Moazzin

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Prophets and Social Activism





Lightbulb glows will other lightbulbs dont

Bt Shaykh Tarik Ata

The undeniable primary role of prophets was to call society to Allah and establish a relationship with him. Along with their ideological engagement, the Quran references the social aspects prophets addressed. In long passages from chapters 7 and 11,[1] the Quran describes particular social problems that seemingly were widespread at the time. For example, the people of Noah suffered from a system of social hierarchy which stereotyped the commoner as being weak minded and invaluable “So the eminent among those who disbelieved from his people said, “We do not see you but as a man like ourselves, and we do not see you followed except by those who are the lowest of us [and] at first suggestion. And we do not see in you over us any merit; rather, we think you are liars.”[2] The people of Madyan suffered from widespread monetary conning and exploitation “And do not decrease from the measure and the scale.”[3] Prophet Lot called out his people’s practice of homosexuality as being something despised by God “Do you approach males among the worlds And leave what your Lord has created for you as mates? But you are a people transgressing.” They said, “If you do not desist, O Lot, you will surely be of those evicted.” He said, “Indeed, I am, toward your deed, of those who detest [it]. My Lord, save me and my family from [the consequence of] what they do.”[4]

What must be pointed out, however, is that the social change sought out by prophets was related to their theological duty. These social ails threatened, first and foremost, society’s relationship to Allah. Therefore, these verses constantly reference Allah and return the issue back to theology. After every attempted refutation of the prophet’s position, the prophet responds with theology as if to make it known that their duty as prophets is to call people to Allah and establish that relationship between the individual and their Creator. Thus, elements of social activism enacted by prophets were not to allow unrestricted lifestyles with the ability to choose what is right or wrong based solely on their customs or desires. Rather, their efforts aimed at redirecting society to Allah; to free them from the creation in order to become servants of the creator.

One may attempt to refute this analysis of these Quranic passages as being selective and not representative of the larger picture. Such a concern is invalid since these stories are presented in multiple chapters throughout the Quran consistently portraying the prophets as upholding the duty of changing theology and calling people to follow Allah’s commands.[5] It does not limit their social engagement to the political authority with the intention of freeing society from their shackles or to allow them the freedom to choose any lifestyle they please. Even the story of Moses, which involves a great tyrant, centralizes monotheism. Likewise, the final phase of his life dealt with rebuilding the children of Israel after enduring decades of oppression and injustices. Even then the central focus is their theological deviations while alluding to their social deviations as being rooted in weak theology.[6]

To put it concisely, prophets’ involvement in greater society revolved around preaching theology and expressed social criticism using theology. The primary goal of social engagement and criticisms of injustice and oppression was an effort to alleviate society from that which taints its theology or creates barriers between the individual and Allah. One example from the Quran is Surah Al-Ma’oun which reads “Have you seen the one who denies the Recompense [the Day of Judgement]? (1) For that is the one who drives away the orphan (2) And does not encourage the feeding of the poor. (3)” The verses ascribe abuse of orphans and the poor to disbelief in the day of judgement – a pillar of faith.

Labeling Prophets as Activists

Another recent phenomenon is the labeling of prophets as activists. Since prophets hold a high status in Islam and are considered a pillar of faith the topic of prophets and speaking on their behalf is sensitive. Furthermore, it indicates that improper belief in them threatens the person’s faith as a whole and for this reason the Quran forbids speaking ill of them or mocking them even lightheartedly “And if you ask them, they will surely say, “We were only conversing and playing.” Say, “Is it Allah and His verses and His Messenger that you were mocking? Make no excuse; you have disbelieved after your belief. If We pardon one faction of you – We will punish another faction because they were criminals.”[7] Following these verses is a description of hypocrites (those who outwardly accept Islam but their hearts reject it) eluding to the reader that disrespect of prophets is an attribute of hypocrites and a form of hypocrisy. Anything less than the utmost reverence and respect for prophets is unacceptable and therefore is best to refer to them in a manner that the Quran and hadith affirm.

Both the Quran and hadith tradition address the prophets with titles and attributes that highlight their piety and relationship with Allah. They are not labeled with secular titles void of religious connotation. Furthermore, these titles and attributes can only be understood in a positive manner. For example, al-ameen, which means the truthful and trustworthy, is consistently a praiseworthy attribute that is understood in a positive manner. Words that can be understood both positively and negatively, such as an activist, should not to be used as titles for prophets such as referring to them as activists. An activist can promote good and can promote evil depending on what they are actively promoting. And although prophets had elements of social activism, activism in contemporary times is packaged with politics and ideologies that are often inconsistent with Islamic principles and prophetic characteristics.

One may say that they referring to prophets as activists does not indicate any disrespect so what is the problem? Allah says in the Quran “Do not make [your] calling of the Messenger among yourselves as the call of one of you to another.”[8] Bedouins during the time of the Prophet would call upon him with loud voices using his name or kunya Abu Al-Qasim. Such was the nature of Bedouins who had rough personalities and this verse prohibited them from this characteristic. Calling prophets does not carry positive religious value nor does it offer an aspect of uniqueness. Anyone can be an activist, a Muslim and non-Muslim, a good person and a bad person, a pious person and an un-pious person, but only people chosen by Allah can be prophets and messengers. Therefore the most appropriate manner to address them is with the title “messenger” or “prophet.”

I encourage Muslims to reflect upon the following verse “O you who have believed, do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet or be loud to him in speech like the loudness of some of you to others, lest your deeds become worthless while you perceive not.” Disrespect of the Prophet can occur without one being aware and could have dire consequences such as the nullifying of the person’s deeds.

Allah knows best.

Shaykh Tarik Ata was born and raised in the Southwest Suburbs of Chicago. Shaykh Tarik pursued his higher education at Northern Illinois University where he attained a BA in psychology. After graduating from NIU, Shaykh Tarik studied at the World Islamic and Science Education University (also called the Islamic University) in Jordan. He received a BA in Islamic Jurisprudence and its foundations, as well as an MA in Islamic Jurisprudence with a specialty in Islamic commerce and finance. While working on his degrees, Sheikh Tarik also studied with scholars and achieved various certifications (ijazat) in Islamic Jurisprudence, the foundations of Jurisprudence, the science of Hadith, the Arabic language, Quranic recitation, and Islamic creed/theology. He is currently the imam at the Orange County Islamic Foundation.

[1] Quran 7:59-93, 11:25-95

[2] Quran 11:27

[3] Quran 11:84

[4] Quran 26:169

[5] See Quran 6:74-82, 7:59-94, 11:25-95, 26:1-191

[6] Quran 2:40-105, 7:138-163

[7] Quran 9:65-66

[8] Quran 24:63

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Responding to Quranism | #EmbracingQuran | Sh. Abdul Wahab Saleem

Shaykh Abdul Wahab Saleem



Quranism is the belief that the Quran is the only source for Islam and sharia. This means that Quranism and Quranists remove the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ from its role as one of the primary sources of Islam. Quranists are also known as Rejectors of Hadith or Hadith Rejectors.

This lecture is a detailed and systematic response to the misbeliefs of this growing sect in modern times. It comprises an overview of what Quranism is, a historical analysis of the development of Quranism, some of the major differences between Quranists and Muslims in both beliefs and practice, proofs from the Quran itself that disprove Quranism, and responses to some of the common claims of Quranists.




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Justice: The Absolute | Principle Guidelines for Scholars in Political Engagement

Shaykh Hasib Noor



The closest companion of the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) and his first successor, Abu Bakr raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) accepted Islam for one of the most powerful reasons the Prophet was sent with – to establish justice.

قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: «كُنْتُ جَالِسًا بِفِنَاءِ الْكَعْبَةِ، وَكَانَ زَيْدُ بْنُ عَمْرِو بْنِ نُفَيْلٍ قَاعِدًا، فَمَرَّ بِهِ أُمَيَّةُ بْنُ أَبِي الصَّلْتِ، فَقَالَ: كَيْفَ أَصْبَحْتَ يَا بَاغِيَ الْخَيْرِ؟ قَالَ: بِخَيْرٍ، قَالَ: هَلْ وَجَدْتَ؟ قَالَ: لَا، وَلَمْ آلُ مِنْ طَلَبٍ، فَقَالَ: كُلُّ دِينٍ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ إِلَّا مَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَالْحَنِيفَةُ بُورُ، أَمَا إِنَّ هَذَا النَّبِيَّ الَّذِي يُنْتَظَرُ مِنَّا أَوْ مِنْكُمْ، أَوْ مِنْ أَهْلِ فِلَسْطِينَ، قَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ: وَلَمْ أَكُنْ سَمِعْتُ قَبْلَ ذَلِكَ بِنَبِيٍّ يُنْتَظَرُ، أَوْ يُبْعَثُ، قَالَ: فَخَرَجْتُ أُرِيدُ وَرَقَةَ بْنَ نَوْفَلٍ، وَكَانَ كَثِيرَ النَّظَرِ فِي السَّمَاءِ، كَثِيرَ هَمْهَمَةِ الصَّدْرِ، قَالَ: فَاسْتَوْقَفْتُهُ، ثُمَّ اقْتَصَصْتُ عَلَيْهِ الْحَدِيثَ، فَقَالَ: نَعَمْ يَا ابْنَ أَخِي، أَبَى أَهْلُ الْكِتَابِ وَالْعُلَمَاءُ إِلَّا أَنَّ هَذَا النَّبِيَّ الَّذِي يُنْتَظَرُ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ الْعَرَبِ نَسَبًا، وَلِي عِلْمٌ بِالنَّسَبِ، وَقَوْمُكَ أَوْسَطُ الْعَرَبِ نَسَبًا، قَالَ: قُلْتُ: يَا عَمِّ، وَمَا يَقُولُ النَّبِيُّ؟ قُلْتُ: يَقُولُ مَا قِيلَ لَهُ، إِلَّا أَنَّهُ لَا ظُلْمَ وَلَا تَظَالُمَ، فَلَمَّا بُعِثَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ آمَنْتُ وَصَدَقْتُ»

رَوَاهُ ابْنُ الْأَثِيرِ وَابْنُ عَسَاكِرَ

Abu Bakr raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) said,
“I was sitting down in the courtyard of the Ka’bah, when I heard Zaid ibn ‘Amr ibn Nufail and Ibn Abi As-Salt engaged in a conversation.

I heard one of them say that the time was drawing near when a Prophet would be sent to mankind. Abu Bakr said “Prior to that time, I had never heard about a Prophet that was about to be sent (to mankind). I went to Waraqah ibn Naufal, a man who would frequently stare at the sky and who would often whisper prayers to himself. When I saw him, I inquired from him and told him about what I had heard.

He said, ‘Yes, O son of my brother. I am a person who is familiar with (revealed) books and (divinely revealed) knowledge. Indeed, this Prophet that is awaited has the noblest lineage among all Arabs. I have some knowledge about genealogy, and I know that your people have the best lineages among all Arabs.

I said, ‘O my uncle, what does a Prophet say?’ He said, ‘He says what is spoken to him (by the angel Jibril). He does not do injustice; he does not help others perpetrate injustice; and he does not tolerate injustice.’ Then when the Messenger of Allah was sent, I believed him and had faith in him.” (Ibn Al Athir, Ibn Asakir, Al Suyuti in Tarikh Al Khulafa)

There has been in recent days many articles and posts by individuals on the topic of scholars and political engagement. What seems to be missing from the discussion is what actually are guidelines for political engagement? What are red lines that can never be excused, what ‘nuances’ cannot be justified, or elaborate explanations given to foundationally wrong stances?

This discussion, of course, needs a long introduction and can span several detailed sciences that requires understanding of roughly all of the supplementary and objective sciences of Islam (alat and ghayat), but this requires as relevant understanding of political-social realities, as well as political-social science.

A scholar, who may be one of the most adept in the sciences of Islam (alat and ghayat), can also completely miss the boat in judgment and cause detriment to the community due to their lack of understanding, wrong estimation, or false judgment on realities: political realities, social, etc.

This is based on a very well-known principle in the science of derivative judicial law (usul):

حكم العالم مبني على الإجتهاد الظني ولا القطعي

The rulings given by a scholar in these matters are Dhanni (interpretative) and not Qat’i (definitive).

They are bound to make wrong judgments of course, and perhaps even on wrong political estimations. Great scholars in history have fallen into such mistakes: they range from justifying seeking positions of leadership, to attacking other Muslim nations, to even justifying the death of family members of a ruling party to preserve rule, establish order, and cull fitnah (insurrection, sedition).

Do Not Commit Oppression

Though an entire book can be written on this (and perhaps someday can be), there is one major principle that is the overarching guideline for scholars in political engagement.

This is the guideline in which God brings about justice and balance. With it, empires were established, and others were debased. Kings & sultans were given strength through it, and others were humiliated. The principle is the ultimate principle in which God’s Divine Laws function:

عَنْ اَلنَّبِيِّ ‏-صَلَّى اَللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ‏-‏- فِيمَا يَرْوِي‏ عَنْ رَبِّهِ‏- قَالَ:

يَا عِبَادِي! إِنِّي حَرَّمْتُ اَلظُّلْمَ عَلَى نَفْسِي, وَجَعَلْتُهُ بَيْنَكُمْ مُحَرَّمًا, فَلَا تَظَّالَمُوا
أَخْرَجَهُ مُسْلِمٌ.‏

The Prophet ﷺ narrated from Allah, the Most High that He has said,

“O my servants! I have made oppression (dhulm) unlawful for myself and I have made it unlawful among you, so do not oppress one another.” Muslim 1537

لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ ۖ وَأَنزَلْنَا الْحَدِيدَ فِيهِ بَأْسٌ شَدِيدٌ وَمَنَافِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَلِيَعْلَمَ اللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ وَرُسُلَهُ بِالْغَيْبِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَوِيٌّ عَزِيزٌ

We sent Our messengers with clear signs, the Scripture and the Balance, so that people could uphold justice (qist): We also sent iron, with its mighty strength and many uses for mankind, so that God could mark out those who would help Him and His messengers though they cannot see Him. Truly God is powerful, almighty. Quran 57:25

And our Beloved Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) would be asked about what he has come for, and he would say

وَأُمِرْتُ لِأَعْدِلَ بَيْنَكُمُ

“…and I have been commanded to establish justice among you…” Quran 42:15

Establishing Adl , Qist – Justice, & Removing Dhulm – Injustice, Oppression

This is the ultimate guideline in which all of the objectives of Islam revolve around.

عن قتادة أو الحسن أو كليهما قال : الظلم ثلاثة ظلم لا يغفر وظلم لا يترك وظلم يغفر فأما الظلم الذي لا يغفر فالشرك بالله وأما الظلم الذي لا يترك فظلم الناس بعضهم بعضا وأما الظلم الذي يغفر فظلم العبد نفسه فيما بينه وبين ربه

مصنف عبد الرزاق 11/183

AlHasan/Qatadah said

“Dhulm (oppression/injustice) is three
1.  Oppression that is not forgiven
2. Oppression that can never be left
3. Oppression that can be forgiven

The oppression that is not forgiven is associating partners with God.

The oppression that can never be left is of people oppressing others.

The oppression that can be forgiven is a servant oppressing themselves with sins that is between them and their lord.”

Ibn Al Qayyim went so far as to even say,

فإن الله أرسل رسله وأنزل كتبه ليقوم الناس بالقسط وهو العدل الذي به قامت السماوات والأرض فإذا ظهرت أمارات العدل وتبين وجهة بأي طريق كان فثم شرع الله ودينه والله تعالى لم يحصر طرق العدل وأدلته وعلاماته في شيء ونفي غيرها من الطرق التي هي مثلها أو أقوى منها بل بين ما شرعه من الطرق أن مقصودة إقامة العدل وقيام الناس بالقسط فأي طريق استخرج بها العدل والقسط فهي من الدين لا يقال إنها مخالفة له فلا تقول إن السياسة العادلة مخالفة لما نطق به الشرع بل موافقة لما جاء به بل هي جزء من أجزائه ونحن نسميها سياسة تبعا لمصطلحكم وإنما هي شرع حق
بدائع الفوائد 3/153

“Allah sent the message to the messengers and sent the books so that justice can be established for humanity. Due to this justice the heavens and the earth were established. If any sings of justice become clear, in any form, or in any way then that is the law of Allah and His faith. Allah did not limit the paths of justice, its evidences, or signs in anything. Nor did he reject any form of establishing such justice in other than it or stronger than it. Rather the establishment of justice is what is the objective and establishing it among humanity with diligence. Any way that reaches this justice is from the religion. It is never said that it is against it, and you cannot say that it is from just politics that can be against Divine law. Rather it is in accordance with it! It even is a part of it and we can call it politics to fit your terminologies but it surely is part of the divine law and truth.” Badai Al Fawaid 3/153

Siding against oppression and with the oppressed is what the Prophets came with.

Even God subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) says in more than one place to side with justice even if against your own selves, even if against your own, even if against your own families and kin.
Quran 4:135, 5:42, 10:47.

God even Says that the establishment of a divine just society MUST exist as this is what the Prophets have been sent with, and when it does not exist, and justice ceases to exist then the very REASON humanity was chosen for succeeding this world, and believers chosen to succeed the true faith of God and commissioned to pass the message to the rest of humanity – will have failed their mission and they will be replaced.

يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَىٰ فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَضِلُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا نَسُوا يَوْمَ الْحِسَابِ

O Dawud (David)! We have made you a successor on Earth. Judge fairly between people. Do not follow your desires, lest they divert you from Allāh’s path: those who wander from His path will have a painful torment because they ignore the Day of Reckoning.’ Quran 38:26

فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُم مَّا أُرْسِلْتُ بِهِ إِلَيْكُمْ ۚ وَيَسْتَخْلِفُ رَبِّي قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ وَلَا تَضُرُّونَهُ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ رَبِّي عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ حَفِيظٌ

But if you turn away, then I have conveyed the message with which I was sent to you, and my Lord will replace you with other successors. You cannot do Him any harm: it is my Lord who protects everything.’ Quran 11:57

Ibn Taymiyyah summarizes saying:

إن الله يقيم الدولة العادلة وإن كانت كافرة؛ ولا يقيم الظالمة وإن كانت مسلمة
مجموع الفتاوى 28/ 145-146

Allah will Establish a just country even it disbelieves, and Establish an oppressive country even if it is Muslim.

We will conclude with three statements on how Allah Established this absolute unequivocal principle in political engagement that the companions of the Prophet established the just society with. It is an absolute that cannot be ignored, it is based on this principle that the righteous succession of the Prophet (peace be on him) lasted for thirty years and many Muslim nations were established with, and it is also due to this principle that many of them were debased when they ceased to apply it.

Among the first things our Prophet taught eleven scholars from his companions who he sent to teach a nation whom had just accepted Islam, “The Prophet ﷺ sent Muadh to Yemen and said, “Be afraid, from the supplication of the oppressed as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah.”

Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, and Al Hasan stood for this principle and lived by it.

عن أبي بكر الصديق، رضي الله عنه ، قال‏:‏ يا أيها الناس إنكم لتقرءون هذه الآية‏:‏ ‏{‏يا أيها الذين آمنوا عليكم أنفسكم لا يضركم من ضل إذا اهتديتم‏}‏ ‏(‏‏(‏المائدة ‏:‏ 105‏)‏‏)‏ وإني سمعت رسول الله، صلى الله عليه وسلم، يقول‏:‏ “إن الناس إذا رأو الظالم فلم يأخذوا على يديه أوشك أن يعمهم الله بعقاب منه‏”‏ ‏(‏‏(‏رواه أبو داود، والترمذي، والنسائي بأسانيد صحيحة‏)‏‏)

Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:

“O you people! You recite this Verse: ‘O you who believe! Take care of your ownselves. If you follow guidance and forbid what is wrong no hurt can come to you from those who are in error.’ (5:105)

But I have heard Messenger of Allah ﷺ saying: “When people see an oppressor but do not prevent him from (doing evil), it is likely that Allah will punish them all.” Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi

Ka’b ibn Ujrah said: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, came to us while we were a group of nine and said,

“Indeed tyrannical rulers will come after me and whoever affirms their lies and supports their oppression has nothing to do with me and I have nothing to do with him, and he will not drink with me at the fountain in Paradise. Whoever does not affirm their lies and does not support their oppression is part of me and I am part of him, and he will drink with me at the fountain in Paradise.”Sunan An-Nasa’i 4207

عَنْ كَعْبِ بْنِ عُجْرَةَ قَالَ خَرَجَ عَلَيْنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَنَحْنُ تِسْعَةٌ فَقَالَ إِنَّهُ سَتَكُونُ بَعْدِي أُمَرَاءُ مَنْ صَدَّقَهُمْ بِكَذِبِهِمْ وَأَعَانَهُمْ عَلَى ظُلْمِهِمْ فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي وَلَسْتُ مِنْهُ وَلَيْسَ بِوَارِدٍ عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ وَمَنْ لَمْ يُصَدِّقْهُمْ بِكَذِبِهِمْ وَلَمْ يُعِنْهُمْ عَلَى ظُلْمِهِمْ فَهُوَ مِنِّي وَأَنَا مِنْهُ وَهُوَ وَارِدٌ عَلَيَّ الْحَوْضَ

4207 سنن النسائي كتاب البيعة ذكر الوعيد لمن أعان أميرا على الظلم

المحدث ابن حجر العسقلاني خلاصة حكم المحدث صحيح

Our Prophet peace be on him also said

إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُؤَيِّدُ هَذَا الدِّينَ بِالرَّجُلِ الْفَاجِرِ
صحيح مسلم 111
“Indeed Allah aids this faith even by a sinful person.” Muslim 111

But God will never give success, succession, or aid to anyone that aids in any form of oppression.

And Allah Knows Best.


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