Guest post by Abdul Wahab Saleem (Facebook/Twitter)

I received a question on my Facebook page recently about what the difference between a Shaykh and an Ustādh is. This is a question that I remember being confused about over a decade ago. I remember growing up as a child wondering, “Who is a Shaykh? What defines an `Ālim? Why do we call some speakers 'brother' and others 'Shaykh'?” I began searching for an answer at a very young age by asking people in whose knowledge I felt confident. My search led me to a brother who was studying at the Islamic University of Madīna and was back for the summer. He gave me a response which temporarily quenched my thirst for an answer. For the next couple of years I thought I had finally figured out the riddle.

Who is Shaykh?

I asked him, “Who is a Shaykh?” He replied, “A Shaykh is an `Ālim and Allāh says in the Qur'ān describing the `Ulamā', 'It is only the scholars among the slaves of Allah who have true fear of Him.' And Allāh knows best.” This was truly the most profound answer I had heard yet, only to find out later that it wasn't entirely accurate. The verse is not exactly defining who `Ulamā' are; rather, it merely states that the quality of true fear of Allāh is particular to those who know, i.e. `Ulamā'. I would suggest that “those who know” provides both a verb and a subject but lacks an object. The object in the sentence could be the word Allāh which has been omitted because of how evident it is. The sentence would then come out to mean something like this, “Only those who know [Allāh], from among His slaves, have true fear of Him.”

A few years down the road, I found myself rethinking this question as I was in a different environment. The word Shaykh no longer had the same meanings I was used to ascribing to it in Canada. “Shaykh” was commonly thrown around for numerous different reasons such as respect, age, Islamic activism and sometimes even money. However, now I was able to do some basic research work in Arabic. The excited young Abdul Wahab Saleem started looking into the Arabic lexicons to see if he could find a true definition for the word, Shaykh. Sadly, I came to the realization that the word Shaykh has an entirely different linguistic meaning which doesn't provide the answer for which I long searched. 

The word Shaykh linguistically means “the one who has become clearly old and grey hair has started to appear on his face.” Other lexicographers suggest that the word Shaykh refers to an individual above the age of 50. However, it seems that an uncommon usage of the verbal noun in the following verbal sentence, “shayyakhat-hu da`watu-hu shaykh-aN” (his call transformed him into a noble person) indicates meanings such as glory and reverence. Now that the word Shaykh didn't seem very useful to me, neither in its linguistic meaning nor the way it was used by the Arabs in the Arab world, I tried to search for another term which holds the same meanings I often ascribed to the word Shaykh in Canada. I recalled the term `Ālim used in the famous `Ālim course. It seemed that the modern usage of the word `Ālim in Arabia went hand in hand with its usage in the Indian subcontinent. This usage of the word `Ālim is a popular synonym for the word Shaykh, at least in certain denominations of western Muslims.

Al-`Ālim

My new endeavor became to unfold the definition and the mysterious process of preparing an `Ālim which would in turn give me a lead to defining the word Shaykh. I began to ask scholars who I expected would be able to solve the riddle. Sadly, I normally received answers which I can now bravely proclaim to either have been incomplete or inaccurate. One day, as I sat through an early morning Usūl al-Fiqh class in one of my teachers houses he spoke about the word `Ālim saying, “Al-`Ālim is the one who has `ilm (knowledge) of the Islamic sciences.” Suddenly, light bulbs started going on in my head and the puzzle started to come together. I thought to myself, “the Arabic article Al holds three primary meanings and only one of the three fits well with this word!? You should've known all along!”

There it was. I had finally figured out the first part of the riddle. When the article Al is used with an active particle it transforms the word into a sentence. Al-`Ālim, the knower, really means “the one knows.” As explained earlier in this article, “the one who knows” is not a complete sentence rather it requires an object. Quite clearly this object should be defined as the one who knows “the Islamic sciences.”

This led me to the second part of the riddle, “what exactly are the Islamic sciences?” At this point in my life I already had a general idea of what the Islamic sciences are. I had even acquired an intermediate understanding of some of the Islamic sciences by now, but I still didn't really know what the primary and supporting sciences were. Having solved the first part of the riddle, I restructured my question to scholarly figures from, “Who is an `Ālim?” to “What does one have to study?” This question stemmed from my observation that some scholars teach books which they have never studied themselves, yet they produce extraordinary commentaries on these works. Multiple opinions were thrown at me in my quest to define what must be studied. After much consideration, consultation and experience in both learning and teaching I produced a small list of sciences which I believe are standard subjects taught globally as core sciences of Sharī`ah which must be studied at an advanced level in order for someone to be considered a Shaykh.

Islamic sciences are divided into two categories; al-Ālāt and al-Ghāyāt. Al-Ālāt, which literally means the tools, are tools which allow an individual to be able to comprehend accurately and comfortably al-Ghāyāt. Al-Ghāyāt, which literally means the goals, are subjects which a person aims to accurately understand through the assistance of the tools. With this remedy in your mind you can literally develop scholarly talents without actually going overseas for a 6-10 year study term.

What are these mysterious sciences?

Al-Ālāt, which should be studied prior to dedicating ones time to al-Ghāyāt, are 6 sciences in total:

1- Naḥw (Grammar)

2- Ṣarf (Morphology)

3- Balāghah (Arabic rhetoric) which is further divided in three sciences (Ma`āni, Bayān, Badī').

4- Adab (Arabic literature)

5- Usūl al-Fiqh (Islamic legal thought)

6- Muṣtalaḥ al-Ḥadīth (Sciences of Ḥadīth)

Note: Some scholars add Manṭiq (Logic) to this list, others submit that there is no reason to study this science and another group deems the study of Manṭiq impermissible.

Al-Ghāyāt can be summed up into the following 5 core sciences:

1- Qur'ān: which includes recitation, tafsīr and Ulūm al-Qur'ān (sciences of the Qur'ān).

2-Hadīth (Prophetic traditions)

3-`Aqīdah (Islamic creed)

4- Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence)

5- Sīrah (Biography of the Prophet Muḥammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him))

This is the ideal course of study that every student of knowledge should complete at an advanced level. But considering the reality of affairs, most Shuyukh haven't actually completed the study of all of these sciences at an advanced level. Based on observation, I have divided those who are normally entitled Shuyukh in the western context into three categories:

1- Those who have actually completed all the studies related to the aforementioned subjects.

2- Those who have a working knowledge of all of these sciences and have mastery of at least one.

3- Those who have shown considerable involvement in Da`wah work, who are not scholars nor do they aspire to be, but have either grey in their beards or have reached a significant age, achieving the linguistic version of the title, “Shaykh.” The western Muslim usage of terms such as, Sīdī, Shaykh, and `Ālim renders them synonymous. However, each is normally affiliated with a different faction of Islamic scholarship.

The term Ustadh

In my years away from Canada, a term that I wasn't very familiar with upon leaving Canada began to gain popularity. The term Ustādh finds it's etymological routes in the Persian word Ostâd. The Persian term “Ostâd” originally refers to someone with profound expertise in a certain subject. Consequently, the term Ustādh in Arabic is coined for an adept scholar. A common usage for the word Ustādh in modern standard Arabic is for professors on a tenure-track appointment. An assistant professor is known as Ustādh MusāEid, an associate professor as an Ustādh Mushārik and a full professor as an Ustādh.

This etymological definition and modern arabic usage of the term is of course quite different from our usage of it in the west. The word Ustādh is normally used in the west for a budding scholar showing evident signs of an intermediate level of study. In the east, this term is used in many different ways including the one mentioned above.

I can expect some of you to look at this article and say, “What is the ultimate purpose of writing an article on this subject whilst the Ummah is in need of greater issues to be discussed?” My answer to that is in two ways. Firstly, a purpose behind this article is to define who an `Ālim is so that people approach their endeavors in a directed manner. I have tried asking numerous students of knowledge what they are studying or wish to study in the near future and found that the bulk of us don't have ample direction in our endeavor to study Islam. In a more practical sense, studying Tafsīr ibn Kathīr whilst one hasn't sought al-Ālāt is not the best approach to Tafsīr. In addition, likely the teacher who has taken up the mantle of teaching you Tafsīr ibn Kathīr hasn't studied it himself. What made him qualified to teach and not you? It's the mastery of these sciences that I have listed above.

In my humble opinion, if someone adapts sincerity and approaches knowledge with dedication through the aforementioned sciences he will begin to show clear signs of scholarly thought within 5-10 years. I have shared this remedy with numerous fellow students during my days in Riyāḍ and saw profound development over a course of 2-4 years.

Secondly, the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) commanded us to treat people with due respect, especially those with knowledge. Each individual should only be given the amount of respect he truly deserves. Imam Muslim writes in the beginning of his masterpiece, Saḥīḥ Muslim, “The man of high status should be given the respect to which he is entitled and the one who has a low level of knowledge should not be elevated above his status. Every person should be given his due [of respect] and should be honoured in accordance with his status. It was narrated from `Ā'ishah raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her) that she said: The Messenger of Allāh ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) commanded us to place all people in their due stations (i.e., give people due respect).”

Lastly, it's of paramount importance to recognize that these titles are in no way an indication of piety. In the religious circles, too often do we associate piety with popularity and titles. Those who do acquire knowledge of the Islamic sciences should make a sincere effort to recognize their inadequacy. A sincere quest for knowledge is bound to lead to the recognition of ones own ignorance. I ask Allāh subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) to grant us the understanding of knowledge which guides us through the transitory life to prosperity in the hereafter.

And Allāh knows best.

For more details and answers to common questions on this subject please check out the lecture on this subject

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25 Responses

  1. Koshur_Muslim

    I don’t know if it’s just me, but to me a “Shaykh” is a rich Gulf Arab guy wearing a Keffiyeh.

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  2. Rabya

    Ma sha Allah! Much needed explanation.And very enlightening on the concept of al-Ālāt and al-Ghāyāt. Taking note of it henceforth.
    BarakAllahu feek.

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  3. Chris AbdulHaqq Caras

    JazaakAllahu khairan. What timing! I’m giving a lecture series in my local masjid called “the road to Islamic scholarship” discussing nearly everything you mentioned here but you saved me some research! One thing important to add as well is:

    What is the significance of ijaazah in Islamic scholarship?

    I’ve met a lot of folks who believe that if someone has an ijaazah, in ANYTHING, then they are a scholar–unaware of how EASY it is to get an ijaazah nowadays in nearly everything except the Quran. I recall a friend of mine from Medinah saying in so many words, “Now that I’ve gotten an ijaazah in nearly every book ever written, the only thing remaining is just studying the books!” And we all laughed, lol, sadly, *sigh*. For example, some shuyookh gave ijaazahs to a certain baby before the baby realized what was going on–he later became Imam adh-dhahabi, the scholar of qiraa’aat, hadeeth and history, and he used those ijaazahs quite often. I was even present when a certain huge scholar from Mauritania said “I pass my ijaazahs along to everyone in this room”. And this is how simple it is and that kind of speech isn’t too uncommon and the scholars of hadeeth have classified it as a type of ijaazah. The point is, it has a symbolic value more than anything and demonstrates that the chain of scholars passing the info along–even without the rigorous study between the teacher and the student–is still very much alive, but it shouldn’t be understood as a criterion for recognizing/dismissing scholarship by any means.

    As the author mentioned, teaching a text *should* necessitate that the teacher has the qualifications to do so, or at least, they limit their commentary to those realms that they have been properly trained in. BaarakAllahu feek.

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    • Abdul Wahab Saleem

      W Iyyaak and Wa Feeka Baarak. Feel free to use the content and to refer the audience to the article :).

      In terms of the Ijaazah system, there seems to be different approaches on how the Ijaazahs are granted. What you have witnessed, as have I at numerous occasions, is known within the circles as Ijaazat tabarruk. Such Ijaazahs have no value in gauging the knowledge of the student rather for all we know that recipient may not even be a student of knowledge. Another sort of Ijaazah is known as Ijaazah `ilmiyyah. These are the Ijaazahs that hold some value within the circles and are often good indications that the student may have a level of understanding in the respective science/text. Unfortunately, seldom as it maybe, these Ijaazahs may also be found with unwarranted candidates.

      However, depending on the Shaykh/Institute that one earned his Ijaazah `Ilmiyyah from it may prove to be a strong indication of academic merit. Moreover, these types of Ijaazahs may actually be equivalent to or surpass the modern-day degree system.

      And Allah knows best!

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  4. Mohammad Irfan Khan

    Assalaamu alaikum Shaykh Abdul Wahab Saleem,

    This was an excellent article! I have greatly benefited from this, Jazaak Allahu khairen! I would like to request you to write further on this topic of division of knowledge and how to grasp them. :)

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    • Abdul Wahab Saleem

      Wa Alykum Assalam,

      I am glad you benefitted from the article and hope that Allah grants you success in your endeavours. Did you get around to listen to the lecture. The lecture has more information on the topic.

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  5. Umm hadi

    Masha Allah the passion of Deen is flowing from your article. May Allah keep you steadfast on his Deen. Ameen.

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    • rmirza

      I totally agree with umm hadi. It looks like you really take the ‘journey’ on the path to knowledge as a serious travel.

      May Allaah make more of us like you, br. saleem.

      ‘AR

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  6. O H

    Jazak Allaahu Khair. Always had this question! Heard vague replies to this question before and also heard something along the lines of recognition by fellow scholars, etc of who can be considered a shaykh/scholar etc or I maybe mixing up another concept.

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  7. fo11

    If you are studying usool al-fiqh shouldn’t you have found your answer of who is an Alim or a sheikh? I remember Abdur-Rahman Hassan (a tulab al-ilm) saying the sheikh is the one who can do ijtihad.

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    • Sunny Salman Jamil

      See, your answer is similar to the dissatisfying answer the author first came across regarding `aalim: “the one who knows”. These explanations are useful, but they do not explain what a person must do in order to attain the level of ‘ustaadh, `aalim, and shaykh.

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  8. Anjum

    Barak Allahu Feeka for an eye opening article.
    I have been quite surprised by every speaker at Masajids or conventions being referred to as a Shaikh. The exception is Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan who does not like being called a Shaikh, infact he makes it a point to correct the presenter or moderator, saying he is not a shaikh. May Allah reward him for his humility, Ameen

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    • Sunny Salman Jamil

      Indeed, there are only a few self-identified ‘ustaadhs out there. ‘Ustaadh Nouman Ali Khan being one and ‘Ustaadhah Yasmin Mogahed being another. But then there are a lot of non-shaykhs who are referred to as ‘imaam. Then again, ‘Imaams ‘Aboo Haneefah, Maalik, Ash-Shaafi`, and Ahmad must have been shaykhs, right?

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  9. aksayed

    In Islam, the dichotomy of the secular and the religious does not exist. Furthermore, if Islam is not a religion, then the Arabic word “deen” would mean “way of life”, not “religion”. Similarly, the word “Aalim” would mean “scholar” and not a “priest”. In the same way, if we took the word “ibbadat”, it would mean “serve” and not “worship” God, because men who recognize God according to reason, not religion, serve Him as caliphs (vicegerents) and khalil (friends). In addition to this, we are also inspired by the Qur’an to believe that in the Islamic way of life, where the dichotomy of the secular and religious does not exist, the scholars and caliphs do not function according to the religious methodology of taqlid, aqidah, silsila, khanqah, sainthood, sects and madhabs. They function only according to the secular and scientific methodology of ilm-ul-yaqin, ayn-ul-yaqin and haqq-ul-yaqin under the guidance of Allah (SWT). These are more or less some of the differences between religion and way of life in Islam. Therefore, in Islam, it is wrong to establish “deeni talim” according to the religious methodology of taqlid, aqidah, silsila, khanqah, sainthood, etc, using Fiqh of Hadith. It makes Islam a religion just like any other religion which has deviated from “the straight path” which is inspired by the Qur’an. Therefore, the correct way to establish “deeni talim” in Islam is by using the secular and scientific methodology of ilm-ul-yaqin, ayn-ul-yaqin and haqq-ul-yaqin with the Fiqh of the Qur’an just like any other subject that is taught in secular schools.

    *This comment was edited by the MM Comments Team in order to comply with our Comments Policy*

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  10. Sunny Salman Jamil

    In your lecture, you explain that the scholars and students of knowledge for centuries have unanimously adopted a madh-hab and that the madh-hab of the layman is the one who he or she asks. Subhaana llaah! You hear this reality very less nowadays. May Allaah bless you for your efforts. An outline of the method to acquire Islamic knowledge, like the one you have produced, has been in my mind for quite a while!

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  11. aksayed

    Dear Sunny, since there are no objections forthcoming to what I have said about “the path” we should follow in our deen, I think it is important that we place no doubt whatsoever in what we follow, because in Islam, it is not only important to eliminate religion and the dichotomy of the secular and religious but it is also important to eliminate all ambiguities that exist within our deen and imaan. For example, in future you might be asked, “If Islam is not a religion then how come you believe in God, His Books and Prophets and what then is salaah, masjid, etc?” In addition to this you might also be asked to define Sunnah and Shariah without the Fiqh of Hadith. Therefore, in order to meet these challenges, I have prepared a four page document which I have titled, “Apart from the Truth what remains but Error”. You will find it in my WordPress blog at http://wp.me//p4ktOT-e.

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  12. Mahmud

    Assalamualaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh

    Please clarify a little what Arabic Literature means here:

    4- Adab (Arabic literature)

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