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‘Id Prayers During Corona Pandemic
`Id prayers have the same conditions as the jumu`ah prayer. Since the jumu`ah is not held at home according to the most preferred opinion, similarly the `id will not be prayed at home during lockdown. Jumu`ah has its replacement and that is the zuhr prayer. The `id prayer has no replacement; so, people should not do any prayer on the `id day before zuhr. Rather, they should continue to utter the takbir, and do other forms of dhikr, to mark the completion of Ramadan and express their thanks for it.
Shaykh Akram Nadwi
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Regarding Ṣalāt al-Eid in light of the COVID-19 lockdown:
In those communities where the masjids have not yet opened, Ṣalāt al-Eid should be prayed in one’s houses with one’s own family, and there is no need for a khuṭbah.
The Eid prayer is not the same as the Friday prayer, as Friday prayer has different conditions and rulings. While the general rule is that Eid ṣalat should be prayed in a large congregation, it is permissible even in regular circumstances for the one who missed Eid ṣalat to make it up at home. The servant of the Prophet (saw), Anas b. Mālik (r ) once missed the Eid prayer in Basrah, so he gathered his family and had one of his household lead them in two rak’ats. And Aṭāʿ b. Abī Rabāḥ (d. 114 AH) said regarding the one who missed the Eid prayer, “Let him pray two rak’ats and say the takbīrs”. Hammād b. Abī Sulayman (d. 120 AH), the famous scholar of Kufa and teacher of Abu Ḥanīfa, said when asked the same question, “He should pray as they prayed, and do the takbīrat as they did” [These reports are in the Muṣannaf of Ibn Abī Shaybah, 2/4-5]. All of these reports are regarding those who missed Eid for any reason. Notice that the Friday prayer would not be ‘made up’ like this, and one who misses Friday prays Dhuhr instead.
Hence, given our current situation, there is no problem in advising families to observe all of the Sunnahs of Eid (of taking a ghusl, eating a breakfast, wearing one’s best [permissible] garments, saying the general takbīrat after Fajr, etc.) and then praying a congregational prayer at home with one’s family.
The Eid prayer has special takbīrat. There are 7 takbīrat in the first rak’at inclusive of takbīrat al-iḥrām, and 6 in the second rak’at inclusive of the takbīrat al-qiyām – this is the position of the Ḥanbalī school, and Ibn Taymiyyah. Note that Shafi’is say 7 not including the takbrat al-ihrām (that would make 8 total); as well the Ḥanafis state 4 takbīrat inclusive of iḥram and qiyām for both rak’ats.
As well, the Eid khutbah is not a requirement of the prayer, hence there is no need to give one. All four schools of law state that the khuṭbah of Eid is not obligatory. In the report above, Anas merely prayed two rak’ats and didn’t ask his servant to deliver a khuṭbah. Alternatively, it would be allowed for masjids to broadcast Eid khuṭbahs, and all families pray their individual congregational prayers at a given time, and then, after they finish their own Eid prayers, they can listen to a khutbah broadcast live from their masjid as a general reminder.
And Allah knows best.
Shaykh Dr Yasir Qadhi
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Performing ʿĪd Prayers at Home
There is a difference of opinion between the various schools on this issue. Given the current situation, people are permitted and encouraged to perform the ʿĪd prayer at home.
The Ḥanafī School
According to the Ḥanafī school, the ʿĪd prayer is not performed at home by individuals. Rather, it is a communal event similar to the Friday prayer that needs to fulfil the same conditions as the latter including being performed in congregation, with the community and its designated imam(s), and in a publicly accessible area. (al-Kāsānī, Badāʿi al-ṣanā’iʿ, 1:275; Ṣadr al-Sharīʿa, Sharḥ al-wiqāya, 1:183; Ibn al-Humām, Fatḥ al-qadīr, 2:29)
Two further questions arise following this that are relevant to the current situation:
(a) If one is unable to perform the ʿĪd prayer, or misses its performance with the community, should he perform another prayer? All major texts of the school state that it is recommended in this case to perform a normal supererogatory prayer instead at home, which may be two or four cycles and can count as ṣalāt al-ḍuḥā.
(b) Can this prayer be performed in congregation? The general rule in the Ḥanafī school is that it is neither recommended nor a sunna to perform supererogatory prayers in congregation and may actually be disliked. However, some jurists mention that it would be permitted without dislikedness to perform supererogatory prayers in congregation if it is (i) done only on the rare occasion and (ii) in small congregations not involving openly inviting large numbers of people to the prayer. (Ibn ʿĀbidīn, Radd al-muḥtār, 2:500-01)
(c) Is there any difference of opinion in the Ḥanafī school on the ruling of performing ʿĪd at home? Yes, there are scholars in the school who interpret the conditions for the ʿĪd prayer in a manner that would permit the performance of this prayer at home with a minimum congregation of four people. This is not my preferred reading of the school.
The Shafiʿī school permits ʿĪd prayer at home – whether individually or as part of a congregation – because they deem the ʿĪd prayer as similar to any other supererogatory prayer. It is performed as two cycles with twelve extra takbīrāt – seven in the first cycle immediately after the opening supplication (istiftāḥ) and five upon rising for the second cycle before the taʿawwudh. (al-Nawawī, Rawdat al-ṭālibīn, 1:578).
The Mālikī and Ḥanbalī schools also have mainstream and relied-upon views permitting ʿĪd at home. For details, one should consult scholars from these schools.
COVID-19, ʿĪd Prayer, & Festivities
In light of the difference of opinion on the issue, the unprecedented situation Muslim are facing, and the need for many to maintain the performance of ʿĪd and make it a day of joyous celebration, gratitude to Allah, and worship for one’s family, individuals are permitted and in fact encouraged to perform ʿĪd prayers at home – whether individually or in congregation with their families.
If someone chooses to follow the stronger Ḥanafī view that ʿĪd is not permitted in the home, they may perform a normal supererogatory prayer with their family, i.e. even as a congregation, but they should not add any extra takbīrāt. This would be permitted as it is a rare and one-off occurrence with the limited members of one’s household.
It is also recommended for people to continue honouring this day by taking a bath, wearing one’s best clothing, applying fragrances, maintaining familial ties, and, importantly, making efforts to make the day memorable for children by partaking in things that elicit happiness and jubilation. As the Prophet (blessings upon him) said, “Every nation has its day of celebration, and this is our day of celebration.” (al-Bukhārī) The reality of this day as one of celebration where we express thankfulness to Allah remains even if we are unable to proceed with ʿĪd in the manner normally done in the past.
And Allah alone knows best
Shaykh Salman Younas
May 11th, 2020/ 17th Ramadan, 1441
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Praying Eid Prayer At Home Due To COVID-19/Coronavirus Pandemic
In the name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.
All praise belongs to Allah, and may prayers and peace be upon Allah’s Messenger, his family, his Companions, and those that followed.
The Eid prayer is one of the obvious symbols of Islam. The scholars’ rulings on it vary, deeming it a communal obligation, an individual obligation, or at least a highly stressed sunnah.
Because that which is easy is not voided due to difficulty, so long as it is possible, even in the most stringent of circumstances, it should not be neglected.
Similar to the Jumu’ah (Friday) prayer, which is performed within its permitted framework, even if only by the masjid administration, so too should the Eid prayer be performed.
The issue of performing the Eid prayer at home for those who missed it in congregation is rather lenient.
While the khutbah is a condition of validity for Jumu’ah, it is a recommendation (not mandatory) for both Eids. This is supported by the narration of ʿAbdullāh b. al-Sa’ib who said, “I attended the Eid with Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) and he said, ‘We are going to deliver a sermon, so whoever wants to sit for the sermon should sit, and whoever wants to leave should leave’.” Therefore, neither the khutbah nor listening to it is a requirement of the Eid prayer.
Though the Friday prayer should be primarily performed in the masjid, the Eid prayer is primarily performed outdoors, in an open space outside of the masjid.
Because of that, the majority of the jurists, with the exception of the Hanafis, have declared it permissible to perform it at home for whoever missed it in congregation. It has been narrated on the authority of Anas (may Allah be pleased with him) that if he missed the Eid prayer with the imam, he would gather his family and servants, and ʿAbdullāh b. Abi Utbah would lead them in two rak’at, making takbir.
Al-Muzani related from al-Shāfi’i (may Allah have mercy on him) in Mukhtasar al-Umm, that “the individual should pray both Eids in their home, and so should the traveler, the bondservant, and the woman.”
According to the Malikis, al-Khurashy, a Maliki jurist, said, “It is recommended for whoever misses the Eid prayer with the imam to pray it. Should that be done in a congregation or alone? There are two opinions” (summarized from Sharh al-Khurashi, 2/104).
Al-Mardawi, a Hanbali jurist, said in al-Insaf, “If they miss the prayer (meaning Eid) it is recommended to make it up in the manner it is normally prayed (just as the imam prays it).”
The fatwa of the Permanent Committee in Saudi Arabia is based on this.
Accordingly, there is no harm in performing the Eid prayer at home, individually or in (one’s household) congregation, for those who miss the Eid prayer in congregation or are unable to perform it in congregation due to some constraint.
There is also nothing wrong with listening to a sermon on TV, online, and so on, after performing the Eid prayer at home, either alone or in a private congregation, as a general reminder; because general reminders are permitted regardless of the time or setting.
And Allah the Exalted knows best.
AMJA Fatwa Committee
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Answer by Mufti Muhammad ibn Adam al-Kawthari
Approved by Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani
There is a bit of confusion, amongst Muslims residing in the UK, in relation to Hadhrat Shaykh al-Islam Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani’s view/fatwa on offering Jumu’a Salat in ‘non-Muslim countries’ due to the Corona virus outbreak (may Allah protect us all) and the subsequent lockdown. It will be greatly appreciated if Hadhrat’s official view is provided in English for the benefit of Muslims residing in the UK and other non-Muslim countries.
Currently, here in the UK, the government has disallowed congregational prayers, amongst other things. Permission has only been granted for key workers (such as the Imam, Mu’adhin and khadim) to go to the Masjid and live stream services from the Masjid. Therefore, many Masajid have closed for the general public. However, the Adhan is called out for the five daily prayers, and two/three people (usually the Imam and Mu’adhin) attend and offer the Salat, which is generally streamed live.
In view of this, we would like to know:
1) What is the Shari’a ruling on a few (4/5) ‘designated’ people performing Jumu’a Salat in the Masjid? The general public do not have access to the Masjid. However, these few people (generally Imam and admin staff) have special access (such as keys to the main or side entrance) and they attend and offer Jumu’a. Is Jumu’a salat permitted and valid in this manner? (Keep in mind that if someone did turn up for Jumu’a, they would not be refused)
2) Is it permitted for the general public to perform Jumu’a (e.g. 4 family members) at home, or they should perform Zuhr? And if Zuhr, then individually or in congregation?
3) If the lockdown continues till Eid, what will the ruling be for Eid salat, can it be performed at home?
In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,
1) It is permitted – rather encouraged – to have a few people perform Jumu’a salat in the Masjid, even if their number is restricted due to the government guidelines. This, however, is provided the number of those attending fulfils the minimum requirement for the validity of Jumu’a (four people including the Imam). It is better not to have the Masjid doors closed for Jumu’a, though the Salat would be permitted if they are shut due to the current government restriction.
2) The condition for the permissibility of performing Jumu’a Salat, even in non-Muslim countries, is that general permission (idhn aam) is granted for all Muslims to attend. However, large places within the city, consisting of many people – such as prisons, airports and big factories – are exempted. Jumu’a is permitted in such places, even if permission is not granted to the general public due to security and administrative reasons, provided all those inside are not prevented from attending Jumu’a. (See: Fatawa Usmani 1/523)
In light of the current lockdown, Muslims residing in non-Muslim countries may perform Jumu’a in places like a compound or hall, where people are not refused from attending. If this is not possible or the law does not allow it, then they should perform Zuhr at home in congregation, and if not possible then individually.
3) The ruling for Eid Salat follows that of Jumu’a, mentioned in answer two. Those at home who are unable to perform Eid Salat [at the Masjid/Musalla] may perform two or four Rak’at Nafl prayers individually without any extra takbirat.
(و) السابع: (الإذن العام) من الإمام، وهو يحصل بفتح أبواب الجامع للواردين كافي، فلا يضر غلق باب القلعة لعدو أو لعادة قديمة لأن الإذن العام مقرر لأهله وغلقه لمنع العدو لا المصلي، نعم لو لم يغلق لكان أحسن كما في مجمع الأنهر معزيا لشرح عيون المذاهب قال: وهذا أولى مما في البحر والمنح فليحفظ (فلو دخل أمير حصنا) أو قصره (وأغلق بابه) وصلى بأصحابه (لم تنعقد) ولو فتحه وأذن للناس بالدخول جاز وكره (تنوير الأبصار مع الدر المختار: 152/2)
(والإذن العام) وهو أن يفتح أبواب الجامع للواردين، قالوا: السلطان إذا أراد أن يصلي بحشمه في داره فإن فتح الباب وأذن إذنا عاما جازت الصلاة ولكن يكره وإلا لم يجز كما في الكافي، وما يقع في بعض القلاع من غلق أبوابه خوفا من الأعداء أو كانت له عادة قديمة عند حضور الوقت فلا بأس به لأن إذن العام مقرر لأهله ولكن لو لم يكن لكان أحسن كما في شرح عيون المذاهب. وفي البحر والمنح خلافه لكن ما قررناه أولى لأن الإذن العام يحصل بفتح باب الجامع وعدم المنع ولا مدخل في غلق باب القلعة وفتحه ولأن غلق بابها لمنع العدو لا لمنع غيره تدبر (مجمع الأنهر: 166/1)
قال التمرتاشي والحصكفي في الدر المختار: فإن عجز صلى أربعا كالضحى. قال ابن عابدين: (قوله صلى أربعا كالضحى) أي استحبابا كما في القهستاني وليس هذا قضاء لأنه ليس على كيفيتها ط. قلت: وهي صلاة الضحى كما في الحلية عن الخانية فقوله تبعا للبدائع كالضحى معناه أنه لا يكبر فيها للزوائد مثل العيد (رد المحتار: 175/2)
And Allah knows best
Muhammad ibn Adam
[Shaykh Mufti] Muhammad Taqi Usmani [may Allah protect him]
29-08-1441 / 23-04-2020