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Why Studying And Teaching Aqidah is Necessary for the Ulama And Students of Knowledge

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Sunnism is suffering an identity crisis: other than not self-identifying as a Shī’ite, very few people who identify as Sunnīs can explain what beliefs makes a person a Sunnī. This has left a bleeding wound in people’s conception of Islām, through which infections such as Qādiyānism, Rāfidism, Progressivism, Modernism, and other forms of misguidance cause many well-meaning people great damage to both their faith as well as their worldly existence.

Otherworldly concerns of protecting people from the harm of odious deviation from the pure faith, which can delay or deny salvation, tag along with the deleterious effects of the pursuits of sectarian agendas in the guise of religion which are literally burning entire nations like Syria and Yemen to the ground in front of our eyes. At the same time Muslims living in North America and Europe are witnessing a coup against established legal, cultural and spiritual norms in the name of progressivism and liberalism, which confusingly seem to come from quarters which are, politically, less openly hostile to some version of an established Muslim presence. The chasm which is opening because of this coup threatens to divide what used to be the common Sunnī identity in these lands into a Reform/Conservative/Orthodox-type divide which currently exists in the Jewish community; the reform identity being roughly one of radically jettisoning canonical interpretive methodology and precedent. Conservatism is acknowledging the need to do what Reform Judaism did, while preserving the traditional forms of Judaism when practical. Orthodoxy has been seemingly left behind as an attempt to carry on the premodern Jewish theology and law, uninterrupted by modernity.

One should note that this divide within Judaism started from the United States, and has now pervaded the Jewish world, and likewise, if such a chasm formally opened up in the United States, it would be a matter of import for the entire ummah, as the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ stated, “You will follow those who went before you hand’s breadth for hand’s breadth, cubit for cubit, to the point that if they went into a lizard hole, you would also go into it.” They asked him ﷺ, “Do you mean the Jews and Christians?” He ﷺ replied, “Who else?” [1]

To the scholarly past of this ummah, the obvious place to find the necessary guidance to solve the above-mentioned problems should be in the books of ʿAqīdah of the Sunnī Kalām tradition; however, this seems to not be as obvious anymore to the ummah as it should be, and for that reason a number of problems arise.

The following tract, by Allāh’s help, is meant to investigate these problems, and to make the case that a serious revival of the study of ʿAqīdah in our communities is one of the foremost obligations upon Muslims today.

How Has the Study of Aqidah Fallen From Importance?

There are many reasons why the study of ʿAqīdah has fallen out of favor. Firstly, the lay public, due to sectarian influence of foreign groups, has come to see the word ʿAqīdah as a codeword for polemical infighting, something which most North American Muslims rightly intuit will lead to little or no benefit. Thus, the word ʿAqīdah now conjures up images of brothers pointing fingers upwards and asking, “Where is Allāh?” or whether or not you believe that the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ is omnipresent in all points of time and space. Such issues are irrelevant to the public.[2] Worse yet, they are weaponized by some and result in dissention and division within congregations.

Secondly, many madāris have severely downplayed if not outright jettisoned the study of Kalām[3] other than for the purpose of refuting heterodox groups. Worse yet, sectarian partisans use it to cut down other legitimate views within Sunnism, as if they are a patent falsehood, even though the matters at hand are, at most, differences of opinion. Although refutation is a legitimate purpose of the knowledge of ʿAqīdah, it is hardly the aim of its study. It is more important for a believer to know who he is, rather than who he isn’t: the former is based on the knowledge of revelation, whereas the latter is more conveniently facilitated by sectarian animus. It is important to note that revelation “taught man what he knew not”,[4] whereas even the people of falsehood are adept at circularly refuting one another.

Thirdly, much of the lay public has come to the idea that the old works of Kalām, even if a sentimentally important part of our intellectual heritage, lack relevance to today’s more pressing issues. Many may ask, what can Rāzī, Ghazālī, and Juwaynī practically teach me to prepare for an encounter with New Atheism or Liberalism, or any number of other prevalent ideologies at odds with the way of life prescribed by revelation?

The Role of Scholars & Students of Knowledge

For the reasons outlined above, scholars and students of knowledge have a responsibility[5] to act as facilitators and intermediaries between the laity and revelation’s Divine and prophetic sources. There are many benefits that the ummah will take from a clerical class well-grounded in Sunnī ʿAqīdah. Unfortunately, the very need for this class of specialists in the information age,[6] something taken for granted in past generations, requires explanation today.

Requisite Qualification

Pious and illuminated hearts and minds must disseminate the sacred creed of Islām, not use sectarianism to divide the ummah, build socio-political clout, or win followers and disciples,[7] but in order to show Muslims who they are, rather than who they aren’t. Only then will people once more start to see the Sunnī ʿAqīdah as a source of guidance and intellectual-spiritual order.

Indeed, the balance between the rational need for limits and an inclusivity which can only come from the generosity of being connected to the Divine is found in the Sunnī creed. Achieving this balance is a hallmark of being an imām[8] in this tradition. The emulation of the prophetic model is in bringing sincere believers together whenever it is possible, and separating individuals from the flock only when absolutely necessary. Thus, did Imām Ṭaḥāwī explicitly declare that anyone who meets even the most minimal standard for a valid islām is a walī[9] of Allāh, even if they are sinners or, in some instances even misguided.[10] It was a strong statement, and one he meant to make.

Large scale propagation of ʿAqīdah in such a way will negate the stigma of sectarianism by showing people the point of ʿAqīdah (a framework through which to view the world) and not a degenerate form of divisive sectarianism. It will also give people the understanding that whoever drives exclusionary sectarianism within the Sunnī populace, isn’t doing so as a representation of Sunnism; rather, it is a sign that something else is at play. In order to get the vastness of the ummah on to the same page in mind, then spirit and body, the framework of Sunnī ʿAqīdah must become the common thought currency between all Muslims, regardless of race, madhhab, Sufic association, socioeconomic status, occupation, or nationality.

The benefits to the ummah of the wide and proper dissemination of ʿAqīdah by no means stops there. Much of the abandonment of the commandments of the sacred Sharīʿah has to do with the lack of understanding amongst laypeople about the importance of Fiqh and its various sources rooted in revelation;[11] If they understood the importance of the law, they would be more avid to implement it, appreciating the elegance by which they are inseparable. In that sense, an overemphasis on the sacred law in comparison to both ʿAqīdah and Taṣawwuf when ministering to the public may be a cause of its diminished acceptance amongst that same public, as it is tough to bring the body to do things when the mind[12] and heart[13] aren’t in it.

As important as the dissemination of the sacred creed is, however, it can only be done on the heels of a solid understanding of it. This requires a depth of study by the scholarly class that goes beyond a basic minimum belief for a valid īmān. Maintaining a cohort of the learned who are custodians of such understanding is an obligation on communities; indeed, many a non-farḍ matter on individuals becomes a farḍ kifāyah on communities and sovereign states.[14] This is the case for all of the disciplines necessary in order for the Dīn of Allāh to be understood, implemented, and defended at individual and collective levels.

Methodology is Critical

This brings us to another matter which is one of great concern to anyone who has dedicated their life to knowledge, beyond the pursuit of degrees, ijāzāt, clerical career opportunities and fame as preachers and leaders; that is the uṣūlī nature of the sacred Sharīʿah. Uṣūl are the universal principles which make up for framework within which the individual rulings of the sacred Sharīʿah fit. The uṣūlī nature of the sacred Sharīʿah, and its understanding was always the crown pursuit of the greatest of the scholars. In fact, to call a scholar an uṣūlī is to bear witness to the integrated seamlessness and encyclopedic knowledge of the sharīʿah, bringing names like Ghazālī and Shāh Walīyyullāh to mind. The idea is that the Dīn of Allāh isn’t just a scattered distribution of rules, verses, statements and prohibitions to be read atomistically;[15] rather, those discrete data points fit into uṣūlī models and theoretical frameworks that undergird the different branches of learning in Islām. Thus, Ḥadīth is governed by uṣūl al-Ḥadīth, Fiqh is governed by uṣūl al-Fiqh[16], Tafsīr is governed by uṣūl al-Tafsīr, and so on. The reason is that without a methodology a person can hardly take an objective stance on any matter, much less understand large fields of information in a cohesive and cogent manner. All of these uṣūlī systems in turn are undergirded by ʿAqīdah, which is the Uṣūl of Uṣūl; it is perhaps for this reason that Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, may Allāh have mercy on him, named his work on ʿAqīdah with such a gravity, al-Fiqh al-Akbar.[17]

Jettisoning a holistic Usūlī approach to the Dīn by fixating on individual verses, aḥadīth, and legal rulings has allowed the jackals and hyenas who prey on this ummah to masquerade as representatives of the Islām and flagbearers of the Sunnī tradition,[18] whether they be in the form of modernists, terrorist groups, neo-Salafists,[19] neo-traditionalists, neo-Kharijītes, or the like. When uṣūl are cast aside, such groups can now regurgitate particular data points from the Islāmic tradition with enough charisma to woo audiences to their respective agendas.

Modern day reductionists have peddled the idea that uṣūl are an unneeded vestige of medieval foolery, and must today be replaced by the empiricism of hard evidence in the form of literal text. While other scholarly endeavors like taḥqīq and takhrīj are worthy, they are not substitutes for uṣūl. Powered by the false confidence a literalist worldview engenders, unscrupulous operators resort to forcing the mismatched puzzle pieces together in new, scary and, incoherent ways. Indeed, many committed Muslims, upon encountering textual evidences produced by reductionists, find themselves at a loss to explain what is specifically wrong with such groups’ picture of Islām. From that pool, many subsequently join or at least tacitly support such groups, much to the spiritual, economic, political and social detriment of the ummah. Why would anyone bother to rearrange the sharīʿah in such a way? In order to deceptively harnesses the demographic, economic power of the love and zeal of the masses for Islām. If the Bolsheviks could do it, anyone can; indeed, their spiritual heirs,[20] may Allāh protect us from them, continue do so.

Uṣūlī thinking imparts a methodology by which one can understand the Dīn at a deeper level. It also gives its practitioner the ability to consume and solve new problems and digest issues which arise from unprecedented circumstances. I would go one step further and say for the robust intellect, nothing in creation would be “new”[21] anymore. Indeed, I can affirm that at least in my own experience many “new” challenges to Islām’s worldview are, in essence, rehashings of old challenges (albeit with different modalities). More often than not, historic iterations were far more sophisticated than contemporary ones. Due to the modernism’s reductionist approach,  philosophers have become largely irrelevant in the popular arena: the new standard bearers of materialism are often scientists, hard[22] or soft,[23] whose touting of materialism (and the atheism which inevitably emerges from it), is sophomoric at best.

The idea that uṣūl, or understanding how to think, is distinct and in many ways superior to only knowing what to think, should not be lost on any rational person.

The Continual Benefit of Kalām and the Harm in Ignoring It

Yet another sad consequence of abandoning the study of ʿAqīdah has been well-intentioned and ostensibly Sunnī public intellectuals, often very accomplished in Western Academia, but lacking even a basic command of classical Arabic, hastily dismiss Kalām as not being relevant to the “new” challenges posed to Islām and its intellectual framework. The strange thing is that many who express sentiments like this lack competence classical Arabic, yet believe their readings in English qualify them to make such serious judgments. Can you imagine what a mockery would be made of someone who only could speak and read Urdu and whatever was translated into it began to comment with an air of authority on theoretical physics or cutting-edge medical research? Even more frustratingly, those intellectuals who can access classical Arabic rarely have actually taken the time to read the old books of Kalām in any serious way, much less with a teacher.[24]

A noteworthy exception to the idea that all or most antagonists to the Kalām tradition are untrained in the classical Arabic sources are those who currently hold a position attributed to many of the salaf, namely that kalām is unsubstantiated speculation regarding revelation and the very nature of Allāh, thus a sin worse than theft and fornication, which is most widely ascribed to the Imām Aḥmad bin Ḥanbal, may Allāh sanctify his heart, and those who follow his school. Without casting any aggression toward this opinion which holds some merit, especially for the context in which it was first held, it goes without saying that such an approach will struggle to offer any help to a university student dealing with the ideological hailstorm on campus….

Such an attitude has gained currency among many generous and reverent defenders of Islām who opine that kalām held a useful function in the past, but gives the contemporary Muslim little preparation for the onslaught liberal modernity is directing at the world. Similarly, other less well-intentioned academic and post-colonial intellectual elites, hold en vogue a vision of Kalām as a kind of fossilized carcass, declaring it an irrelevant and even decadent feature of a past, best left behind. What’s fascinating here is that, both share a similar belief in history’s linear progress; somehow the future, solely by virtue of it being the future, necessarily brings with it more sophisticated challenges than the past did, a hallmark of haughty modernist thinking.

This idea seems to be validated in the colonized mind when it soaks in the stark reality of disenfranchisement and defeatism that surrounds it. I state here unequivocally that the ability to marshal armies and death-raining technology does not necessitate intellectual superiority. Nor is the ability to kill and enslave people an attribute of the ḥaqq.[25]

Yet still many Muslims wonder: what could discussions regarding the classical ideas about materialism or polemical refutations of the Muʿtazilah and Bāṭiniyyah have to do with answering Richard Dawkins, Neil deGrasse Tyson, Liberalism, and the like?

The answer is more than you think.

The arguments of scientists against religion are not as seemingly unassailable as they may appear. As empirical philosophers, they themselves have jettisoned a large part of rationality from their own discourse, vaingloriously declaring that if it can’t be seen, heard, tasted, touched, smelled or measured, it doesn’t exist. Such an unexamined statement, when taken to its logical conclusion, would have us revert to Roman numerals and render the Big Bang a rational conundrum.

The arguments for kufr, all of which, whether in the form of polytheism or atheism, all depend on affirming the divinity of the material things of this universe, in similar, but subtly different ways.

It is a maxim of the scholars based on a number of statements of revelation that all the different types of kufr, ultimately comprise of one millah.[26] For example some said that God resides in everything. Others said that God was born in the flesh. Some said that there is no God. All, however, in order to explain the incoherence of everything spontaneously existing from nothing, stated that the material universe must have always had attributes Muslims ascribed to the Divine. Many resort to claiming it existed in some cyclically reiterating form,[27] and thus will continue to do so, possessing pre-primordiality and eternity, both being essential attributes of what we call God. It is against this backdrop that Islām, rather than assigning Divine attributes to the creation, affirms Allāh’s being thoroughly unlike His creation and transcendent above it.

It is from this basis that the Kalām tradition painstakingly refutes many possible contortions and adjustments that kufr can, has, and will make in order to free itself from the trap of its own initial incoherence. Through study of those refutations, a roadmap to answers to modern obsessions like “if God is so omnipotent, why are children born with deformities?”; “why can’t we refer to God as a she,”; or “If God exists, show him to me, and if you can’t, admit He doesn’t exist,” comes into clear view. Once the existence of Absolute Truth is established and necessarily affirmed, the moral and existential chaos of an absolutist relativist (yes, I’m aware of how silly it sounds) liberal modernity is resolutely challenged. Without that affirmation, answering simple questions like “Who am I?” becomes cumbersome.[28]

Epilogue: Ijtihād

I’d like to conclude, not by neatly wrapping the discussion up, but by throwing a number of doors open, namely the doors of ijtihad, which were never closed in the first place, at least for those whose purview it was and remains. Ijtihād is a very interesting idea, one of which many speak but few understand. Much like playing on a professional sports team is the preserve of the elite of that sport, ijtihād is an actual reality for those few who combine the God-given spiritual[29] and intellectual strengths needed to have a shot at it, with the years of hard work and practice. Also, much like professional sports, although there may be only a handful of legitimate practitioners of ijtihad, there are thousands, if not millions of pretenders behind them ready to dream about it, talk about it and offer their detailed commentaries about it—commentaries bearing various levels of insight and/or connections to any kind of reality. The current reductionist, atomistic approach that is in fashion amongst the intelligentsia is an antagonist to an uṣūlī, methodologically consistent approach to anything in the Dīn; the lack of study of ʿAqīdah shuts out the student from uṣūl at the ground floor as ʿAqīdah itself forms the foundation of uṣūl.

The preservation of ijtihad and its requisite branches of learning requires that there be a body of literature and group of people who can trace the final product of the various branches of Islāmic learning from source materials to the final prescriptions found in the canonical texts of the different sciences. A pseudo empirical-textual fixation not only subverts the superiority of the living tradition as described above, but also renders ijtihad practically meaningless. Supplanting the importance of uṣūl, which is the craft of ijtihad, games the system in the direction of literalism, or worse yet, a type of literalistically-inspired mya[30] in which each individual, who may be busy becoming a doctor, shopping, on Facebook and Twitter, and giving their opinion, interprets text based on the meaning that most strongly occurs to them.

In such a nightmarish reality,[31] truth, authority, reason and orthodoxy are replaced with a type of democracy of stupidities. This has been described in the ḥadīth of the Messenger of Allāh ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him): “Whoever speaks about the Qurʾān by his own opinion is wrong even if [he happens to be] right.”[32] The implication here is that the methodology by which the truth is sought is so horrid that it nullifies any possible benefit of randomly arriving at a correct conclusion. The similitude is one of a person who, instead of waiting to land at the airport and taking a cab home, jumps from the airplane as it flies over his house; timing his jump with a nearly impossible accuracy. Even if he is lucky and arrives at his destination, his arrival is not in any worthwhile manner.

Aside from the damage such an approach inflicts on the intellectual establishment of the Dīn due to its rabid irregularity, what is perhaps most tragic is how such intellectual vigilantism robs the top minds of the ummah of the chance to see the bigger picture when it comes to the sacred sharīʿah. Muslim scholars do not celebrate Abū Ḥanīfah and Mālik, amongst the salaf and Imām al-Ḥaramayn, Ghazālī, Shāṭibī, Qarāfī, Shāh Waliyyullāh, and others from the latter generations for amassing pages filled with attestations to particular rulings. Rather, they are looked to as beacons of light for their ability to explain the uṣūlī theory upon which the well-known precedents of the Sharīʿah were based. In many cases, they showed how that same uṣūl could be used to extrapolate rulings where no precedent existed.

Such a big picture understanding of the sacred Sharīʿah can only come from an uṣūlī understanding, the appreciation of which can only come with a solid foundation in the robust study of ʿAqīdah; without it you lose the Ghazālī and are left with the Ghazālī for Kids series.

Understanding how to think is indeed the crown jewel of ijtihad which is the difference between the ignoramus who will be punished even when arriving at the correct conclusion, versus the true ʿĀlim who will be rewarded twice for his correct conclusions and once for those which fall short of the mark. Thus, abandoning the study of ʿAqīdah is worthy of far more concern than many perceive.

Recommendations for Learning & Promoting Sunnī ʿAqīdah

Regular Folks

Take a course in a basic text of ʿAqīdah like that of Imām Ṭaḥāwī, Ibn Abī Zayd, Ibn ʿĀshir, or the like with an erudite and qualified scholar, like the mashāyikh at reputable institutions like Ribat, Dār ul-Qasim or Masjid al-Huda. If you don’t have access to in-person classes, listen to a recording of the explanation of the complete text of the ʿAqīdah Ṭaḥāwiyyah here.

Community Servant-Leaders

Contact organizations like Imam Ghazali Institute or those listed above, and coordinate bringing such a course to your community targeting community leadership, students of knowledge, academics, as well as the public at large.

Support, seek advice from, and give a platform to those scholars who truly understand, believe in, uphold, and promote the Sunnī tradition, not merely as identity, but as a functional basis for viewing the world.

Novice Students of Knowledge

Read, master, and memorize a simple matn like those mentioned above, in Arabic, and take time to read through their commentaries.

Familiarize yourself with the intellectual history of Sunnī ʿAqīdah, and be able to trace how it has developed from the age of Risālah, the Salaf, the founding of its three main classical traditions, namely the Ashʿarī, Māturīdī, and Atharī schools, and how they dealt with major intellectual challenges in the past, like the Muʿtazilah and the Bāṭiniyyah.

Seek out a qualified teacher in one of those three traditions, who can competently teach you beginning and intermediate Kalām works, and demonstrate to you the connection between the text and the school of Kalām; the Ḥanafī school of fiqh being deeply connected to the Māturīdī school of Kalām, the Shāfiʿī school being deeply connected with the Ashʿarī, and the Ḥanbalī school with the Atharī.[33] As for the Mālikī school, it was initially associated with the Atharī school, but after the fitnah of Ibn Tumart’s false claim to being the Mahdī, built on robust dialectics, they en masse took up the Ashʿarī school in order to defend the integrity of Sunnī creed from further spurious assault.[34] Keep contact with said teacher and refer back to him or her whenever questions regarding the creedal implications of any legal, social, political or other issue comes up.

Advanced Students of Knowledge

Teach a class based on a basic text, like those mentioned in the recommendation section for regular folks at least twice a year; it will solidify your knowledge of its contents and allow you to see their implications in other matters you would have otherwise been heedless of, due to them being in your mind constantly. Additionally, it will be a good way of paying the zakāt due on they knowledge you have accumulated.

Read the intermediate and advanced books of your Kalām tradition. The advanced level texts will orient you with the opinions of the other schools as well. Do not suffice with that; rather read the texts of the other schools in order to get a fresh and accurate picture of their arguments.

In addition to your teachers, keep contact with a group of students who are at your level of study and reading and discuss matters of import in the intellectual, social, political and cultural life of the Muslim and the world around. When appropriate, write about such topics for the benefit of other students of knowledge and even the general public.

Use ʿAqīdah as a way of grounding your view of the world around you, allowing you to extricate yourself from getting caught up in ancillary issues, which while important, take a secondary importance when compared to those residing in the space of creed.

Sh. Hamza was born in Whittier, California and lived in Southern California until the age of ten when he moved to Blaine, Washington. He later attended the University of Washington and in 2004 completed a Bachelors of Science in Biochemistry and a Bachelors of Arts in Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations. He served as the president of the University of Washington Muslim Students Association, one of the largest and most active student groups on campus, as a student senator for two years, and as the Senate-appointed member of the special funding committee. After graduation, Hamza went on to pursue traditional Islamic studies, which took him to Syria and Egypt where he studied the Arabic language; Morocco, Mauritania, and the UAE, where he studied the madhab of Imam Malik, grammar, usul al-hadith, and the two renditions of the qira’ah of Imam Nafi’, Warsh and Qalun, and finally Pakistan where he had the opportunity to study tafsir, usul al-hadith, hadith, ‘ilm al-rijal and Hanafi fiqh.

All of these studies culminated in him receiving an ijazat al-tadris, literally meaning “a license to teach” which is the equivalent in Pakistani Islamic seminaries to a MA in Arabic and Islamic studies, as well as an unbroken chain of transmission by which to narrate the hadith of such books as the Muwatta of Imam Malik, the Sihah al-Sittah (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Nasa’i and Ibn Majah), and the Sharh Ma’ani al-Athar of Imam al-Tahawi.

[1] Narrated by Bukhārī, Muslim, Ahmad and others. The narration translated is from Bukhārī.

[2] Many ardent proponents of sectarianism will argue passionately that these matters are of key importance to the belief of every Muslim. This flies in the face of the fact that if these matters were so essential to a person’s islām, they would have been explicated very clearly in one of the undisputable scriptural sources of dīn and on the tongue of the Messenger of Allāh ﷺ.

[3] Kalām being the medium of the study of advanced ʿAqīdah in most Sunnī madāris

[4] al-ʿAlaq 96:5

[5] This responsibility comes hand in hand with the responsibility of the public to heed their teachings and admonishments.

[6] Ironically so-named

[7] One of the unfortunate consequences of the collapse of widespread and endowed patronage of the people of knowledge is that in order to prosecute their mandates, many scholars have become part time politicians in order to fund their projects, keep masjid boards at bay, make a living or even find a platform to be heard. Although it is part of the prophetic mandate for the ʿUlamāʾ to maintain a well-cultivated relationship with the public, there is an inherent tension between being a visionary representative of the Ḥaqq as transmitted through revelation and recruiting the resources from laypeople who view such support not as a sacred duty, but as transactional. Unfortunately, due to this conundrum, some scholars have turned to demagoguery and the trappings of cults in order to extract optimal support from their followers, while maintaining a level of control that mitigates the transactionality of that support; the problem here is that in solving one problem, a bigger one is created: the training of zombie-like masses who can no longer critically engage Islām, rather only parrot what their leader says. Such a model is not the one left to us by the Messenger of Allāh.

[8] Imām here meaning an acknowledged authority in a field of learning amongst the sciences of revelation, as opposed to an imm in a local mosque.

[9] An Arabic word for guardian and friend, it is the term most commonly used to denote sainthood amongst Muslims when used in the context of piety.

[10] As long as such a misguidance doesn’t rationally necessitate negating Islām outright.

[11] Herein lies a sign pointing to the prophetic methodology of teaching faḍāʾil or what the virtues of things are. Faḍāʾil as a branch of knowledge sometimes suffer the stigma of being less important than the rulings to which they point. However, inasmuch as they are necessary to engender the requisite respect in the hearts and minds of those who are morally obliged to follow those rulings, they may come to play a role which is much more important that many first think. Abandoning their mention is a departure from prophetic pedagogical methodology.

[12] The mind being the spiritual seat of cognition, and the locus of correct ʿAqīdah.

[13] The heart being a spiritual organ from where intentions originate, the rectification of which is the subject of Taṣawwuf.

[14] For instance having memorized the entirety of the Qurʾān isn’t an integral component of faith in any individual, but it is a farḍ kifāyah on communities to maintain and produce those who carry and transmit the divine text.

[15] As made up of an aggregate of small units which are analyzed and interpreted in isolation of others.

[16] The differences in uṣūl amongst the madhāhib being the reason we have different madhabs.

[17] Literally, the Greatest Fiqh

[18] There are a number of popular figures who have raised great amounts of money and garnered large followings from demographically Sunnī populations, despite their utter disdain for the actual Sunnī creed in private. This is because their heterodoxy, if clearly labeled as such, would not find much support at all. Interestingly, a hallmark of Sunnism has always been isnād or an open declaration of one’s sources of knowledge, giving us the benefit of transparency as opposed to deception.

[19] Neo-salafists being those who claim that they can bypass tradition in order to hearken back to the pristine Islām of the early generations. This is opposed to Sunnism which always held tradition as a great ark in which to preserve that same tradition and dispense it to the generations.

[20] All those who use the Dīn to air unjustified economic grievances, and all those who believe in their hearts that some kind of redistribution of wealth will solve the problems that only a rectified heart can solve.

[21] One of the hallmarks of modernist thinking is that the “newness” of a thing is directly connected to some sort of value it possesses. From a physical science point of view, we know that since the dawn of creation, there is nothing physically new, as matter and energy are neither created, nor destroyed. If that is the case for physical things, then what about the abstract and intangible universe of ideas? Furthermore, in the realm of ideas, something which was true yesterday is true today, and vice-versa, what relevance should “newness” have to ideas for an uṣūlī thinker in the abstract realm? In the dissemination of ideas, which is more of a political matter, these things are important, but in the world in which intellectuals transact, they rapidly lose currency amongst serious thinkers.

[22] Like physicists and chemists

[23] Like Sociologists, Anthropologists, and the like.

[24] A noteworthy exception to the idea that all or most antagonists to the Kalām tradition are untrained in the classical Arabic sources are those who currently hold a position attributed to many of the salaf, namely that kalām is unsubstantiated speculation regarding revelation and the very nature of Allāh, thus a sin worse than theft and fornication, which is most widely ascribed to the Imām Aḥmad bin Ḥanbal, may Allāh sanctify his heart, and those who follow his school. Without casting any aggression toward this opinion which holds some merit, especially for the context in which it was first held, it goes without saying that such an approach will struggle to offer any help to a university student dealing with the ideological hailstorm on campus. Even then, a negation of kalām as scholastic theology is far from a negation of the importance of ʿAqīdah. The majority of Muslim scholarship, at any rate, didn’t see kalām in the post-salaf context as an abomination; I feel that radiant lamp of truth preserved in the kalām tradition would be unfairly thrown into the garbage heap of history by many at a time of darkness when the ummah acutely needs its light.

[25] Truth

[26] الكفر ملّة واحدة

[27] Which, ironically, has yet to be empirically proven; who has an imaginary friend now?

[28] It is interesting that in attempting to explore this question, cotigo ergo sum is considered to be a treasure of Farangī philosophy: in our tradition, one doesn’t even begin the long journey of understanding reality, without paying the toll tax of fanā. Indeed, when reading the works of kalām, one quickly realizes that the more intellectually taxing exercise isn’t the refutation of kufr, rather that of refuting heterodox groups which operate under the umbrella of Islāmic identity, like the Muʿtazilah, Khawārij, and the Rawāfiḍ, who dared not challenge God head on, but strayed by overlaying their own sophistry over revelation. Thus, the more skilled refutations are not those of kufr, but of the spurious interpolations of the nafs, which gave rise to heterodoxy in Islām, which is expressed in the refutation of such groups. Thus, one can restate a reality mentioned above through its opposite: the journey to kufr can only begin in earnest by the complete affirmation of nafs, Allāh forgive and protect us all, and give all of us a good end.

[29] Not all spiritual achievements are virtuous. Some are evil, and many others are morally neutral.

[30] The Hindu concept of the illusory conception that each individual has of the world around him. To others it is an illusion, but to the individual in question, it is real; thus there is no such thing as a reality anchored at any absolute truth, rather an array of quasi-truths, which may be completely true, but only to the individual who holds them as such.

[31] This seems to be the direction in which the enfranchised elites of both the Muslim world and the world in general are both headed, if they haven’t already taken up residence decades ago.

[32] Tirmidhī: بَابُ مَا جَاءَ فِي الَّذِي يُفَسِّرُ القُرْآنَ بِرَأْيِه

[33] Being represented in the Salaf by the concept of Tafwīḍ, or vouchsafing the knowledge of that which is unclear to Allāh, rather than anthropomorphism.

[34] المعيار المعرب, المجلّد الثاني




  1. Avatar

    Yusuf Smith

    April 2, 2018 at 1:44 PM

    As-Salaamu ‘alaikum,

    One should note that this divide within Judaism started from the United States, and has now pervaded the Jewish world, and likewise, if such a chasm formally opened up in the United States, it would be a matter of import for the entire ummah

    This hugely overstates the importance of the American Muslim community to the Muslim community worldwide. The USA was one of the major centres for emigration of Jews from eastern Europe during the Tsarist persecutions of the 19th and early 20th centuries; the UK was another. The world Jewish community was previously mostly found in eastern Europe and the Arab world (mainly north Africa and Iraq); today it is mainly found in the English-speaking world and Israel.

    In addition, the community was prone to schisms before the mass emigrations started. There was already a move towards secularism and humanism, called the Haskalah or “enlightenment”, as well as a schism between mystics (Hasidim) and legalists based in Poland and Lithuania respectively. This might be compared to the Brelvis and Deobandis in India, although the Hasidim are actually far more legalistic than the Brelvis are (I was making a rough equivalence).

    The USA’s Muslim population accounts for nothing like the same proportion of the world’s Muslim community as the USA’s Jewish population and the scholars in the USA are held in nothing like the same regard so they have much less potential to provoke a major schism. The greatest scholars are still in the lands they always were: India, Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Yemen and American Muslim communities still look to those places and send their aspiring scholars to universities and colleges in those places: Al-Azhar, the Qayrawiyeen, Dar al-Mustafa, Deoband and its offshoots, Madinah university.

    The Prophet (sall’ Allahu ‘alaihi wa sallam) also told us where the major schisms would arise: the Najd, and the East generally. Nearly all the major schismatic groups emerged either there, or among tribes originating there. The West (i.e. Africa) was always a land where the Muslims clung to mainstream Sunni Islam, even though parts of Egypt and Tunisia were dominated by Shi’ites for a time, and much the same is true of the native Muslims of eastern Europe. The Muslims living in the Christian West are subject to the same schisms as the lands they came from; there is no suggestion that a major fitna originating in this part of the world might affect the whole Ummah.

    It’s worth noting that the major schism among the Indo-Pak community here in the UK is still the Deobandi/Brelvi schism and that originated in India; the “inquisition” fitna that tore apart the American and British “salafi” communities in the 1990s started in Saudi Arabia, not in Brixton or Philadelphia.

    • Avatar


      April 3, 2018 at 5:12 AM

      Great analysis by the shaykh. I would argue that American Muslims though few in number seem to have a lot of influence. In the UK the American Shaykhs get a huge following in comparison to the local scholars. At a recent conference by MEND all the speakers were Americans except Abu Eesa (but he hangs with Americans so can’t really count him as being totally British).

      This is not just limited to UK but NAK recently did a tour of Europe where he managed to pull in huge crowds and he is very popular across the world.

      Shaykh Hamza at a recent visit visit said something very interesting. Usually some ideas start in America then after a few years hit the UK and then a few years later they go to the Muslim lands.

      So there is no doubt that American Muslims do have influence despite their small numbers. It’s just that my personal experience shows that their influence has been detrimental in most cases. They have given rise to the celebrity speakers and a whole host of fitnas. Still there is hope with people like Shaykh Hamza Maqbul and others.

      With love from England

  2. Avatar


    April 3, 2018 at 10:15 AM

    An article which talks about being anti sectarian while disparaging “the Rafidha” and acting like Sunni scholars are not complicit in sectarianism in the Subcontinent in particular? Must be MuslimMatters! Just like the good old days again with Salafis talking about “the Rafidha” as an excuse to commit takfeer, except I guess now Salafism is out because people actually read Ibn Abd Al Wahhab and now romanticized Sunnism is in.

    Anyways – have fun with this, y’all. Kalam and usul texts are really interesting to study if you don’t take the authors as Divinely Protected and you read them alongside fatwa texts to keep yourself a bit grounded in the reality that usul didn’t guide everything, but hey, who am I but a Speck of Dust on the eternal light of the men gone by when I point out that usul sure as hell didn’t save luminaries like al Ghazali from putting words of misogyny and racism in the Prophet’s mouth via the use of weak ahadith. I’m sure that venerating texts that venerate hierarchies between the believers is going to make us all just swell and dandy and non sectarian – it’s not like any scholars studied these texts and came out far more skeptical than when they came in, but again, what am I but a pixelated set of code on the path of the True Scholars who sniff at the sight of my comment.

  3. Avatar

    S N Smith

    April 16, 2018 at 7:36 AM

    I have been saying the same thing for years

  4. Avatar


    May 6, 2018 at 8:06 AM

    As Salamu Alaikum,

    Please read FN #24 of this article…I wish it was highlighted up front, as a disclaimer. Its an absolutely critical point to this entire discussion and should not have been buried as a footnote.

    “A noteworthy exception to the idea that all or most antagonists to the Kalām tradition are untrained in the classical Arabic sources are those who currently hold a position attributed to many of the salaf, namely that kalām is unsubstantiated speculation regarding revelation and the very nature of Allāh, thus a sin worse than theft and fornication, which is most widely ascribed to the Imām Aḥmad bin Ḥanbal, may Allāh sanctify his heart, and those who follow his school. Without casting any aggression toward this opinion which holds some merit, especially for the context in which it was first held, it goes without saying that such an approach will struggle to offer any help to a university student dealing with the ideological hailstorm on campus. Even then, a negation of kalām as scholastic theology is far from a negation of the importance of ʿAqīdah. The majority of Muslim scholarship, at any rate, didn’t see kalām in the post-salaf context as an abomination; I feel that radiant lamp of truth preserved in the kalām tradition would be unfairly thrown into the garbage heap of history by many at a time of darkness when the ummah acutely needs its light.”

  5. Avatar


    May 6, 2018 at 8:49 AM

    I read a lot, but the language and complexity of this article was beyond me. If aqeedah is the foundation of religious study then there should be a way of talking about it that is easy to grasp for regular people.

  6. Avatar

    Online Quran Academy

    May 25, 2019 at 12:30 PM

    your family’s wants in the education Online Quran Academy

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Convert Story: To Ask Or Not to Ask, That is the Question

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“How did you convert to Islam” is a question that is commonly asked to those who convert to Islam. While the short answer to this question is, “I said shahada”, the long (and more detailed) answer is one that is commonly expected.

It is important to acknowledge that the majority of “born Muslims” who ask this question do such out of good intentions. For this reason, I wrote this piece out of a place of love and not out of a place of judgment or hatred. While it is important for “born Muslims” to be mindful of how they ask this question, it is equally important for converts to not hold ill will towards born Muslims who ask this question. Due to the fact that Islamophobia is rampant in both the media and political discourse, many “born Muslims” are naturally shocked and emotional when they meet people who accept Islam. Some “born Muslims” have also had limited interactions with converts and therefore, to them, it is not only shocking for them to meet converts, but they are genuinely unaware of certain etiquettes when it comes to asking a convert for his or her story.

In this piece, I am going to write about a pet peeve that is shared among many Muslim converts. While I cannot speak for every single convert, I can say that based on innumerable conversations I have had with fellow converts, there is one thing most of us agree on and it is this; it is rude to ask a convert about his or her conversion story when you haven’t built a relationship with the convert. This piece will explain why many converts consider such a question to be intrusive. The purpose of this article is to better educate the “born Muslim” community on how they can do a better job in support of converts to Islam. In this piece, I will break down the reasons why this question can come off as intrusive if it isn’t asked in a proper manner. I will also include personal anecdotes to support my position.

I would like to conclude by saying that I do not discourage “born Muslims” from asking this question entirely, rather I am merely arguing that this question should be asked with the best of adab.

Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said:  “Part of a person’s being a good Muslim is leaving alone that which does not concern him.” (Tirmidhi) For this reason, such a question should be asked for purpose and it should be done with the best of manners. This is supported by the fact that Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) said, “I have been sent to perfect good character.” (Al Muwatta)

Note: For the sake of avoiding confusion, the term “born Muslim” is defined as anyone who was brought up in a Muslim household.

To ask a convert “Why did you convert?” is to ask about the person’s personal relationship with God

Within the context of a friendship, it is generally understood that friends will share personal details with each other. However, it is also generally understood that it is rude to ask people you just met personal questions. To ask a new acquaintance a personal question in most cases comes off as intrusive. This is especially the case in which you ask a person about his or her relationship with God.

For example, there are women who do not wear hijab. Even if we do (for a moment) ignore the Islamic ruling concerning hijab, we should all agree that a woman’s reason for wearing (or not wearing) hijab is a personal matter that is between said woman and God. If one was to ask a woman who doesn’t wear hijab why she doesn’t wear it, that would be intrusive because such a question would involve interrogating said woman about her relationship with God.

Another example concerns a married couple. If one was to meet a married person for the first time, it can be considered rude to ask said person about his or her relationship with his or her spouse.

When one asks a convert about his or her choice to convert, one is literally asking said convert about his or her relationship with God.

I am not saying that it is wrong in all cases to ask such a question. However, one should be mindful of the fact that because this is a personal question, one should have at least have built some form of a friendship with said person before asking.

convert friendship hugs

To ask a convert “Why did you convert?” is another way of asking, “Why do you believe in Islam?”

Many people identify to a faith tradition because it was part of their upbringing. If you were to ask a person who was born Muslim, “why are you Muslim?” you might hear said Muslim respond with, “I am Muslim because I was raised Muslim” and you wouldn’t hear a detailed answer beyond this.

In most cases, a convert to Islam (or any other religion) did such after research and critical thinking. To convert to a new religion involves not only deep thinking but a willingness to step into the unknown.

I have on many occasions told my story to people. In most cases I will ask the person “why do you believe in Islam?” I am then disappointed when I find out that the only reason the person is Muslim is due to upbringing. While I am not saying that said person’s faith is invalid or less than mine, a person who only identifies with a religion due to upbringing is a person who didn’t engage in critical thinking.

Any relationship should be built upon equality and mutual benefit. If I as a convert am able to provide a well thought out answer as to why I believe in Islam, I expect a well thought out answer to the same question from the person who initially asked me.

Again, while I am not saying it is wrong in all cases to ask, a born Muslim should ask himself or herself “why do I believe in Islam?” In my opinion, there are many who are born into Muslim families who don’t truly believe until later in their lives. Those Muslims in my opinion (and mine alone) are similar to converts.

To ask a convert “Why did you convert?” is to ask the convert to perform labor.

In some cases, “born Muslims” expect converts to tell their stories. I can remember a few incidents in which I have been asked to tell my story and I politely declined. In response, the person became angry. This to me is a symptom of entitlement. Nobody is entitled to know anything about anyone else (aside from people with whom one has a natural relationship with).

In addition, one should be cognizant of the fact that converts typically get asked this question repeatedly. Thus after a significant amount of time, a convert is prone to get tired of repeating the same question over again repeatedly. Naturally, it can become exhausting eventually.

While I do not believe it is wrong to ask this question in all cases, one should not ask this question to a convert from a place of entitlement. I can think of cases where I have been asked this question by “born Muslims” and when I have refused to provide an answer, they have gotten angry at me. This is entitlement.

To ask a convert “Why did you convert?” is to ask the convert to explain his or her personal life.

Backbiting is one of the worst sins in Islam. Another major sin is to disrespect one’s parents. Thus we can conclude that backbiting about one’s parents is a huge sin.

This is evidenced by the fact that Allah has said (ﷻ) “We have enjoined on humankind kindness to parents.” (Quran 29:8)

A typical follow-up question to “Why did you convert?” is “How did your parents react?” This in many cases puts the convert in a position where one may feel pressured to mention some negative details about his or her parents. In Islam, parents are to be respected, even if they aren’t Muslim.

Before asking a convert this question, one should be mindful of not putting unnecessary pressure on the convert to commit this injustice.

convert friendship

Cases when it is appropriate to ask

However, I do maintain a firm belief that in any true friendship, things will be shared. I don’t think it is wrong in itself to ask a convert about his or her story provided that there already exists a relationship where personal information can be shared. It is highly suggested to hang out with the person first and then ask the convert for his or her story.

As a personal rule of mine, unless I have hung out with the person one on one at least once (or a few times in group gatherings) I don’t tell any born Muslims my conversion story. Naturally, I only share personal details with people I consider to be a friend. If I would hang out with the person, I consider that person to be a friend.

The reason I am also hesitant to share my story with just anyone who asks me is because I can think of countless cases of when I have shared my story to people I have never seen or heard from again. I choose to exert my agency to share personal details of my life to people who I consider to be part of my life. While many Muslims are happy when people convert, many Muslims also fail to provide any form of support for said convert after conversion. I have seen too many cases of when a person recites shahadah, people pull their phones out to record it, but very few will give the convert his or her number. I genuinely believe that many “born Muslims” fail to see the big picture in this regard.

Before asking a convert for his or her story, you should ask yourself if you are comfortable sharing personal details of your life to that person. If you are not comfortable sharing personal details of your life to that person, there is nothing wrong with that. However, you shouldn’t expect the convert to share personal details if you aren’t comfortable sharing personal details. Even if you have built a close friendship with someone, you still aren’t expected to share every detail of your life to someone. Even if you consider a convert to be a close friend, you should still respect a convert’s wishes to not share his or her story.


While I have addressed concerns about the tendency of “born Muslims” to ask converts about their journeys, I want to acknowledge that most people have good intentions. In Islam, the natural state of any person is one of righteousness.

I firmly believe that a friendship that isn’t built on trust and the sharing of personal information isn’t a genuine friendship. Therefore the key term in this context is “friend”. If you wish to ask a convert his or her story, please make sure the following conditions are met:

  1. You are already friends with the convert to a point where asking a convert about his or her relationship with God isn’t an intrusive question. Ask yourself, “Are we close enough where we can share other personal details of our lives with each other?”
  2. You have a well thought out reason as to why you believe in Islam.
  3. You don’t feel entitled to know about the convert’s journey and that you will allow the convert to choose not to share such information if the convert doesn’t wish to.
  4. You don’t probe into the convert’s relationships with other people.
  5. You aren’t just asking the question to somehow feel validated about your belief in Islam.
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Dawah and Interfaith

10 Lessons I Learned While Serving Those in Need

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I have spent about a decade serving the impoverished domestically and recently, abroad. I don’t work for a major charity organization, I work for my community, through grassroots efforts. It was something embedded in me while learning Islam. Before starting a charity organization, I started studying Islam with Dr. Hatem Alhaj (my mentor) and various other scholars. The more I studied, the more I wanted to implement what I was learning. What my community needed at the time was intensive charity work, as it was neglected entirely by our community. From that, I collected 10 lessons from servicing those in need. 

1. My bubble burst

One of the first things I experienced was the bursting of my bubble, a sense of realization. I, like many others, was unaware of the hardship in my own community. Yes, we know the hadith and see the events unfold on the news and social media, but when a father of three cried before me because a bag of groceries was made available for him to take home, that moment changed me. We tend to forget how little it takes, to make a huge difference in someone’s life. This experience, made me understand the following hadith of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him): “Every Muslim has to give in charity.” The people then asked: “(But what) if someone has nothing to give, what should he do?” The Prophet replied: “He should work with his hands and benefit himself and also give in charity (from what he earns).” The people further asked: “If he cannot find even that?” He replied: “He should help the needy, who appeal for help.” Then the people asked: “If he cannot do (even) that?” The Prophet said finally: “Then he should perform good deeds and keep away from evil deeds, and that will be regarded as charitable deeds.” – Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Hadith 524. I

t is simply an obligation, due to the amount of good it generates after you do this one action. I then realized even more how beautiful Islam is for commanding this deed. 

2. Friendships were developed on good deeds

Serving the poor is a great reward in itself. The Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said: “Save yourself from hellfire by giving even half a date-fruit in charity.” – Sahih Al-Bukhari, Volume 2, Hadith 498. But it is better done with a team, I began building a team of people with similar objectives in serving the needy. These people later became some of my closest friends, who better to keep close to you than one that serves Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) by helping the neediest in the same community you reside in. Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said: “A person is likely to follow the faith of his friend, so look whom you befriend.” [reported by Abu Dawood & Tirmidhee] This is turn kept me on the right path of pleasing Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He). Working with a team removes a lot of the burden as well and the depression that might occur seeing the saddest stories on a daily basis. Allah says in the Qur’ān, “Indeed the believers are brothers.” (49:10). Sometimes there is a misconception that you have to have a huge office or a large masjid in order to get work done. But honestly, all you need is a dedicated group of people with the right intention and things take off from there. 

The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: 'If you love the poor and bring them near you. . .God will bring you near Him on the Day of Resurrection.' - Al-Tirmidhi,Click To Tweet

3. Made me thankful

This made me thankful for whatever I had, serving the less fortunate reminded me daily to turn to Allah and ask for forgiveness and so be thankful. This kind of service also puts things into perspective. What is truly important in life? I stepped further and further away from a materialistic lifestyle and allowed me to value things that can’t be valued by money. I learned this from the poorest of people in my community, who strived daily for their family regardless of their situation — parents who did what they can to shield their children from their harsh reality. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “If you love the poor and bring them near you. . .God will bring you near Him on the Day of Resurrection.” – Al-Tirmidhi, Hadith 1376. They had a quality about them, despite their poverty status. They were always some of the kindest people I have known. 


4. People want to do Good

I learned that people want to do good; they want to improve their community and society. I began to see the impact on a communal level, people were being more engaged. We were the only Muslim group helping indiscriminately in our county. Even the people we helped, gave back by volunteering at our food pantry. We have schools where small kids (under adult supervision) partake in preparing meals for the needy, local masajids, churches, and temples, high school kids from public schools, and college organizations (Muslim and nonMuslim) visit frequently from several cities in neighboring counties, cities, and states. The good spreads a lot easier and faster than evil. People want to do good, we just need more opportunities for them to join in. United we can rock this world.

“We need more light about each other. Light creates understanding, understanding creates love, love creates patience, and patience creates unity.” Malcolm X. Click To Tweet

5. Smiles

Smiles, I have seen the wealthiest smiles on the poorest people. Despite being on the brink of homelessness, when I saw them they had the best smile on their faces. This wasn’t all of them, but then I would smile back and that changed the environment we were in. The Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “Charity is prescribed for each descendant of Adam every day the sun rises.” He was then asked: “From what do we give charity every day?” The Prophet answered: “The doors of goodness are many…enjoining good, forbidding evil, removing harm from the road, listening to the deaf, leading the blind, guiding one to the object of his need, hurrying with the strength of one’s legs to one in sorrow who is asking for help, and supporting the feeble with the strength of one’s arms–all of these are charity prescribed for you.” He also said: “Your smile for your brother is charity.” – Fiqh-us-Sunnah, Volume 3, Number 98. Smiles are truly universal.

6. It’s ok to cry

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah said: “A man who weeps for fear of Allah will not enter Hell until the milk goes back into the udder, and dust produced (when fighting) for the sake of Allah and the smoke of Hell will never coexist.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi and al-Nasaa’i. There are situations you see that hit you hard; they fill your heart with emotions, but that never swayed my concrete belief in Allah’s wisdom. Crying before Allah, not just out of fear, but to be thankful for His Mercy upon you is a relief.

7. Learning to say no

It was one of the hardest things I had to do, a lot (if not all) of the requests I received for help were extremely reasonable. I do not think anyone asked for anything outrageous. Our organization started becoming the go-to organization in our area for help, but we are one organization, with limited resources, and a few times we were restricted on when or how we could help. This is where learning to say no became a learned skill. Wedid do our best to follow up with a plan or an alternative resource.

8. It is part of raising a family and finding yourself

How so? Being involved in your community doesn’t take away from raising your family, it is part of it. I can’t watch and do nothing and expect my children to be heroes. I have to lead by example. Helping others is good for my family’s health. Many people living in our country are consumed with their busy lives. Running out the door, getting to work, driving the kids to their after school activities, spending weekends taking care of their families, etc. So people have a fear of investing hours in doing this type of work. But in reality, this work puts more blessings in your time.

One may feel they are taking time away from their family, but in reality, when one comes back home, they find more peace in their home then they left it with. By helping others, I improve the health and culture of my community, this in turn positively impacts my family.

I enjoy being a softie with my family and friends. I am a tall bearded man, and that image suited me better. I am not sure what made me softer, having kids or serving the poor. Either way, it was rewarding and defined my role and purpose in my community.

I learned that you make your own situation. You can be a spectator, or you can get in there and do the best you can to help. It gave me an opportunity to be a role model for my own children, to show them the benefit of doing good and helping when you can.

It came with a lot of humility. Soon after starting I realized that all I am is a facilitator, Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) is giving an opportunity of a lifetime to do this work, a line of work very little people get to engage in regularly. My advice to my readers, if you can serve the poor do so immediately before you get occupied or busy with life.

Helping others is good for my family’s health.Click To Tweet

9. Dawah through action

As I mentioned before I did spend time studying, and at one point developed one of the top dawah initiatives in the country (according to IERA). But the reality is, helping the less fortunate is my type of dawah, people started to associate our food pantry and helping others with Islam. As an organization with one of the most diverse groups of volunteers, people from various religious backgrounds found the environment comfortable and hospitable. I began working with people I never would have worked before if I had stuck to traditional dawah, studying, or masjid involvement, all of which are critical. This became a symbol of Islam in our community, and while serving, we became those that embodied the Quran and Sunnah. For a lot of those we served, we were the first Muslims they encountered, and Alhamdulilah for the team we have. Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) also says in the Quran: “So by mercy from Allah, [O Muhammad], you were lenient with them. And if you had been rude [in speech] and harsh in heart, they would have disbanded from about you” (3:159). It is our actions that can turn people away or towards Islam.

10. Once you serve the needy, you do this for life

I wasn’t volunteering on occasion,— this was an unpaid job that was done regularly. I got requests and calls for emergencies daily at times. It took up hours upon hours every week. As a charity worker, I developed experience and insight in this field. I learned that this was one of the best ways I could serve Allah [swt. “They ask you (O Muhammad) what they should spend in charity. Say: ‘Whatever you spend with a good heart, give it to parents, relatives, orphans, the helpless, and travelers in need. Whatever good you do, God is aware of it.'” – The Holy Quran, 2:215

I believe the work I do with the countless people that do the same is the best work that can be done in our current political climate and globalization. My views and thoughts have evolved over the years seeing situations develop to what they are today. This gave me a comprehensive outlook on our needs as a society and allowed me to venture off and meet people top in their fields like in social activism, environmentalism, labor, etc.

I want to end with three sectors in society that Muslims prosper in and three that Muslims can improve on. We strive on individual education (noncommunal), distributing and organizing charity, and more recently being politically engaged. What we need to improve on is our environmental awareness, working with and understanding unions and labor rights, and organizing anti-war movements. 

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He Catches Me When I Fall: A Journey To Tawakkul

Tawakkul- a leaf falling
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While discussing an emotionally-heavy issue, my therapist brought up the point that in life we can reach a point of acceptance in regards to our difficult issues: “It sounds cliche, but there’s no other way to say it: it is what it is.”

Okay, I thought, as I listened. Acceptance. Yes, I can do this eventually. She went on to add: “It is what it is, and I know that everything will be okay.””

Tears had already been flowing, but by this point, full-blown sobs started. “I…can’t….seem…to ever…believe that.” There. I had said it. I had faked being confident and accepting, even to myself. I had faked the whole, “I have these health problems, but I am so together” type of vibe that I had been putting out for years.

Maybe it was the hormones of a third pregnancy, confronting the realities of life with multiple chronic diseases, family problems, or perhaps a midlife crisis: but at that moment, I did not feel deep in my heart with true conviction that everything would be okay.

That conversation led me to reflect on the concept of tawakkul in the following weeks and months. What did it mean to have true trust in Allah? And why was it that for years I smiled and said, “Alhamdulillah, I’m coping just fine!” when in reality, the harsh truth was that I felt like I had not an ounce of tawakkul?

I had led myself to believe that denying my grief and slapping a smile on was tawakkul. I was being outwardly cheerful — I even made jokes about my life with Multiple Sclerosis — and I liked to think I was functioning all right. Until I wasn’t.

You see, the body doesn’t lie. You can tell all the lies you want to with your tongue, but after some time, the body will let you know that it’s holding oceans of grief, unshed tears, and unhealed traumas. And that period of my life is a tale for another time.

The short story is that things came to a head and I suddenly felt utterly overwhelmed and terrified daily about my future with a potentially disabling disease, while being diagnosed with a second major chronic illness, all while caring for a newborn along with my other children. Panic attacks and severe anxiety ensued. When I realized that I didn’t have true tawakkul, I had to reflect and find my way again.

I thought about Yaqub (Jacob). I thought long and hard about his grief: “Yaa asafaa ‘alaa Yusuf!” “Oh, how great is my grief for Joseph!”

He wept until he was blind. And yet, he constantly asserted, “Wallahul-Musta’aan”: “Allah is the one whose help is sought.” And he believed.

Oh, how did he believe. His sons laughed and called him an old fool for grieving over a son lost for decades. He then lost another dear son, Binyamin. And yet he said, “Perhaps it will be that my Lord will bring them to me altogether.”

There is no sin in grief Click To Tweet

So my first realization was that there was no sin in the grief. I could indeed trust Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) while feeling a sorrow so profound that it ripped me apart at times. “The heart grieves and the eyes weep, but the tongue does not say that except which pleases its Lord. Oh, Ibrahim, we are gravely saddened by your passing.” These are the words of our Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) for a lost infant son, said with tears pouring down his blessed face, ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him).

I thought of the Year of Grief, Aamul-Huzn, when he, Allah’s peace be upon him, lost the woman who was the love of his life and the mother of his children; as well as an uncle who was like a father. The year was named after his grief! And here I was denying myself this human emotion because it somehow felt like a betrayal of true sabr?

Tawakkul, tawakkul, where are you? I searched for how I could feel it, truly feel it.Click To Tweet

Through years of introspection and then therapy, I realized that I had a personality that centered around control. I expressed this in various ways from trying to manage my siblings (curse of the firstborn), to trying to manage my childbirth and health. If I only did the “right” things, then I could have the perfect, “natural” birth and the perfect picture of health.

When I was diagnosed with a chronic disease, these illusions started to crack. And yet even then, I thought that if I did the right things, took the right supplements and alternative remedies and medications, that I wouldn’t have trouble with my MS.

See, when you think you control things and you attempt to micromanage everything, you’ve already lost tawakkul. You’ve taken the role of controlling the outcome upon yourself when in reality, your Lord is in control. It took a difficult time when I felt I was spiraling out of control for me to truly realize that I was not the master of my outcomes. Certainly, I would “tie my camel” and take my precautions, but then it was a matter of letting go.

At some point, I envisioned my experience of tawakkul as a free-fall. You know those trust exercises that you do at summer camps or company retreats? You fall back into the arms of someone and relinquish any control over your muscles. You are supposed to be limp and fully trust your partner to catch you.

I did this once with a youth group. After they fell–some gracefully and trusting, some not — I told them: “This is the example of tawakkul. Some of you didn’t trust and you tried to break your fall but some of you completely let go and let your partner catch you. Life will throw you down, it will hit you over and over, and you will fall–but He, subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He), will be there to break your fall.”

I am falling. There is a degree of terror and sadness in the fall. But that point when through the pain and tears I can say, “It is what it is, and no matter what, everything will be okay”, that right there is the tranquility that comes from tawakkul.

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