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Ramadan Reflections: A Daily Journey Through the Qur’an Juz 1

Ali Shehata

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For all articles up to and including this one, click “Ramadan Reflections: The Daily Journey

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Alhamdulillah that Allah has allowed us to reach another blessed month of Ramadan, a month in which the gates of Paradise are opened wide and the gates of the Hellfire are shut, a month wherein we get closer to Him by fasting through the day and praying in the night, a month which contains a night more virtuous than a thousand months, a month whose good is such that the one who is deprived of its blessings is truly deprived. Alhamdulillah for the Qur’an, a magnificent recital which was revealed to our beloved Messenger Muhammad (saas) in this excellent month so that we might read and ponder the words of our Lord Most High. And in honor of this great month we devote more time to His message to human-kind by reading it and practicing the Sunnah of completing at least one full reading within the month. Yet, although so many Muslims are anxious to complete the entire recital of the Qur’an in this month, they in turn also neglect one of the most important aspects of the Qur’an – to reflect and ponder upon its meanings so that our hearts, manners, statements and actions fall in line with the pleasure of Allah. As Allah has stated in His Book:

 

وَقَالَ الرَّسُولُ يَا رَبِّ إِنَّ قَوْمِي اتَّخَذُوا هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ مَهْجُورًا

Then the Messenger will say: “O my Lord! Truly my people deserted this Qur’ân (neither listened to it, nor acted on its laws and orders). [25:30]

And elsewhere,

 

أَفَلَا يَتَدَبَّرُونَ الْقُرْآنَ أَمْ عَلَى قُلُوبٍ أَقْفَالُهَا

Do they not then earnestly seek to understand the Qur’an, or are their hearts locked up by them? [47:24]

In an effort to ensure that this Ramadan doesn’t pass us by without us acting upon the command of Allah to understand and consequently implement the Qur’an in our lives, a series will be written everyday reflecting upon the meanings and applications of the Qur’an – a small, concisely written daily reminder one juz’ (1/30th of the Qur’an) at a time to help us come away from this Ramadan with real and lasting changes in our relationship with Allah and His Book. They will be written so as to be read in a few minutes and thus cannot be so comprehensive, but insha’Allah using only what will drive home the point in the easiest and most efficient manner so as to allow Muslims to read them daily and act upon them insha’Allah. The major difficulty in this endeavor shall be what selection to use – how to select one or two ayaat from every juz’ to discuss, but with Allah is all success and insha’Allah each selection will provide its benefit. May Allah bring benefit and guidance from this effort and allow our hearts to come back to the beauty, wisdom and light of His words so that we become from among His righteous slaves and those who will inherit the highest Gardens on the Day when we meet Him – ameen.

Part One – Surat al-Fatihah and Baqarah

Building on the message in the introduction to this series, Allah makes mention of the matter of who truly benefits from the Qur’an in the opening to surat al-Baqarah, saying:

 

ذَلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لاَ رَيْبَ فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ

This is the Book; in it there is no doubt, it is guidance to those who have taqwa; [2:2]

Commentators on the Qur’an have understood the meaning of His statement, the Book, to mean that this is the Book the way that someone today would say, “This is the real deal.” This is no ordinary book, not a book you casually gloss over while lounging on the couch or waiting for the doctor. This book is a serious matter because its matter is guidance – it deals with that which will save you on the Day of Judgment and will bring you eternal bliss.

To that end, Allah issues one of many challenges found in the Qur’an, and in fact often pertaining to the Qur’an itself – there is no doubt in it. A bold statement for sure, but a challenge nonetheless for those who wish to sift through it ayat by ayat, word by word, letter by letter – there is no doubt in it and thus you can be secure. It is no coincidence that the word Imaan – often loosely translated as faith or belief – comes from the Arabic root word amana which means to be secure. Thus true “faith” in Islam is founded upon security and certainty and can never be a “blind faith”. This leads us to the final words in this glorious ayah – it is guidance to those who have taqwa.

So we have a wondrous book, unlike any other. In its pages you will find no doubt, but instead it leads to true security of the soul. And this book is guidance; but not to anyone – only to those who have taqwa. The root meaning of taqwa is to avoid what one dislikes, or to shield yourself from that which you fear. Its usage in Islam means to protect or shield yourself from the punishment of Allah. The illustrious Companion and scholar Ibn ‘Abbaas explained that those who have taqwa as being, “They are the believers who avoid associating partners with Allah and who obey Him and His commandments.” Ibn `Abbaas also said that they are, “Those who fear Allah’s punishment, which would result if they abandoned the true guidance that they recognize and know. They also hope in Allah’s mercy by believing in what He revealed.”

In this clear description, Ibn ‘Abbaas illustrates for us a very important concept regarding the state of taqwa: it is always linked to worship (‘ibaadah) in the Qur’an. Worship can be defined as, doing what Allah has commanded and avoiding what He has prohibited. Worship has also been defined including all actions that Allah loves and approves of, whether they are actions of the heart, the tongue or the body.

Thus, benefiting from the Qur’an requires sincerity and determination from the Muslim. Once again, it is not any book and cannot be read as you read any book. It must be read in a way similar to the way a person reads a map when he is lost and on the verge of death. Such a person will throw all of his focus into reading the map before him in hopes of rescuing himself from disaster, and in the same way we approach the Qur’an with seriousness to avoid falling into heedlessness and consequently misguidance which leads to Hell. One must then approach the Qur’an with a heart ready to understand and ready to implement the guidance it discovers – otherwise what would separate this reading from any other? Certainly a beautiful and melodic voice is not the distinction that is needed, but the attitude is the real key. To that end, we find another ayah building on this issue:

إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَذِكْرَى لِمَن كَانَ لَهُ قَلْبٌ أَوْ أَلْقَى السَّمْعَ وَهُوَ شَهِيدٌ

Verily in this is a Message for any that has a heart and understanding or who gives ear and earnestly witnesses (the truth). [50:37]

This ayah emphasizes the above mentioned meanings by informing the reader that only with comprehension and attentiveness does a person benefit from the Qur’an. Ad-Dahhak, one of the great scholars of Qur’anic tafsir, commented on this ayah, “The Arabs would say that someone has given ear when he hears with his ears, while his heart is present and not absent.” And Ibn Qutaibah said: “Listen to the book of Allah whilst your heart and mind is attentive, not neglectful nor distant.” Yet many will recite verses with their hearts distant, such that their eyes fall upon verses of punishment yet they are not affected or stopped, whereas the Companions would follow the Sunnah of our beloved Messenger Muhammad (saas) by pausing at these verse – sometimes to weep, other times to ask Allah for His protection and forgiveness, but always to ponder their meanings and consider their own actions in this light.

So we end this selection from the first day of Ramadan by remembering the practice of the Companions of the Prophet regarding their approach to the Qur’an.

Abu `Abd al-Rahmaan al-Sulamee states that whenever the people who taught them (them – the Successors/Tabi’een) the Qur’an like `Uthmaan ibn Affaan, `Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood and others (rA) that they learned ten verses of the Qur’an from the Prophet (saas) and they did not proceed further unless they had understood these verses with what they contained of regulations and injunctions. They used to say: “We learned the text of the Qur’an and studied its ideas and injunctions all together.” This explains why they spent such a long time in learning a chapter (surah). Anas (rA) has said: “We used to hold in great esteem the one who learned the two surahs of the Qur’an: al-Baqarah and Aali-‘Imraan”.

Ibn `Umar (rA) spent many years, and according to Maalik, a complete eight years, in learning these surahs (Usool at-Tafseer by Ibn Taimiyyah) when today some students memorize them (of course without understanding) in a few months. Hence, their serious and sincere approach to the Qur’an – seeking its guidance as Allah intended – caused them to take the Qur’an in a manner different from us today.

The take-home point today then is that our approach to this magnificent book must change, our attitude must fundamentally change if we are to become among the people of taqwa and thus those who will benefit from the Qur’an. We should return to the manners of our predecessors by remembering that this Qur’an is the word of Allah spoken and sent down to us from above the seven heavens so that we can attain guidance. Our attitude when reading it must be one in which the goal is not finishing the page or the juz’ as much as it is understanding what we read with the sincere intention of acting upon it – implementing it if it is a command and avoiding it if it is a prohibition. If this limits us to only a few ayat per day then remember that we are not better than the Companions who also took a similarly long time yet benefited and were guided so much more than us. Let us end by remembering the wise words of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadi who said,

“Do not be pleased with knowledge that has no action to accompany it, nor with action that has no knowledge to guide it; but instead marry the two together by acting upon knowledge even if the result of that is that you attain less of them both.”

May Allah accept our fasting and help us to become among the people of the Qur’an, those described by the Prophet (saas) in the authentic hadith as those who act upon the Qur’an – ameen.

See Also: MM’s Ramadan Coverage 

Dr. Ali Shehata is the author of Demystifying Islam: Your Guide to the Most Misunderstood Religion of the 21st Century. Dr. Ali is an Emergency and Family Medicine physician currently living in an area of central Florida. He was born in Maryland to parents who had immigrated to the US from Egypt. He has studied Islam mainly through traditional methods among various scholars, du'at and students of knowledge here in the US.

11 Comments

11 Comments

  1. Avatar

    Amaar

    September 2, 2008 at 5:00 AM

    Asalaamu alaikum, jazakum’Allahu khairan Dr. Ali for the excellent article. Your analogy of the Qur’an to a map studied intensely by a dying person is especially relevant, as we tend not to give the Qur’an its right and the attention it deserves. Subhan’Allah it is also true that very often we do read the verses of punishment without reflecting and pausing; I was not aware that this was the practice of the Prophet (SAW) and Companions.

    May Allah accept your effort, and we look forward to reading the articles to follow bi’idnillah.

  2. Avatar

    Servant

    September 2, 2008 at 6:37 AM

    As’salam Alaykum Wa’Rahmat Allah,

    May Allah azza wajall bring our hearts closer to His book. And allow us to read with understanding and inculcate the Qur’an in our daily lives, in and outside of Ramadan, Ameen. Ramadan Mubarak – Taqqabal Allahu mina wa meenkum.

  3. Avatar

    Tunde

    September 2, 2008 at 7:56 AM

    Asalaam aleikum Ali,

    Great reminders, thank you. I am sure everyone will benefit from it. May Allah reward you justly for what you do…… ameen

  4. Pingback: Hadrat Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq (RA) - The Inspirational Leader « Thoughts Unthought.

  5. Avatar

    AnonyMouse

    September 2, 2008 at 1:30 PM

    Masha’Allah, a wonderful article – jazaakAllahu khairan for the time and effort you’re putting into these series!

    I have a couple questions, however, regarding completing the reading of the Qur’an in Ramadhaan and memorization of the Qur’an throughout the year.

    1) For those of us who don’t understand Arabic, or are not fluent in it, can it be considered as disliked to read the whole Qur’an cover-to-cover during this month, yet not be able to spend all that time in also looking up and studying its meanings? I say this because on one hand we’re told that we should be reading as much as possible; on the other hand we feel bad that we’re not able to give it the proper time and understanding due to it…

    2) What of those who encourage us to memorize the Qur’an as much and as soon as possible, and leave studying its deeper meanings for a later time? Is either approach (that of the Sahaabah, and that which is common now) okay, as long as your intention is sincere and you truly do try and make the effort to study it? A huge problem that I have, and which I think others also have, is that it’s easy to memorize on your own – but studying the Qur’an deeply often requires a qualified teacher, which we don’t all have at our disposal.

    Once again, jazaakAllahu khairan and I look forward to tomorrow’s episode!

  6. Avatar

    Amad

    September 2, 2008 at 5:00 PM

    salam
    this is going to be AMAZING… a little dose from each juz every day!! Mashallah!

  7. Avatar

    sisterindeen

    September 2, 2008 at 5:12 PM

    JazakAllahu khairan. This is an excellent idea and I’ve benefited from today’s post a lot.

  8. Avatar

    zfnd

    September 2, 2008 at 7:45 PM

    alhamdulilah!

    Exactly what I was looking for.

  9. Ali Shehata

    Ali Shehata

    September 2, 2008 at 10:48 PM

    As-salaam alaikum everyone and thank you for the encouraging comments.

    Alhamdulillah, AnonyMouse asked a very good and relevant question regarding the issue of finishing the recital of the Qur’an vs studying its meanings in depth during Ramadan as well as outside of Ramadan. Certainly this has become a dilemma for us in recent ages with the loss of the Arabic language among many Muslims, but alhamdulillah the matter is not restrictive and many approaches are valid.

    1) It is a Sunnah to complete the recital of the entire Qur’an in Ramadan since we know the Prophet (saas) used to do this with Jibreel. As I had mentioned in another post, to complete the whole Qur’an in Ramadan would require one to read about 25 pages per day which is not difficult if a person plans their day out in advance. This still leaves time for us to add some time for understanding selections of the Qur’an.

    Knowing that Companions and Ulamaa’ like Abdullah ibn ‘Umar finished al-Baqarah and aali-‘Imraan in eight years due to their depth of study in it does not mean that all the Companions did that. There is of course a difference between an elite ‘aalim like ibn Umar and others. For the majority of us, selecting portions from our daily reading of the Qur’an everyday to better understand will be sufficient because it is not reasonable to expect that a person will be able to really study and implement such huge portions in such a short time. Instead, Ramadan should be the time when we establish these habits for the rest of the year insha’Allah.

    2) Regarding the issue of memorization, again there are many roads to success in this matter and Allah has made it easy for us alhamdulillah. Among the Companions are those who studied deeply and took time with memorization not wanting to memorize without full understanding, and there were also other illustrious Companions who memorized with less understanding. We know of the large number of hufaath (people having completed the memorization of the whole Qur’an) who died in the Battle of al-Yamaamah and they were not scholars in Tafseer. So as you have said masha’Allah, memorizing the Qur’an with a good intention (becoming proficient at its recitation, so that it can raise your degrees in Jannah, so that it will be a base for future study, etc., etc.) – and then studying it at a slower pace after memorization is also acceptable alhamdulillah provided the sincerity of the deed for Allah alone.

    As a note, it was standard among the earlier generations, as in the time of Maalik and Shaafi’ee, to not accept students into halaqas of advanced study if they had not completed the memorization of the Qur’an. So the matter is expansive alhamdulillah and the real issue is making sure that the reason you are memorizing the Qur’an is for Allah and not to be praised by people (riyaa) and so forth and then to have the continued sincerity to study its meanings and applications later.

    And Allah knows best.

  10. Avatar

    muslim

    September 4, 2008 at 12:15 PM

    JazakAllah Khair!

  11. Avatar

    shabbeer

    November 6, 2008 at 7:54 AM

    my question is why is there a christian propogation link under”KORAN PROPHESY”

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#Islam

Six Principles for Achieving the Ideal Islamic Society

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By Ibrahim Khan

 

Attending jumu’ah on a weekly basis can give us an opportunity to learn many things. However, nearly every Friday towards the end of the khutbah, the khatib recites a verse that many of us are accustomed to:

“Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will be reminded. [An-Nahl; 90]

Some of us may have even memorised this verse directly from the mouth of the Imam during the Friday Khutbah. Why do Imams recite this verse nearly every Friday in the jumu’ah khutbah worldwide? What is the significance of this verse?

Imam Ahmad reports a Hasan Hadith on the authority of Abdullah bin AbbasraḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) with regards to the revelation of this verse, who said:

‘While the Messenger of Allah was sitting in the courtyard of his house, Uthman bin Maz`un passed by and smiled at the Messenger of Allah.

The Messenger of Allah said to him, “Won’t you sit down?”

He replied, “Certainly.”

So the Messenger of Allah sat facing him, and while they were talking, the Messenger of Allah began looking up at the sky, looking at it for a while, then he brought his gaze down until he was looking at the ground to his right. Then the Messenger of Allah turned slightly away from his companion Uthman to where he was looking. Then he began to tilt his head as if trying to understand something, and Ibn Maz`un was looking on. When the matter was finished and he had understood what had been said to him, the Messenger of Allah stared at the sky again as he had the first time, looking at whatever he could see until it disappeared. Then he turned back to face Uthman again.

Uthman said, “I have never seen you do anything like you did today while I was sitting with you.

The Messenger of Allah said: “What did you see me do?”

Uthman said, “I saw you staring at the sky, then you lowered your gaze until you were looking to your right, then you turned to him and left me. Then you tilted your head as if you were trying to understand something that was being said to you.”

The Messenger of Allah said, “A messenger from Allah came to me just now, when you were sitting here.”

Uthman said, “A messenger from Allah!”

The Messenger of Allah said, “Yes.”

Uthman said, “And what did he say to you?”

The Messenger of Allah said, “A verse was revealed to me:

إِنَّ اللَّـهَ يَأْمُرُ‌ بِالْعَدْلِ وَالْإِحْسَانِ وَإِيتَاءِ ذِي الْقُرْ‌بَىٰ وَيَنْهَىٰ عَنِ الْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنكَرِ‌ وَالْبَغْيِ ۚ يَعِظُكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُ‌ونَ

“Indeed, Allah orders justice and good conduct and giving to relatives and forbids immorality and bad conduct and oppression. He admonishes you that perhaps you will be reminded.”

Uthman said, “That was when faith was established in my heart and I began to love Muhammad.”’ [Tafsir Ibn Kathir 16;90]

 

If we carefully analyse this verse, we find that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has mentioned 6 principles; 3 commandments and 3 prohibitions.

 

  • Justice

The first command is to be just. From amongst the 89 commandments within the Qur’an in which Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) addresses the believers by beginning with the statement, ‘O you who believe’, Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) says in one of those verses:

O you who have believed, be persistently standing firm for Allah , witnesses in justice, and do not let the hatred of a people prevent you from being just. Be just; that is nearer to righteousness. And fear Allah; indeed, Allah is acquainted with what you do.” [Al Ma’idah;8]

From amongst the other prophets of Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) who were commanded within the Qur’an to act with justice, is the Prophet Dawud 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him). Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) narrates in Surah Sa’d an event that occurred during his lifetime in which his ability to act justly was tested. Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) says,

”And has there come to you the news of the adversaries, when they climbed over the wall of [his] prayer chamber –

When they entered upon David and he was alarmed by them? They said, ‘Fear not. [We are] two adversaries, one of whom has wronged the other, so judge between us with truth and do not exceed [it] and guide us to the sound path.

Indeed this, my brother, has ninety-nine ewes, and I have one ewe; so he said, ‘Entrust her to me,’ and he overpowered me in speech.

(Dawud) said, “He has certainly wronged you in demanding your ewe [in addition] to his ewes. And indeed, many associates oppress one another, except for those who believe and do righteous deeds – and few are they.” And David became certain that We had tried him, and he asked forgiveness of his Lord and fell down bowing [in prostration] and turned in repentance [to Allah ].

 

Allah tested Dawud 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) by sending him two angels disguised in the form of shepherds. These shepherds where brothers; one of them had a single female sheep (ewe) whilst the other had 99. They both came to Dawud 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) to present their case to him. The one who had a single sheep spoke and said that his brother wanted to claim his one sheep (to make a total of 100 sheep). Without hearing the other side of the story, Dawud 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) made a judgement and said the other brother’s claim was oppressive towards his brother. The two brothers then vanished and Dawud 'alayhi'l-salām (peace be upon him) realised it was a test; he fell into prostration seeking Allah’s forgiveness. Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) accepted his repentance and then commanded him to judge with justice on the Earth.

So We forgave him that; and indeed, for him is nearness to Us and a good place of return.

[We said], “O David, indeed We have made you a successor upon the earth, so judge between the people in truth and do not follow [your own] desire, as it will lead you astray from the way of Allah .” Indeed, those who go astray from the way of Allah will have a severe punishment for having forgotten the Day of Account. [Surah Sa’ad; 21-26]

 

  • Excellence

The second principle mentioned in the verse is the command to act with excellence. If you study the Qur’an, you will find إِحْسَانًا or أَحْسَنُ meaning ‘excellence’ to be a prevalent theme throughout.

When Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) speaks about being obedient to parents, he mentions obedience in the most excellent form,

And your Lord has decreed that you not worship except Him, and to parents, excellent treatment.” [Surah Isra’;23]

When Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) speaks about talking, Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) mentions excellent in utterance,

And tell My servants to say that which is excellent[Surah Isra’;53]

In Surah Mulk, when Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) speaks about the purpose of his creation, he relates it to excellence:

“It is he who created death and life to test you [as to] which of you is excellent in deed – and He is the Exalted in Might, the Forgiving “ [Surah Mulk;2]

These are just some of the examples mentioned in the Qur’an. Within the Sunnah our Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) summed up excellence in a single hadith:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَتَبَ الْإِحْسَانَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ
“Verily, Allah has prescribed excellence in everything.” [Muslim; 1955]

 

Whatever actions we perform, whether it is related to Islam or the Dunya, the foundation of excellence should be there.

 

  • The Rights of the Relatives (Ties of Kinship)

The third and final command of Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) within this verse is to be kind to relatives and to uphold the ties of kinship. Our prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) mentioned many ahadith which emphasised the status of the relatives. In just one of those ahadith, the Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said:

The quickest good deeds to be rewarded are righteousness and good relations with family. The quickest evil deeds to be punished are transgression and severing family ties.” [Ibn Majah; 4212]

One of the greatest dilemmas facing Muslims in today’s time is the cutting of kinship. A person will do their best to maintain ties of relationship with relatives only to have them cut off.  During the time of the Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him), a man came to him and complained, “I have relatives with whom I maintain ties while they cut me off. I am good to them while they are bad to me. They behave foolishly towards me while I am forbearing towards them.” The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) replied, “If things are as you said, it is as if you were putting hot ashes on them (it is going to harm them because of their behaviour) and you will not lack a supporter against them from Allah as long as you continue to do that.” [Adab al Mufrad; 52]

 

  • Immorality 

Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) now moves on to the prohibitions. The first prohibition that the believers -both male and female- are commanded to stay away from is immorality. It is very unfortunate, living in the West that we Muslims are exposed to immorality on a daily basis; at work, school, university and the easily accessible media.

With regards to this principle, I want to outline two remarkable hadiths. Our Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said:
“Modesty is part of faith and faith is in Paradise. Shamelessness is part of impudence and impudence is in the Hellfire.” [Tirmidhi; 2009]

The paths to eternal bliss and eternal punishment have been made clear.

The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) also said:
“Obscenity is not found in anything but that it spoils it, and modesty is not found in anything but that it beautifies it.” [Tirmidhi; 1974]

 

  • Evil

Allah within the Qur’an praised this Ummah because of their enjoining of good and forbidding evil.

You are the best nation produced for mankind. You enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong and believe in Allah. [Surah Al-e-Imran; 110]

The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) gave us a stern warning, if evil was not prohibited when he said, “By Him in Whose Hand my life is, you either enjoin good and forbid evil, or Allah will certainly soon send His punishment to you. Then you will make supplication and it will not be accepted“. [Tirmidhi; 193]

 

  • Transgression 

The final principle and prohibition is to avoid transgression. Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) commanded the Muslims to be united through the bond of La ilaha ilallah, enveloped by brotherhood & sisterhood, and to be upon the Qur’an & Sunnah:

And hold firmly to the rope of Allah all together and do not become divided. And remember the favour of Allah upon you – when you were enemies and He brought your hearts together and you became, by His favour, brothers. And you were on the edge of a pit of the Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus does Allah make clear to you His verses that you may be guided.” [Surah Al-e-Imrah;103]

For this reason, there are numerous ahadith of our Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) mentioning the virtues of unity. The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said:

لاَ تَبَاغَضُوا، وَلاَ تَحَاسَدُوا، وَلاَ تَدَابَرُوا، وَكُونُوا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ إِخْوَانًا، وَلاَ يَحِلُّ لِمُسْلِمٍ أَنْ يَهْجُرَ أَخَاهُ فَوْقَ ثَلاَثِ لَيَالٍ

Do not hate one another, nor be jealous of one another; and do not desert one another, but O Allah’s worshipers! Be Brothers! And it is unlawful for a Muslim to desert his brother Muslim (and not to talk to him) for more than three nights.” [Bukhari; 6076]

The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) at the end of this hadith mentioned that it is prohibited to desert talking tot your brother for more than three nights. How many households are there where brothers don’t speak to one another, or sisters don’t speak to sisters or children not speaking to their parents? This principle is very similar to the previous principle mentioned earlier on this verse on the importance of being kind to relatives. These two principles involve giving other fellow human beings their right and for this reason, the Prophet combined them two (transgression and ties of kinship) within a single hadith where he said:

There is no sin more deserving for Allah to quicken its punishment in this life, in addition to the Hereafter, other than transgression and cutting off family ties. [Tirmidhi; 2511]

 

These 6 principles; Being just, acting with excellence, maintaining ties of kinship, staying away from immorality, forbidding evil and avoiding transgression, if followed, will lead to the ideal Islamic society being formed within our communities. If we all implement these 6 principles on an individual level, this will insha’allah be embodied on a communal level. This verse encapsulates both good and bad and for this reason, the great scholar of the Qur’an, Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) commented on this verse and said;

“There is no verse in the Qur’an which is greater in combining the halal and the haram and the command the prohibition than this verse.” [Adab al Mufrad; 489]

 

 

Ibrahim Khan was blessed to have been able to memorize the Qur’an in the UK and then went on to study Aqeedah, Fiqh, Hadith with different teachers and scholars (some from which visited the UK from abroad).

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Power Up Your Kids’ Ramadan! Days 1-7

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Welcome to Ilmburst’s FREE Ramadan children’s video series: Power Up Ramadan.

Day Two: RACE

Day Three: GOALS

Day Four: PRAYER

Day Five: EMPTY

Day Six: QUR’AN

Day Seven: SINCERITY

Check out more Ramadan resources on the Ilmburst website.

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Al-Mudawwanah Al-Jāmi’ah: The History and Methodology of the Hadith Encyclopedia

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By Shaykh Al-Islam Mufti Taqi ‘Uthmani, translated by Umer Ansari

Translator’s Foreword:

The following is the first formal introduction to Al-Mudawwanah Al-Jāmi’ah: The Hadith Encyclopedia in the English language.

It has been formulated based on the Arabic Muqaddimah penned by Shaykh Mufti Taqī ‘Uthmānī at the beginning of Al-Mudawwanah Al-Jāmi’ah, the Urdu introduction by our esteemed Shaykh that was published in Al-Balagh Urdu Monthly (Nov 2017), and his speech given at “Taqrīb-i Shukr” ceremony (Dec 5, 2017) at Dār al-Ulūm Karachi, the transcription of which has also been published in Al-Balagh Urdu Monthly (Jan 2018).

This translation aims to provide, in the English language, a comprehensive introduction of this historical work with the latest information available at the time.


In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful and the Ever Merciful

All praises are due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds, and peace and blessings be upon Allah’s noble messenger, his household, and all of his noble companions.

Since 2002, Dār al-‘Ulūm in Karachi has undertaken an important project in the field of hadith compilation and, by Allah’s mercy and blessings, we have reached an important milestone. The first volume of the hadith encyclopedia has been published under the title Al-Mudawwanah Al-Jāmi’ah lil-ahadith al-Marwīyah ‘an an-Nabī al-Karīm allá Allāh ‘alayhi wassallam.

By the grace of Allah, this project has been in progress without any publicity. Since the first volume is now published, however, the time is ripe on this joyous occasion that a concise introduction be presented for all the people of knowledge.

The Preservation of Hadith

For indeed, Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has chosen the nation of Prophet Muhammad ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) to preserve the details of His beloved messenger’s ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) noble life. This is so because the noble messenger ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) was sent with divine guidance for all of humanity until the Day of Judgment. Therefore, Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) has taken it upon Himself to protect the Qur’an. Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) says:

“We, Ourselves, have sent down the Dhikr (the Qur’an), and We are there to protect it.” [Al-ijr, 15:9][1]

 

Furthermore, the protection of the Qur’an entails the preservation of the sunnah of Allah’s messenger ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) because Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) had sent him to teach and explain the Book of Allah. He says:

 

 

“We sent down the Reminder (The Qur’an) to you, so that you explain to the people what has been revealed for them, and so that they may ponder.” [an-Nal, 16:44]

 

Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) says:

 

Allah has surely conferred favor on the believers when He raised in their midst a messenger from among themselves  who recites to them His verses and makes them pure and teaches them the Book and the Wisdom, while earlier, they were in open error.” [Āl-i-Imrān, 3:164]

 

Therefore, Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) chose some among His servants to preserve the sunnah of His Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him). They dedicated their lives to preserving the sunnah by memorizing, writing, teaching, explaining, and propagating it. They spared no effort in preserving the text and the chains of narrators of ahadith, in scrutinizing the narrators to separate the reliable narrators from the unreliable, in the writing and compiling of ahadith, in explaining and extrapolating from them, and in expanding this science while preserving it, the likes of which is unprecedented in human history.

It is no secret from the people of knowledge that the way Muslims have preserved hadith of the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) is unparalleled and incomparable with any other nation or religion. Innumerable compilations of hadith have been written in different styles, and each one of them possesses many benefits.

When we examine the history of the hadith sciences, we find works that attempted at compiling numerous hadith. ‘Allāmah Ibn al-Athīr al-Jazarī compiled the six books of Al-Sihah Al-Sitta (also known as Al-Kutub Al-Sitta)[2] into Jāmi’ al-Usūl, however, it included Al-Muwaṭṭaʾ of Imam Mālik instead of Sunan Ibn Mājah. Then ‘Allāmah Haythami compiled his Majmau’ al-Zawāid in which he compiled the ahadith of Al-Sihāh Al-Sitta, along with Musnad Amad, Al-Mu’jam Al-abarānī, and Musnad Abu Ya’lā. This was followed by Jam’ul Fawāid in which Jāmi’ al-Usūl and Majmau’ al-Zawāid were compiled together, in addition to the narrations exclusively found in Sunan Ibn Mājah and Sunan ad-Dārimi.

Later, many other compilations took place, for example Al-Jawāmi’ of ‘Allāmah al-Suyūṭī and Kanz al-‘Ummāl to name a few. However, in these compilations, ahadith were collected with their matn (text), while leaving out their isnād (chain of narrators)[3].

Thus, every generation has served the Prophetic traditions by facilitating the need to search ahadith from the hadith compilations, details of which are well-known to the people of knowledge. In the Information Age, there are numerous programs to search hadith, the importance of which cannot be denied. However, new ways of service to the Prophetic traditions continue to manifest.

Background

About fifteen years ago a friend of mine, who would like to remain anonymous, proposed that all the Prophetic traditions should be assigned a unique international number. The current method of citing hadith is either by making a reference to the page number of the reference work, or by mentioning the hadith number found in that collection. However, such references differ quite often due to the differences in the manuscripts and publications. Therefore, such a method is not the best tool to search and cite hadith. In addition, while doing takhrīj[4], narrations of some works are missed.

Without drawing a likeness to the Qur’an, just as each Qur’anic chapter and verse are numbered, and it is enough to cite the chapter and the verse number that doesn’t differ with different prints, the proposal suggested each hadith to be assigned a unique hadith number that can be used to cite as a reference comprising of all the details (pertaining to it) in a single place.

I personally liked this proposal, and it was obvious that it would require a thorough examination to compile a new hadith encyclopedia consisting of all the traditions that are attributed to the messenger of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) (i.e. Marfū’ ahadith)[5]. None of the compilers of hadith have claimed that they have only included hadith, after a close study of all the narrations, that are found in all of the hadith works in the world.

Along with its importance, the sheer volume of work required an insight of a scholarly body. For this reason, the gentleman who had presented this proposal wanted to host a meeting of scholars who were learned and experienced in dealing with the sciences of hadith and it’s cataloging.

The First Meeting

On the 5th and 7th of Ramaḍān, 1422 (A.H.) a meeting was held in Makkah al-Mukarramah that comprised of scholars who had expertise in hadith, especially in hadith compilation, arrangement, and preservation.

The most prominent amidst them was Shaykh Dr. Mustafa al-‘Azami, who, among his other extensive contributions to the hadith sciences, was the first to computerize hadith. His work in the digitization of hadith had earned him the King Faisal International Award[6].

Shaykh Yusuf al-Qaraḍāwī, who currently resides in Qatar, was also invited because he is a world-renowned academic.

The Grand Mufti of Pakistan Shaykh Mufti Muḥammad Rafī’ ‘Uthmāni, the Principal of Dār al-‘Ulūm Karachi in Pakistan and the muḥaddith there was invited as well.

Also present was Shaykh Dr. Abdul Malik bin Bakr al-Qāḍi, a Riyadh based scholar and the author of Diwān as-Sunan wa al-Athār, who in 1422 A.H. had personally begun to collect all the available ahadith with their text and chain of narration. He had presented to me a sample from his work in the form of Kitāb al-Zakah, seeking my advice and recommendations. I had found that his work was missing the books of the Hanafi school, for example At-aāwī, Al-Muwaṭṭaʾ of Imam Muḥammad and Kitāb al-Athār of Imam Abu Yusuf. I had written to him in my response that how can his work be called “al-Jāmi’” if it did not include these works. He then responded to me that he would include them as well. At the time we had no thought towards such a project. However, now that we were meeting in Makkah, he was invited as well so that we could benefit from his experience.

Additionally, Shaykh Dr. Maḥmūd al-Taḥān, Dr. ‘Abdul Sattar Abu Ghuddah[7], Dr. Syed Muḥammad Syed Nūḥ, Shaykh Nizām Ya’qūbi, and I were present at the meeting.

With the blessings of the month of Ramaḍān and the Ḥaramain Sharīfain, everyone was receptive to the proposal, analyzed different aspects of it, and encouraged it. We discussed the different ways this could be achieved. The first meeting was concluded by forming a four-member committee to further brainstorm the methodology for the project and how it may be implemented. The four members of this committee were Dr. Mustafa al-‘Azami, Muḥammad Taqī ‘Uthmānī, Shaykh Abdul Malik bin Bakr al-Qāḍi, and Shaykh Abdul Sattar Abu Ghuddah.

The Second Meeting

This committee convened its meeting on the 25th and 26th of Shawwāl, 1422 A.H. in Makkah al-Mukarramah, where the structure of this project was discussed.

Since Shaykh Abdul Malik bin Bakr al-Qāḍi had a head start, even though his work was missing some books, he presented his methodology in compiling hadith. Listening to his experience, it dawned upon the committee members that this project would require at least forty personnel. It was also suggested that this forty personnel should be divided into two equal groups, one based in Karachi under the supervision of Dār al-‘Ulūm Karachi and another group in Cairo under the supervision of Shaykh Abdul Malik bin Bakr al-Qāḍi.

The Suggestion of Dr. Mustafa al-‘Azami

When the project’s finances were estimated, we were in shock. I spoke with Dr. Mustafa al-‘Azami that with such estimated expenses, it did not seem possible to have forty people in two groups working on the project in two different cities, to which he agreed.

I also told him that if we were to undertake this project it would be in the footsteps of our elders in simplicity. We would do however little we can and we will leave it to Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) to make it reach its completion.

Dr. Mustafa al-‘Azami agreed, and he proposed that this project should be entrusted to Dār al-‘Ulūm Karachi under my humble supervision, it should not be publicized, and while relying and trusting upon Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He), the work should begin.

Initial Investment

In order to initiate this project, some investment was nevertheless needed. An individual from Dubai approached us and offered to single-handedly sponsor all the finances of this project. I did not think it wise to rely on an individual for the finances of this project; rather I felt that we must solely rely upon Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He). Therefore, it was made clear to him that he may assist out of his own will for as long as he wishes, while we trust in Allah to arrange the needed finances.

Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) showed us that the individual who wanted to single-handedly sponsor the entire project backed out within four months of his claim. We believed that this project was purely for the sake of Allah, because it was in service of the hadith of the messenger of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him), therefore, Allah Most High would continue the project to operate out of His Mercy.

Whatever little finances we had, we continued to operate with it. Since this project was not Zakat eligible, those funds could not be allocated to this project.

The Department of Mawsū’ah al-Hadith

Henceforth, a separate department by the name of Mawsū’ah al-Hadith (موسوعة الحديث) was established within Dār al-‘Ulūm Karachi. A small group of researchers was formed so that by working on this project they could gain hands-on experience in researching hadith.

After laying down its methodology, this project needed a leader with rigorous qualifications: he had to be experienced, intimately familiar with the science of hadith, skillful in the art of writing scholarly publications, as well as proficient in the use of computers. Praise be to Allah that Shaykh Na’īm Ashraf[8] was appointed to this position, may Allah bless his life, knowledge, and endeavors.

Hence, they began the work fifteen years ago with very limited resources, having trust only in Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He). Since then, Shaykh Na’īm Ashraf has been dedicating three hours a day to supervise the work. After every dhuhr salāh he brings the draft of ahadith of that day for my review; I give any needed suggestions regarding it, which are then accounted for, and the ahadith are brought for my further review the next day. The finalized ahadith get included in the encyclopedia after my signature approval. This is how the work has been progressing on a daily basis, all thanks are due to Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He).

The Methodology

The intended purpose of the project is to include in Al-Mudawwanah all the marfū’ ahadith[9] that are available in print or in manuscripts from anywhere in the world, and assign a unique number to them along with their variations in the chain of narrators.

The total number of source works have reached up to 910 – comprising of primary and secondary books of hadith, the books of tafsīr, takhrīj, and shuruāt al-hadith[10]. From these, 80 books are the primary sources of hadith because of their original sanad and matn, while the rest are being used as supplementary sources for attesting the primary ahadith. These 80 books are the most commonly referenced works in the field of hadith, as most of the ahadith are found within them, and their authors have narrated them on the authority of their own chain of narrators. If any unique hadith is found in the secondary sources then they are also given a unique number.

An additional feature of Al-Mudawwanah is that we are mentioning the grading of ahadith with their sanad by mentioning the statement from the mutaqaddimīn scholars if available. In the occasion when a comment from the mutaqaddimīn scholars is unavailable, we do not mention our own comment on the hadith, or that of our contemporaries, unless there is a pressing need, in which case the grading of hadith is added in the footnote.

The Arrangement of Al-Mudawwanah

Regarding the arrangement of hadith, we pondered over whether it should be in alphabetical order or based on topics (abwāb). We decided that the alphabetical order would not be beneficial because ahadith, specifically the ahadith al-Fi’liyyah[11], have differences in their text and chain. Hence, Al-Mudawwanah is being arranged according to the abwāb, however, care is being taken that the abwāb do not reflect any particular juristic or theological school.

Al-Hadith al-Mukhtār

Under each chapter, the first hadith is declared as al-Hadith al-Mukhtār (الحديث المختار), which is a marfū’ hadith that is mentioned with its complete chain and has the strongest chain of narrators. This hadith is assigned a unique international number.

The second hadith is at-arīq al-Ajma’ (الطريق الأجمع) and it is also brought with its full chain. The benefit of this second hadith is that it often provides the complete background and context of the narration of al-Hadith al-Mukhtār.

After mentioning at-arīq al-Ajma’, all the different chains that are found in the books that are narrated from the companion of al-Hadith al-Mukhtār are mentioned, along with any important variations in their wordings.

Next, different mutūn (texts) of the hadith that are reported from other noble companions are therefore brought as Shāhid (corroborating evidence) and these reports are assigned subsidiary numbers.

Example: The Famous Hadith an-Niyyah

In order to explain this by an example, the first volume of Al-Mudawwanah is “Kitāb al-Imān”, and it begins with the Hadith an-Niyyah: إنما الأعمال بالنيات.

The strongest chain for this hadith is the one narrated by ‘Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb and recorded in aī al-Bukhārī. Therefore, this report is declared al-Hadith al-Mukhtār, and it is mentioned with its complete chain and assigned a unique international number of Hadith #1.

Following it are 43 different chains of transmission of this hadith that are reported from ‘Umar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb, which are found elsewhere within aī al-Bukhārī and other compilations, along with any variations in their wordings.

Moreover, Hadith an-Niyyah is also narrated by other noble companions, which are brought as shawāhid (corroborating evidence) and are assigned subsidiary numbers.

A subsidiary number of 1/1 is assigned to a report narrated by Abu Sa’īd al-Khudri as recorded by Imam Abu Nu’aym in ilyat-ul-Awliya’; 2/1 is assigned to a report that is narrated by Abu ad-Dardā’ and recorded by Imam Ṭabarānī in his Mu’jam al-Kabīr; 3/1 is a report that is recorded in Tārīkh ad-Dimashq of Ibn ‘Asākir on the authority of Anas; 4/1 is assigned for a report in Tārīkh Nīsābūrī of Ḥākim on the authority of Abu Hurayrah. 5/1 is a hadith reported by Muḥammad bin Yāsir al-Jiyāni on the authority of ‘Ali ibn Abi Ṭālib; 6/1 is a report on the authority of Hizāl bin Yazid that is recorded in Tārīkh Nīsābūrī; and 7/1 is a report that Ibn Bakkar has narrated as a Mursal hadith[12] on the authority of Muḥammad bin Ibrahīm bin al-Ḥārith, which is recorded in Khaāi al-Madīnah.

In summary, wherever this hadith is found in the available classical hadith sources (maādir), they are all detailed in Al-Mudawwanah. Moreover, each sanad is cited with its complete reference, i.e. the name of the book, the volume and page number, and the chapter heading and hadith number found within it.

Therefore, now it would suffice to say, “Al-Mudawwanah Al-Jāmi’ah, Hadith #1”, while making a reference to Hadith an-Niyyah, as Al-Mudawwanah Al-Jāmi’ah will provide all the pertinent details regarding this hadith and all of its different chains of transmission in a single place.

The Digitization of Al-Mudawwanah

When Shaykh Na’īm Ashraf presented the very initial draft of Al-Mudawwanah to the honorable advising committee, it was well-received and approved. Furthermore, Dr. Mustafa al-‘Azami suggested that this work should be digitized. We felt this suggestion quite appropriate and relevant to the needs of our time.

Therefore, Shaykh Na’īm Ashraf drafted a layout for data entry software for this project and hired a company. By the grace of Allah, the database software is in the Arabic language and fully capable of handling the data entry, searching and reporting, and more importantly, the composing needs of this project.

The Work Accomplished Thus Far

Thus far, all thanks are due to Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) that 17,334 ahadith have been worked upon along with their 340,499 different chains of transmission.

The first volume of Al-Mudawwanah, consisting of a complete Kitāb al-Imān, has been published in high quality with the help of Dār al-Qalam, a Beirut publishing house.

The Kitāb al-Imān of Al-Mudawwanah consists of 445 unique ahadith with their 9,423 chains of transmission, whereas, an additional 515 are those ahadith that have been brought as shawāhid (corroborating evidences). Hence, the total number of ahadith under Kitāb al-Imān has reached 960[13].

The work is in constant progress with additional ahadith and their chains being added. By the will of Allah, Al-Mudawwanah is expected to have over 40 volumes.

I have personally reviewed each and every hadith, their chain of narrators, accompanied by my comments and recommendations. Each hadith was only included in Al-Mudawwanah after my signature approval.

The researchers in service of Al-Mudawwanah, under the leadership of Shaykh Na’īm Ashraf, deserve our heartfelt congratulations for their effort, endurance, and dedication with which they worked on this project. May Allah accept their services and bestow upon them increased taufīq, Ameen

Their names are:
Maulāna Mukarram Ḥussain Akhtar,
Maulāna Muḥammad ‘Abbas al-Derwī,
Maulāna ‘Abdur-Raḥmān Owais al-Marghuzī,
Maulāna Maḥmūd Ḥasan al-Kumillāī,
Maulāna ‘Ināyat-ur-Reḥmān Wahīd,
Maulāna ‘Abdur-Raḥmān al-Ḥamīdi,
Maulāna ‘Abdul ‘Azīz al-Sindhi,
Maulāna Muḥammad Taimūr al-Marghuzī,
Maulāna ‘Ubaydullah Anwar al-Multani,
Maulāna Muḥammad Ṭayyab al-Ḥussaini.

The readers are requested to supplicate to Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) for this project to reach its completion with sincerity and trust.

Since it is after all a human effort, the reason behind the publication of the first volume is for the people of knowledge, specifically those familiar with the hadith sciences, to review this volume and share with us any beneficial recommendations.

We ask Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) to bestow His barakah upon this humble effort, and make it a historical milestone in the service of the noble hadith, and make this encyclopedia the most comprehensive reference work in hadith for the generations to come. Ameen.

Muḥammad Taqī ‘Uthmānī
Jumāda al-Thānī 1439 A.H. (March 2018)
Karachi, Pakistan.


Footnotes:
[1] The English translation of the verses of the Qur’an are taken from “The Meanings of the Noble Qur’an” by Shaykh al-Islām Mufti Taqī ‘Uthmānī.
[2] The six books of “al-iā al-Sitta” (also known as “al-Kutub al-Sitta”) are aī al-Bukhārī, aī al-Muslim, Jāmi’ at-Tirmidhī, Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Sunan an-Nasā’ī, and Sunan Ibn Mājah.
[3] Matn: “The matn (text) is the wording of the hadith by which meanings are formed.” Isnād: “Isnād is [the act of] reporting the chain of the text. By this, it is clear that the text is the point at which the chain of transmission ends.” (Al-‘Uthmānī, Zafar. “Qawā’id fi ‘Ulūm al-Hadith,” pg. 45. London: Turath Publishing, 2014)
[4] Takhrīj: Referencing hadith from the classical sources.
[5] Marfū’: “The marfū’ (raised) is that which is specifically ascribed to the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) [through his] words, deeds, or tacit approvals whether or not it is uninterrupted or interrupted.” (Al-‘Uthmānī, Zafar. Pg. 50)
[6] He received the 1980 King Faisal International Award under the category of Islamic Studies for his monumental contribution to the Hadith Sciences, “Studies of the Prophet’s Hadith.” http://kingfaisalprize.org/professor-mohamad-mustafa-al-aazami/
[7] Nephew of Shaykh Abu Fattah Abu Ghuddah. He is an active member of Islamic Fiqh Academy and the Accounting & Auditing Standards Board of Islamic Financial Institutions. He teaches Fiqh, Islamic studies and Arabic in Riyadh and has done a valuable task of researching and compiling information for the Fiqh Encyclopedia in the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs in Kuwait. He was a member of the Fatwa Board in the Ministry from 1982 to 1990. Dr. Ghuddah holds a Ph.D. in Islamic Law from Al-Azhar University Cairo, Egypt.
[8] He specialized in hadith under Shaykh ‘Abdur Rashīd Nu’māni. He is also intimately familiar with the Science of Hadith, skillful in the art of writing scholarly publications, for example, his researched and edited works include Shar at-ībī (شرح الطيبي) in 12 volumes and al-Muī al-Burhānī (المحيط البرهاني), an encyclopedia of the Hanafi juristic school in 25 volumes.
[9] See footnote #5.
[10] Out of the total 910 source works, 80 are the primary books of hadith that are commonly referred to; while the remaining 830 are the secondary source works, of which 111 are the books of tafsīr, takhrīj, and shuruāt al-hadith.
[11] The Prophetic Traditions that refer to the practice of the Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him).
[12] Mursal: When a Tābi’ī (Follower) narrates a hadith saying, “The Messenger of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said such-and-such or he did such-and-such.” and by doing so omits the name of the Companion, is called a mursal hadith.
[13] Shaykh Na’īm Ashraf: “All thanks are due to Allah, we are not aware of any book that contains such a large number of only marfū’ ahadith on the topic of Imān alone.”

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